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Sports: any physical activity that involves a set of rules or customs can be done competitively.
Controversial human rights record
Raised profile of China and National Pride. Golden opportunity to influence public opinion of your country around the world. The government censors the press, the Internet, print publications, and academic research, and justifies human rights abuses as necessary to preserve “social stability.” It carries out involuntary population relocation and rehousing on a massive scale, and enforces highly repressive policies in ethnic minority areas in Tibet, Xinjiang, and Inner Mongolia. Though primary school enrollment and basic literacy rates are high, China’s education system discriminates against children and young people with disabilities. The government obstructs domestic and international scrutiny of its human rights record, insisting it is an attempt to destabilize the country.
Sustain the livelihood of the local people.
However, this injection of money will only be short-term and make little overall impact on the wider economy.
Contribute to the nation’s overall market publicity.
Sped up the construction of infrastructure that Beijing needed to make itself a World Class city.
Compare to old trafford.
Channeling funds into major, mandatory infrastructure projects required for the events. The hosting of such a major sporting event cost very significant sums
Find out what debt you can incur.
Economic Costs and Benefits of Beijing Olympics 2008 (IB Geography - Leisure, Sport and Tourism)
SOCIO-ECONOMIC COSTS AND BENEFITS OF
HOSTING A SPORTING EVENT
In 2008, they were held in China due to the country’s economic progress from a
largely rural society to a more open, wealthy and mainly urban society. Even
though the Olympics are about physical competition and heroics and national
pride, they also bring about big business. Host cities invest deeply in the Games —
for example, the ballooning price tag of most Winter Olympics is now estimated to
be more than $50 billion — with the hope of reaping sizable gains for the local and
national economy through tourism, marketing and other means.
Long-term investments are made from preparing for the event.
• The Chinese government had to invest in infrastructure and transport to cater for
the influx of tourists. And now, Beijing can also boast of a legacy of improved
sporting venues. There has moreover been significant investment in public
transport projects around Beijing.
Raised profile of China.
• Cities which host the Olympics can be assured of a persistent increase in
recognition. For a country like China, hosting a major sporting event can be a way
to gain greater international acceptance. Beijing has also proven to the world that
it is capable of staging an incredible display of sport and culture. It is also
considered an honour to host such an event and because the Games were a
success, China gained a great reputation.
Enthusiasm for Sports.
• The Olympic Games held in China created considerable enthusiasm and
excitement amongst especially the Chinese. This helped to promote the uptake of
sports by a lot more of the Chinese and contributed to lasting benefits for the
nation’s health. Now, we can acknowledge the participation of more of them in
World tournaments and games. This was not only limited to the Chinese.
Also, the Games led to a rise in local volunteerism which promoted civic virtues.
• All the knowledge and skills that have been acquired from the Games’
preparations and activation still remain fresh in minds and lives. Developed and
raised skills in the (amongst others) tourism, hospitality, sport and economic
• Development of new and high technology industries including electronics and
information, optical, multi-purpose utilization of resources. Added value of high
and new technology industry accounted for 40% of the city’s industrial output
Unsolicited dislodgement of people.
15, 000 residents were evicted from public housing projects that were demolished to
make way for Olympic accommodation and infrastructural development. Beijing
citizenslandlords in particularin “villages-in-the-city” (known as cheongzhongcun),
drawing on their first-hand accounts of the citywide preparations for the Games and the
pervasive demolition threats to their neighbourhoods. Spatial separation between rich
• The injection of foreign visitors overcrowded Beijing, an already jam-packed city
( 21.2 million). Pollution. Issues of crowding in shops and streets, traffic
congestion, and parking problems had a negative impact on the daily routines of
the locals and hampered successful tourism as it is heavily reliant on the goodwill
and support of the local residents.
• The national prestige associated with mega-events such as the Olympics and the
use of patriotic sentiment boosted by the national government produced an
unfavourable political environment for those expressing dissent or objecting to
government policies. Social outcasts such as homeless people or persistent
protesters against government policies are often criminalized and kept away from
• There was a spike in crime influenced by the large injection of tourists from all
over the world. In August (2008), two American tourists and their Chinese tour
guide were stabbed at the historic Beijing Drum Tower; one of the tourists was
killed. The assailant then committed suicide by jumping from the tower.
• Beijing became a target and attracted worldwide attention. Opportunity for
terrorist groups to cause havoc given that a lot of people gathered there.
According to the Chinese security ministry, protestors planned suicide bomb
attacks on some Chinese cities and kidnappings in Beijing to disrupt the Olympic
• Park guards, hotel chauffeurs, lifeguards etc. With regard to the issue of job
creation, undoubtedly a mega-sporting event can generate large number of jobs,
not only those directly associated with the organisation of the event itself but also
those in the tourism and retail industry due to the increased volumes of
spectators/tourists, and in the construction industry especially when the staging of
the event requires major infrastructural development, such as in the case of the
National revenue upsurges.
• China saw a surge in visitors (esp. athletes, their supporters and the media). This
provided an increase in spending and an injection of money into the local
Big boom of small companies.
• The Olympic Games was an opportunity for many Chinese companies to present
themselves to the world market. Certain unknown companies used it to reach
international publicity and took a step into the global market. This automatically
strengthened their position on the Chinese market itself. Increased internal and
external consumption of goods. More than 1.76 million companies registered for
business, an increase of 68 % over the previous year.
• The Chinese government invested in transport infrastructure to cater for the influx
of tourists: a third airport terminal was constructed, the 120km Tianjin intercity
railway running high-speed trains (350km/hour) was opened, and the capacity of
the subway network was doubled. And now, Beijing can also boast of a legacy of
improved sporting venues.
Infrastructural development (contd.).
• The Beijing National Stadium, also known as the Bird’s Nest, holds 91,000
spectators. The Olympic Park covers 1,215 hectares and includes an 80,000-
seator stadium, 14 gymnasia, an athletes’ village and an international exhibition
centre surrounded by 260 hectares of green belt. Additionally, new hotels were
built and old ones refurbished.
Large cost of city branding.
• City branding is “a common practice adopted by many cities in the context of
intensified urban competition for mobile resources, markets, opportunities and
attention.” The amount of money spent on the opening ceremony alone (the
spectacular Beijing showcase) is estimated to have cost well over $300 million.
Spent $22.8 billion on Games-related infrastructure. $40 billion est. overall.
• The jobs created only last a little after the Olympics when they weren’t necessary
or relevant. As the facilities are not being patronized as much, such large
workforces aren’t needed.
GDP decline & Debt Accumulation.
• Not only do host countries experience a decline in the GDP growth a year after
the games but they also incur debt. At the time the Beijing Olympics commenced,
former host cities Montreal (1976), Barcelona (1992), Sydney (2000) and Athens
(2004) will still be paying off debt acquired from hosting the previous Games.
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