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Affirmative S+V1+s/es+ O
The boy goes to market.
Negative S+ do/does+not+V1+O
She does not go to health club regularly.
Do they participate in the inter-school debate
Rohan gets up late every day.
My mother bakes delicious cakes.
Gandhinagar is the capital of Gujarat.
Stars twinkle at night.
Scientific fact/ Universal truth
Leaves make food for the plant.
Gold is a metal.
A future event that is part of plan
Our exam starts from next Monday.
Instead of future simple tense in ‘if’
clause of conditional sentence
If it rains, we shall not go out.
If you go for a movie, I will not take your leave.
It is wise to make hay while the sun shines.
All that glitters is not gold.
Affirmative S + is/am/are+ V1+ing+O
It is raining heavily.
Negative S+ is/am/are+not+V1+ing+O
It is not raining heavily.
Interrogative Is/Am/Are +S+ V1+ing+O+?
Is it raining heavily?
To Denote an action taking place/in
progress at the time of speaking
The child is playing with the ball.
The sun is shining in the sky.
Used for action that is planned to
take place in the near future.
I am going to cinema tonight.
My mother is arriving tomorrow.
I have known him for a long time.
Negative S+ has/have+not+V3+ O
I have not known him for a long time.
Interrogative Has/Have + S+ V3+O+?
Have I known him for a long time?
Present Perfect is used .....
To indicate the activities that have been
completed in the immediate past(not long
The child has just woken up.
I have just completed my work.
To express past actions where time of
happening is not mentioned.
Mr. Garg has been to Jaipur recently.
Have you met my best friend?
To describe past events when we think
more of their effect in the present than
I have cut my finger.(It is bleeding now)
I have finished all my revision.( now I am
To denote an action beginning at some
time in the past and continuing up to the
I have known his family a long time.
Sumi has been ill since last week.
Affirmative S + has/have+been+V1+ing+O
It has been raining for quite sometime.
Negative S + has/have+not+V1+ing+O
It has not been raining for long.
Interrogative Has/Have+ S+ been +V1+ing+
Has it been raining for quite sometime?
Use of ‘for’ & ‘Since’........
Since is used with a point of time(exact
Tuesday, January, Diwali, summer, morning
, 9o’clock, childhood, last week, etc.
For is used with a period of time( not
Two days, an hour, seven months, many
weeks, ten minutes, a long time, etc.
Present Perfect Continuous is used...
To express an action that began in the
past and has been in progress till the
time of speaking.(sense of continuity is
oI have been doing my assignments
oMr. Iyer has been talking to his clients
for three hours.
oPatients have been taking their
medicines since last month.
Juniors arranged a farewell party for the seniors.
Juniors did not arrange a farewell party for the
Interrogative Did+ S+V1+O+?
Did juniors arrange a farewell party for the
Past Simple is used to ......
Express actions that tool place sometime in the
past and are over now.
Teacher discussed about global warming in the class.
I fed birds with some bread crumbs yesterday.
Express past habit
He usually went for a walk.
Hemant never liked football.
Refer to something undesirable/unreal state
If I were the Principal of this school, I would have
declared holidays throughout the year.
Affirmative S+ was/were+V1+ ing + O
She was preparing for her board examination.
Negative S+ was/were+not+V1+ing+o
She was not preparing for her board
Was she preparing for her board examination?
Affirmative S+had+V3+ O
You had played the game.
Negative S+ had+not+V3+O
You had not played the game.
Interrogative Had+ S+V3+O+?
Had you played the game?
Past Perfect is used.....
To describe an action completed before a
certain point of time in the past.
My uncle had studied Business Management
He had learnt swimming in his childhood.
To show the action that happened before
another action in the past
He had left for school when I went to his
They had eaten their dinner before I went to
Affirmative S+ had+been+V1+ing +O
Players had been running for a long time.
Negative S+ had +not +been +V1+ing+ O
Players had not been running for a long
Interrogative Had+ S+ been +V1+ing+ O+?
Had players been running for a long time?
Past Perfect Continuous is used ...
To express an action that began before a
certain point in the past and continued up
to some time.
It does not have any effect left at the time
At that time he had been driving his car for
Rohit had been working very hard for his
Affirmative S + will/shall + V1+O
Our exams will start from next week.
Negative S + will/shall +not+ V1+O
Our exams will not start from next week.
Interrogative Will/shall + S + V1+ O +?
Will our exams start from next week?
Affirmative S+ will/shall+be+V1+ing+ O
She will be waiting for you in the evening.
Negative S+ will /shall + not+ be+V1+ing+ O
She will not be waiting for you in the evening.
Interrogative Will/shall+ S+ be+ V1+ ing + O + ?
Will she be waiting for you in the evening?
Affirmative S+ will/shall + have+ V3+ O
I will have finished my homework by that
Negative S+ will/shall + not+ have+V3+O
I will not have finished my homework by that
Interrogative Will/shall + S + have + V3+ O?
Will I have finished my homework by that
They will have been practising for their cricket match for
Interrogative Will/shall + S+ have+ been + V1+ ing+
Will they have been practising for their cricket match for