2. Quality can be defined as the degree of excellence or
superiority of a product, service, or process, which meets
or exceeds the expectations and requirements of
customers. It refers to the attributes, features, and
characteristics that make a product or service reliable,
consistent, safe, efficient, and effective.
Quality can also be described as the ability of a product
or service to satisfy the needs and preferences of
customers, while also adhering to the industry standards,
regulations, and best practices
3. Quality can also be described as the ability of
a product or service to satisfy the needs and
preferences of customers, while also adhering
to the industry standards, rgulations, and best
quality is a measure of how well a product or
service meets the needs of its intended
audience and performs its intended function.
5. Quality costs more but lack of quality costs even
Quality is the means of achieving project success
Quality in engineering is defined by specifications
Process quality is more than product quality
Quality is planned
Some Facts on Quality
Market for the product must exist before quality of the product is
emphasized by management. It is useless to talk about the quality
when the market for the product is lacking. For example, there is
no demand for woolen garments in the hot climates
Quality of a product services or project requires human resources
with different specialization, Skills and expertise, Employee
engagement and motivation, Communication and teamwork,
training and development.
Quality control and maintenance programmes should have the
support from top management. If the management is quality
conscious rather than merely quantity conscious, organisation can
maintain adequate quality of products.
Money can have both positive and negative effects on quality, depending
on how it is managed and utilized.
On one hand, having sufficient financial resources can enable organizations
to invest in higher-quality materials, equipment, training, and processes.
This can lead to products and services that are more reliable, efficient, and
effective, which can enhance customer satisfaction and loyalty.
On the other hand, focusing solely on cost-cutting measures and
maximizing profits can lead to lower-quality products and services. For
example, organizations may use cheaper, subpar materials or equipment
to save money, which can lead to defects, malfunctions, and customer
Motivation can have a significant impact on the quality of work that
employees produce. Motivated employee or workers are more likely
to pay attention to detail of work, solve the problem, innovate new
ideas in the site, produce consistent and reliable work and reduce
errors and defects that ensures higher quality
Selection of proper materials to meet the desired tolerance limit is also an
important consideration. Quality attributes like, surface finish, strength, diameter
etc., can be obtained by proper selection of material. In addition to that the
durability, performance ability, appearance factor, safety criteria, and the
customers or users satisfaction should be meet by materials to ensure overall
project or product quality.
Machines and Mechanization
Highly advanced machines and equipments should be used in order to mechanize
many operations in the factories , labs or site to obtain high quality of the product
, services or projects.
Machines and Mechanization
Modern information methods, such as data analytics, artificial intelligence, and
automation, can have a significant impact on the quality of products or services.
This methods helps in Improved decision-making, Real-time monitoring and
feedback, Predictive maintenance of machinery, Process optimization,
Personalization of products
12. QUALITY MANAGEMENT
Process of ensuring that products or services consistently meet or exceed
customer expectations. It involves a series of activities aimed at achieving and
maintaining a high level of quality, from product design to customer service.
KEY COMPONENTS OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT
Quality planning: This involves setting quality objectives and establishing a
plan to achieve them. This includes identifying customer needs and
expectations, defining quality standards, and developing a plan to meet
Quality control: This involves monitoring and inspecting products or
services to ensure that they meet the established quality standards. This
includes identifying defects, analyzing the root cause of the problem, and
taking corrective action to prevent similar problems in the future.
Quality assurance: This involves the establishment of systems and
procedures to ensure that quality standards are consistently met. This
includes setting up quality management systems, conducting audits to
ensure compliance with standards, and providing training to employees
on quality-related topics. “It is a part of quality management focused on
providing confidence that quality requirements will be fulfilled.”
13. Continuous improvement: This involves continually assessing and improving
quality management systems and processes. This includes using customer feedback
to identify areas for improvement, implementing new technologies or techniques
to improve quality, and benchmarking against industry standards to identify
opportunities for improvement.
Employee involvement: Quality management involves the active involvement
of employees at all levels of the organization. This includes providing training and
resources to enable employees to participate in quality improvement initiatives and
recognizing and rewarding employees for their contributions to quality
Overall, quality management is essential to ensure that products or services
consistently meet or exceed customer expectations. It involves a combination of
planning, control, assurance, continuous improvement, and employee involvement to
achieve and maintain high levels of quality.
15. QUALITY CONTROL VS QUALITY
Quality Assurance (QA) Quality Control (QC)
It is a procedure that focuses on providing
assurance that quality requested will be
It is a procedure that focuses on fulfilling
the quality requested.
QA aims to prevent the defect QC aims to identify and fix defects
It is a method to manage the quality-
It is a method to verify the quality-
It does not involve executing the program It always involves executing a program
It’s a Preventive technique It’s a Corrective technique
16. In order to meet the customer
requirements, QA defines standards and
QC confirms that the standards are
followed while working on the product
It is performed before Quality Control
It is performed only after QA activity is
Its main motive is to prevent defects in the
system. It is a less time-consuming activity
Its main motive is to identify defects or
bugs in the system. It is a more time-
QA ensures that everything is executed in
the right way, and that is why it falls under
QC ensures that whatever we have done is
as per the requirement, and that is why it
falls under validation activity
It requires the involvement of the whole
It requires the involvement of the Testing
The statistical technique applied on QA is
known as SPC or Statistical Process Control
The statistical technique applied to QC is
known as SQC or Statistical Quality Control
17. Quality Plan
Its a comprehensive document or set of documents that outlines the
specific quality assurance and quality control procedures that an
organization will follow to ensure that its products, services, or
processes meet the required standards of quality.
Provides a roadmap for all aspects of the quality management
system, including defining quality objectives, identifying quality
responsibilities, establishing procedures for monitoring and
measuring quality performance, specifying methods for corrective
and preventive actions, and outlining how the quality system will be
audited and reviewed for continuous improvement
Some Extra terminology on Quality
18. Quality Circle
A quality circle is a small group of employees who work together
to identify and solve work-related problems, improve quality,
and increase productivity.
The group typically consists of 5-10 members who come from
different departments or work areas within an organization.
The members of a quality circle meet on a regular basis to
analyze and solve work-related issues using various problem-
solving techniques, such as brainstorming, cause-and-effect
analysis, and statistical process control.
First developed in Japan during 1960 AD
19. Quality management tools are techniques, methods, or
processes used to support and improve the management of
quality within an organization. These tools are designed to
help organizations identify, analyze, and solve quality-related
issues, and to implement effective quality management
Quality Management Tools
20. Flowcharts: A graphical representation of a process that shows the flow of materials, information, and
Histograms: A graphical representation of data that shows the frequency distribution of a set of
measurements or observations.
Pareto charts: A graphical tool that ranks the causes of problems or defects in order of importance.
Cause-and-effect diagrams: A tool that helps to identify the root cause of a problem by
breaking it down into its component parts.
Checklists: A list of items that need to be checked or verified to ensure that a process or product
meets the required standards of quality.
Statistical process control (SPC): A set of statistical techniques used to monitor and
control a process to ensure that it remains within the required limits of quality.
Six Sigma: A data-driven methodology used to improve quality by reducing the number of defects in
Total Quality Management (TQM): A management approach that focuses on continuous
improvement, customer satisfaction, and employee involvement in the quality management process.
These tools can be used in a variety of settings, including manufacturing, healthcare, education, and service
industries, to improve quality, increase efficiency, and reduce costs.
21. Quality cost refers to the total cost incurred by an organization in ensuring that
its products or services meet the required standards of quality. Quality cost
includes all the expenses associated with prevention, appraisal, and failure of
The three main parts of quality cost are:
Prevention costs: These are costs incurred to prevent defects from occurring in
the first place. Examples of prevention costs include employee training, process
improvements, quality planning, and supplier evaluations.
Appraisal costs: These are costs incurred to assess the quality of products or
services. Examples of appraisal costs include inspection, testing, audits, and
calibration of equipment.
Failure costs: These are costs incurred as a result of quality failures. Failure costs
are further divided into two categories:
i) Internal failure costs: These are costs incurred as a result of defects
found before the product or service is delivered to the customer.
Examples of internal failure costs include rework, scrap, and machine
iI) External failure costs: These are costs incurred as a result of defects
found after the product or service is delivered to the customer. Examples
of external failure costs include customer complaints, product recalls,
warranty claims, and lost business.