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Concept of curriculum-8624

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Concept of curriculum-8624

  1. 1. Concept of curriculum (8624) Presented by: Ahsan Ullah Baloch Mphil Education
  2. 2. Concept of Curriculum The word curriculum is derived from the Latin currere which means ‘to run’. Curriculum provides a template or design which enables learning to take place.
  3. 3. Concept of Curriculum Definition of Curriculum
  4. 4. Curriculum Theory Curriculum theory is a set of related statement that gives meaning to a school’s curriculum by pointing up the relationship among its elements and by directing its development, its use and its evaluation. Subject matter of curriculum may be the events associated with decision about curriculum, the use of curriculum, development of curriculum, curriculum design, curriculum evaluation and so forth.
  5. 5. Curriculum Theory Major Characteristics of Curriculum Theory  Curriculum theory explain in various ways the character of and the relationship among the unique properties and function of the curriculum system.  Curriculum theory has an ontological base. Its major concern is with what and why of educational process. Concern is knowledge itself not its learning nor process.  Curriculum theory deals with alternative intellectuals structures for organising knowledge. In fact, each alternative structure assumes an answer to the question, What knowledge is of most worth?  Curriculum theory moves toward universal and abstract.
  6. 6. Curriculum Approaches 1. Behavioural Approach 2. Managerial Approach 3. System Approach 4. Humanistic Approach
  7. 7. Curriculum Approaches 1. Behavioural Approach a. Based on behavioural approach to learning b. Goals and objectives are specified c. Learning outcomes are evaluated on the bases of goals d. Measurement learning outcome indicates progress in curriculum gains
  8. 8. Curriculum Approaches 2. Managerial Approach a. Principal is curriculum and instructional leader also called manager b. Manager set policies and priorities, established the direction of change and innovation. c. Managers are less concerned about contents than organisation and implementation d. Manager less concerned about subject matter than improving curriculum
  9. 9. Curriculum Approaches 2. Managerial Approach
  10. 10. Curriculum Approaches 3. System Approach a. Uses the system approach b. It shows line-staff relationship of personnel and how decisions are made c. Parts of the school are examined how they relate each other.
  11. 11. Curriculum Approaches 3. System Approach
  12. 12. Curriculum Approaches 4. Humanistic Approach a. based on child centered movement b. Take into consideration planned or formal and hidden curriculum c. Take into consideration the whole child and his development a matter of prime importance d. Learner is at the center of the curriculum
  13. 13. Aims and Objectives of Curriculum Development at Secondary Level
  14. 14. Aims and Objectives of Curriculum Development at Secondary Level Three domains of objectives a. The cognitive b. The Affective c. The psychomotor
  15. 15. Aims and Objectives of Curriculum Development at Secondary Level a. The cognitive
  16. 16. Aims and Objectives of Curriculum Development at Secondary Level b. The Affective Deals with the feeling, emotions and degree of acceptance.
  17. 17. Aims and Objectives of Curriculum Development at Secondary Level b. The Affective Deals with the feeling, emotions and degree of acceptance.
  18. 18. Criteria for the Development of Curriculum Objectives  Objectives should identify a learning outcome  Objectives should be consistent with the curriculum aims  Objectives should be precise  Objectives should be feasible  Objectives should be functional  Objectives should be significant  Objectives should be appropriate
  19. 19. Characteristics of Curriculum  should contribute towards democratic living  Dynamic and forward looking, sample adequately both the scientific content and the abilities of the pupils to the developed,  Tested and improved through research  Aim at bringing about an intelligent and effective adjustment with the environment itself.  should take into account the theories of learning relevant to science teaching.  Should provided sufficient scope for the cultivation of skills, interest, attitudes and appreciations.  mostly based upon the first hand experiences of the pupils from all the significant areas of human living. These experiences are characterized by newness, novelty, challenge, stimulation and creativity.
  20. 20. Differences Between Curriculum and Syllabus Curriculum  Overall content taught in an educational system,  Same for all teachers  Wider in scope  Not made available to students  Prescriptive in nature  Covers a program of study  Prescribed by government  Continue till course completion Syllabus  Summary of the topics covered  Vary from teacher to teacher  Fall under curriculum  Provided to students by teacher  Descriptive in nature  Cover a particular subject  Prepared by teachers  Duration is one year
  21. 21. Principles of Curriculum Construction  Principle of Child Centeredness  Principle of Community Centeredness  Principle of Activity Centeredness  Principle of Variety  Principle of Co-ordination and Integration  Principles of Conservation  Principle of Creativity  Principle of Forward Looking  Principle of Flexibility  Principle of Balance  Principle of Utility
  22. 22. Evaluation of Curriculum The fundamental concerns of curriculum evaluation relate to:  Effectiveness and efficiency of translating government education policy into educational practice. Status of curriculum contents and practices in the contexts of global, national and local concerns. The achievement of the goals and aims of educational programs.
  23. 23. Determination of Curriculum In Pakistan Curriculum development encompass the following aspects: 1. Curriculum objectives. 2. Development of scheme of studies. 3. Development of syllabus of each subject. 4. Development of textbook, instructional material. 5. Teacher training. 6. Implementation
  24. 24. Determination of Curriculum 1. Curriculum objectives. Objectives are derived from National Level Seminars Recommendation of the National Education Policy Research studies Inter Board Committee of Chairmen
  25. 25. Determination of Curriculum 2. Development of scheme of studies. The studies scheme is based on three key factors: The national education policy Market demand Global issues
  26. 26. Determination of Curriculum 3. Development of syllabus of each subject. It is based on objectives and scheme of study. Subject specific syllabi is prepared in consultation with: > Subject expert > Psychologist > Serving teacher Syllabi must satisfy the following conditions: Based on the needs of learner. Content should be focused on attaining the objectives
  27. 27. Determination of Curriculum 4. Development of textbook, instructional material. Provincial Text Book Boards (PTBB) are responsible for the development of the text-books according to the approved syllabi. How textbook is developed? Establish a list of text book writers. Invitations are sent to the writers to submit the material within the syllabus parameter. Selection is made on the basis of relevance of material. The selected material is transformed into a textbook.
  28. 28. Determination of Curriculum 5. Teacher training. Teacher training for curriculum implementation is the responsibility of the provincial government. It is now stressed that each textbook must have a teacher's guide. In some cases assistance in the training of the masters trainers is provided to provincial government. Federal Government took the responsibility to determine the curriculum text boards, policy, planning and standards of education.
  29. 29. Determination of Curriculum 6. Implementation The curricula designed is printed and sent to universities/ institutions for its adoption/implementation after the approval of the Authority.
  30. 30. Criteria for Selection of Books  Significance to an organized field of knowledge  Does the subject matter stand the test of survival?  Utility of the subject content  Interest and ability  Growth and development of a democratic society
  31. 31. Review the Approval Textbooks review parameters National review committee comprises on five or six members: At least one expert form the syllabus Formulation Committee. Two subject experts. Two school teachers Textbooks review parameters The books truly reflect the curriculum. It meets the objectives stated in the curriculum. Book does not contain any material against Islamic and Pakistani ideology. In case of approval, textbook is sent for publishing and distribution. In case of objection, complaints are relayed with revision recommendations.
  32. 32. Thank You Any Question