Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 1
LIVING SKILLS PROGRAM APY LANDS
2010/2011
PLANNING, DESI...
Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 2
CONTENTS
PLANNING & DESIGN DOCUMENT Page
Glossary 4
Acro...
Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 3
Program design 18
Specified and anticipated outcomes 19
...
Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 4
Glossary
Some of the following definitions are mostly dr...
Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 5
Acronyms
AHW: Aboriginal Health Worker
AI: Appreciative ...
Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 6
Program Hypotheses – Assumptions
It is assumed that the ...
Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 7
The word „remote‟ is specifically chosen in term of defi...
Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 8
Map of the APY Lands
Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 9
Important cultural. social and resilience patterns in AP...
Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 10
strangers and allowing them to influence their lives an...
Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 11
Some resilience patterns and factors have been identifi...
Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 12
Project factors – Appendix 1 (Dwyer, Stanton & Thiessen...
Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 13
The program is a journey of both self-discovery and dev...
Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 14
Mission Statement
The project‟s mission is to develop a...
Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 15
- Identifying one‟s own strengths through learning abou...
Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 16
Goals
The project goals are:
- To develop and evaluate ...
Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 17
- To develop and deliver the Living Skills Program to r...
Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 18
Program Design
The inputs elements of the program are:
...
Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 19
- The creation of relationships between community membe...
Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 20
The data and information gathered will be stored by the...
Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 21
Stakeholders Map – Appendix 5
It is essential to be abl...
Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 22
Appendix 1
Projects factors
Following Green & Kreuter (...
Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 23
Enabling factors:
- Availability of financial resources...
Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 24
External project factors (which are interrelated to cul...
Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 25
Appendix 2
Timeline July 2010 to August 2010
Timeline a...
Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 26
Appendix 3
The 9 Healthy Livings Standards
From Housing...
Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 27
2 Beddings Cleanliness – clothes washing
Scabies; impac...
Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 28
4 Nutrition and Kitchen Hygiene
Keeping Kitchen clean a...
Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 29
Impact on potential child abuse or neglect
Impact on ru...
Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 30
Health problems caused by mice, flies, mosquitoes, cock...
Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 31
9 Reducing Risk Situations/Sustaining Safe Environment
...
Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 32
Appendix 4
Interview Schedule
Synopsis
The questions ha...
Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 33
- Who do you talk to during the day and how often? (tab...
Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 34
- The community gives facilities. How are you utilizing...
Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 35
- What are your family expenditure for one week/month, ...
Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 36
Appendix 5
Stakeholders Map
Stakeholders Important To b...
Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 37
NPYWC NGO based in Alice
Springs, delivering various
se...
Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 38
Appendix 6
Budget
Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 39
Budget – cont.
Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 40
References
Atkinson, J 2002, Trauma trails, recreating ...
Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 41
Jackson, C & Pearson, R 1998, Feminist visions of devel...
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FINAL DRAFT LIVING SKILLS PROGRAM APY

  1. 1. Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 1 LIVING SKILLS PROGRAM APY LANDS 2010/2011 PLANNING, DESIGN & MODULES Emmanuelle Barone July 2010 Housing SA
  2. 2. Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 2 CONTENTS PLANNING & DESIGN DOCUMENT Page Glossary 4 Acronyms 5 Program Hypothesis - Assumptions 6 Location of program 6 Map of APY Lands 8 Important cultural, social and resilience patterns 9 Project factors 12 To introduce the project 12 Needs assessment 13 Project evaluation 13 Mission statement 14 Aims 14 Goals 16 Time line, tasks and objectives 17 The 9 Healthy Living Standards 17 Activities and Modules 17
  3. 3. Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 3 Program design 18 Specified and anticipated outcomes 19 Management information systems - Interview Schedule 19 Biases 20 Stakeholders map 21 Budget 21 Conclusion 21 APPENDICES Page No 1 Project factors 22 No 2 Time Line, Tasks an Objectives 25 No 3 The 9 Healthy Living Standards 26 No 4 Interview schedule synopsis 32 No 5 Stakeholders map 36 No 6 Budget 38 REFERENCES 40
  4. 4. Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 4 Glossary Some of the following definitions are mostly drawn from Bulbeck‟s (1998) and O‟Connor, Wilson & Setterlund‟s (2003) glossaries. Appreciative Inquiry: Community assessment, research and development exercises involving community participation and ownership. This is a change strategy and approach highlighting people‟s strengths and resources (Tesoriero, Barone & Umbers 2006:48-53). Culture Set of values, norms, customs and habits related to a given group, Culture can be associated with countries, states, regions, groups, organisations, companies and corporations. Ethnocentrism Judging another culture in terms of what is valued and „normal‟ in one‟s own culture. An ethnocentric approach imposes one‟s own culture as superior in comparison to other cultures. Participatory Rural Appraisal: Community assessment, research and development techniques including drawings and diagrams used in rural areas, illiterate and cross-cultural contexts (Tesoriero et al 2006:54). Resilience When used in psychology, resilience is an ability to cope and recover from stress, misfortune and catastrophe. It is also used to indicate a characteristic of resistance to future negative events. Successful Tenancy: For the purpose of this document, successful tenancy means a family being aware of its rights and responsibilities as tenants and making use of them, keeping the premises in good and clean condition, using the strategies addressing the 9 Healthy Living Standards (appendix 3).
  5. 5. Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 5 Acronyms AHW: Aboriginal Health Worker AI: Appreciative Inquiry APY: Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara DASSA: Drug and Alcohol Services South Australia DFC: Department for Families and Communities FSA: Families SA FSW: Families Support Worker MSO: Municipal Service Officer NGO: Non-governmental organisation NHC: Nganampa Health Council NPYWC: Ngaanyatjarra Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara Women‟s Council PC: Program Coordinator PRA: Participatory Rural Appraisal SAPOL: South Australian Police TAFE: Tertiary and Further Education TO: Traditional Owner UCWPP: UnitingCare Wesley Port Pirie YT: Yaitja Tirramangkotti
  6. 6. Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 6 Program Hypotheses – Assumptions It is assumed that the success of this program will strongly depend on whether the families and community members approve it and welcome it in their community. It is assumed that people‟s participation will be an essential factor towards achieving goals and objectives. This implies principles of reciprocity from the program team, the latter having to be flexible, adapting and listening to people‟s needs and schedule, and sometimes improvise, for the program to be delivered in the appropriate way. It is assumed that participants will feel safe, respected and listen to during all activities involved in the program. It is assumed that the PRA and AI methods used in the modules delivery will support sense of respect and sharing of narrative. If we were able to identify what people need to achieve successful tenancy; If we were able to develop strategies to support people towards daily health and well being; If we were to recruit effectively within each community; If we were able to get community members to participate to the program and share their skills and knowledge; If we could achieve supportive partnership work between several service providers; If we were able to implement the program with community members within each community; If we were able to achieve change for families to sustain health, well being and successful tenancy; Geographical location of the program The program takes place in the 6 major remote communities on the APY Lands in the far north-west of South Australia, which are part of the Western Desert in central Australia. The APY Lands cover about 102 square kilometres.
  7. 7. Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 7 The word „remote‟ is specifically chosen in term of defining communities which do not have access to facilities and services that are available to rural and metropolitan areas. The Lands are owned by Anangu People under the Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara Land rights Act 1981. They administer the Lands through a governing body consisting of ten members of the Executive Board. The APY Lands are dry area. It is prohibited to consume, possess or supply alcohol on the Lands. The six major communities involved in the program are Amata, Mimili, Iwantja/Indulkana, Kaltjiti/Fregon, Pukatja/Ernabella, Pipalyatjara. The communities are significantly apart with no sealed roads or public transport. Many of the roads are in bad condition and challenging to drive even for 4WD vehicles. Although communities have permanent residents, population fluctuates in each main community according to cultural events, sporting events and seasonal activities. This can vary between 150 and 500 people. Many people are transients and spend time in various communities, living with family members. Approximate number of permanent residents in communities is between 200 and 400.
  8. 8. Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 8 Map of the APY Lands
  9. 9. Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 9 Important cultural. social and resilience patterns in APY communities To uphold a successful program which develops intervention that work best for these specific communities within a specific context and according to their culture, it is critical to fully understand the contexts, problems, causes, and factors, as well as assessing and evaluating external cultural influences which impact on people, and then on the whole project (Guerin 2005: 137-142; Green & Kreuter 2005:282). Cultural and social patterns have to be considered because of their strong influence on how the project/program is understood, received, negotiated, delivered and accepted by the communities. Western systems usually involve people‟s interactions with strangers on a daily basis, network with close or loose family ties and circle of friends with no strong kinship obligations (Guerin & Guerin 2008). Kinship based communities such as on the APY Lands involve daily interactions with many family members with strong kinship obligations. It is often difficult for people immersed in one interaction system to understand a radically different system. Western workers can have specific expectations that are not part of the social system in APY communities. Expectations on how people in communities should react, be interested or motivated, be „grateful‟ or „happy‟. For the purpose of this program, workers‟ use of reflecting practice is essential to avoid ethnocentrism. People and families living in kin-based communities rely on one another and have long- lasting obligations to each other, or long lasting conflicts with each other. Family obligations and conflicts are directing people‟s life in a very large sense (Guerin & Guerin 2008). Families in long-term conflicts will have to live well apart from each other when living in one same community. Due to the remoteness, people often have to travel long hours on difficult roads to access education, employment or medical treatment. People living in APY communities are not familiar with negotiating and interacting with strangers at a high level like people living in towns. They will be less open before listening to
  10. 10. Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 10 strangers and allowing them to influence their lives and habits (Guerin & Guerin 2008). Relationships will be more difficult to create and sustain. It is therefore essential to have local people working in the program as Families Support Workers to support families towards sustainable solutions in a culturally appropriate way. APY Lands communities face various levels of issues impacting on everyone‟s life: - High rate of unemployment; - Reduced work opportunities in the communities; - Transgenerational traumas (Atkinson 2002); - Alcohol and drug misuse; - Domestic violence; - House overcrowding; - Early motherhood; - High rate of health problems, poor health; - Various family situations listed in the definition of child abuse; - High rate of mental distress; - Early death; - Lack of personal safety due to unsafe housing and interpersonal violence; Patterns of resilience are also important (Barone 2006:8) considering that, according to the theories of resilience, people can build strengths through difficult experiences and challenges. Resilience and vulnerability are compatible characteristics. People are able to develop strengths while being in an oppressed position (Edwards & Ribbens 1998:10; Freire 1972:25- 27). Resilience is associated with adaptation, evolution, and survival (Konner 2007:307) as „the art of life lies in a constant readjustment to our surroundings‟ (Okakura Kakuzo cited in Stokes 2002:81).
  11. 11. Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 11 Some resilience patterns and factors have been identified (Barone 2006:13-16): - Survival in challenging environment; - Necessity to survive to protect dependents; - Ability to confront hardship - ability to cope with hardship; - Ability to thrive, not just survive, after great difficulties; - Enduring and overcoming trauma / difficulties; - Adaptation – Evolution; - Transforming adversity and hardship into wisdom and compassion; - Making meaning of suffering; - Clear sense of reality - Acceptance of reality; - Developing meaning in life - Strong values that life is meaningful; - Strong problem solving skills - ability to grab opportunities and to improvise; - Internal locus of control – self-reliance – determination; - Risk taking – taking control of own life and destiny; - Strong sense and meaning of self – Sense of self-worth; - Building bridges from present day hardship to a better constructed future; - Loving environment during childhood - Ability to develop attachment to others; - Significant supportive person as role model or helping during hardship; - Strong spirituality; To support this approach, the Appreciative Inquiry method (AI) is a strength perspective tool that supports people to discover and identify their own strengths and therefore „power‟ in their own life. The program modules will use the AI approach in the program delivery, highlighting participant‟s resilience.
  12. 12. Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 12 Project factors – Appendix 1 (Dwyer, Stanton & Thiessen 2004:20-21) Predisposing, reinforcing, and enabling factors (Green & Kreuter 2005:12-17,147-149) impact on people and project from the very beginning. It is important to identify the factors that need to be addressed in health promotion programs terms. This working strategy can help to recognize and use the right tools and methods with the right people at the right time and the right place. Knowing what kind of intervention work best for specific communities within specific contexts and according to the culture (Green & Kreuter 2005:256) will support the project towards greater success. Kin-based communities are strong in existing supportive relationships. It would be very beneficial to use the power of these relationships to support the program delivery in each community. People do things for each other in a sense of cooperation, exchange and obligation. The program aims to address issues also in terms of community rather than in terms of individuals only. To introduce the project The project focuses on improving people‟s well being and successful tenancy through the 9 Healthy Living Standards (see appendix 3). Considering that “most individuals who face adversity have more positive outcomes than one might predict based on the risk factors in their lives” (Waller 2001:291), the program takes a strength-based approach, moving beyond a deficit-based approach. This to foster participant‟s resilience and identity, empowering participants to share stories and reinforce a sense of self, involving the discovery of one‟s strengths towards improving families‟ well being, safety and feeling content in their house. Each participant involved in the program acts as teacher and student, and the one most able to share her/his knowledge with another community member.
  13. 13. Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 13 The program is a journey of both self-discovery and developing successful tenancy while learning how to use the 9 Healthy Living Standards on a daily basis. The delivery process will attempt to offer the program as an exchange of culture and knowledge, acknowledging that people are the expert in their own life while passing their stories on to their peers. Needs Assessment The project team works in collaboration with local agencies, valuing local knowledge, culture, resources, skills and processes (Ife 2002:211-215). In addition, a baseline survey will be used as data collection for needs assessment as well as tool for the evaluation. This base line survey will also be an „ice breaker‟ for community members to develop a contact with the Program Coordinator and the Family Support Worker. Project evaluation The evaluation is included in the planning phase (Dwyer et al 2004:171-173). Data collected through the baseline survey administered at the beginning of the project will be compared to data collected through a similar baseline survey at the „end‟ of the project. An ongoing program/project evaluation is seen as essential (Dwyer et al 2004:173-174). This will reinforce the project team‟s capacity to adapt to changes and needs which will develop all along the project. This is important in terms of reciprocity and accountability. The ongoing evaluation is made with traditional scientific methods of measurements such as measuring achievements of tasks and objectives, numeric counts and standardized measures (Kettner, Moroney & Martin 1999:129), as well as critical reflection and assessments of issues and situations through community meetings and developing relationships with community members.
  14. 14. Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 14 Mission Statement The project‟s mission is to develop a daily use and understanding with community members (and tenants) of the 9 Healthy Living Standards towards people‟s „successful tenancy‟ and overall well being at various levels such as health, safety and responsibilities. The program aims to give people the right to participate individually and collectively, and to increase their health status, promoting collaborative intervention with communities rather than imposing dogmatic methods (Guerin 2005:137,142). Overall, the mission involves special commitment to the disadvantaged, marginalized and vulnerable groups in communities. Considering the feminisation of poverty, remote living women and children are particularly at risk in this context (Jackson & Pearson 1998:23). Aims Lifted by the principles of social justice (Ife 2002:205-207), the primary aim of the program is to ascertain what intervention contributes towards improving population housing status, healthy living standards, involving women, men and children, on the APY Lands. The project aims to create changes within the communities towards capacity building, community ownership to their problems and their solutions (Green & Kreuter 2005:310) while supporting comprehensive primary health care, human rights, access, participation, acceptability, affordability, inter-sectoral agencies collaboration, and strengthening community self-reliance (Ife 2002:213). “education means empowerment, enlightenment, and raising consciousness…it can lead to self-awareness and critical thinking about oppressive social situations” (Freire 1972:13); - Developing one‟s identity through the process of sharing and disseminating information and knowledge to other community members and program team; i.e. “I have to define who I am to be able to tell about me and my story to others”;
  15. 15. Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 15 - Identifying one‟s own strengths through learning about themselves and what they achieve in their lives; - Learning about the 9 Healthy Living Standards, including different cultural habits, other way of living, different food and way of eating; - Increasing self-esteem through talking about themselves, personal experiences and achievements; - Increasing awareness and supporting commitment towards learning; - Focus on supported participation; - Enhancing communication between participants, and between community members and service providers; Various concepts, notions and strategies will be discussed throughout the modules such as: - Concepts of safe and unsafe; - Concepts of happiness and unhappiness; - Notions of personal identity; - Relationships; - Wellbeing and health; - Nutrition for the body and for the soul; - Trust and Networks; - Privacy and parts of the body; - Body Health and Hygiene; - What is abuse; - Identifying abuse acted on oneself; - Strategies for being and keeping safe; - Use and abuse of power in relationships; - Persistence; - Resilience strategies; - Problem solving strategies; - Service providers; - Rights and responsibilities; - Empowerment through self discovery; - The positive aspects of clean and safe house on well being;
  16. 16. Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 16 Goals The project goals are: - To develop and evaluate community based interventions for application in remote communities, involving development of partnership between communities and agencies‟ workers, use of public health and development interventions, and the outcomes of these strategies measured and evaluated in terms of extent of achievement of relevant goals (Tesoriero et al 2006:16); - To achieve sustainability and communities‟ ownership in changing communities‟ tenancy status, encouraging awareness and commitments of families towards daily use of the 9 Healthy Living Standards; - To identify the tenancy living conditions and needs of men, women and children on the APY Lands in order to inform strategies improving services and support; - To address identified strategies to ensuring continued sustainability within the remote communities;
  17. 17. Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 17 - To develop and deliver the Living Skills Program to respond and meet the needs of women, men and children towards sustainable tenancy; Time Line, Tasks an Objectives – Appendix 2 The time line, task and objectives list starts July 2010. Each tasks and objectives are monthly, or weekly, evaluated depending on their achievement and results. If necessary, changes will be planned depending on, and adapted to, the ongoing evaluation. The 9 Healthy Living Standards – Appendix 3 Activities and Modules (Modules as additional document) With the communities: - Baseline Survey (appendix 4); - Participatory Rural Appraisal activities with families; - Appreciative Inquiry activities and workshops with families; - One on one activities with families; - Regular visits to families; - Community meetings; - Consultation meetings with community Leaders and community Elders; With partnership team UCWPP and Housing SA: - Monthly evaluation meetings; - Monthly meetings to review and amend time line, tasks and objectives; - Assessment and evaluation to be made by PC after each PRA and AI activities; - Consultation meetings with partner agencies members;
  18. 18. Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 18 Program Design The inputs elements of the program are: - The members of Communities Councils of the APY Lands; - The key community elders and members; - The families in the communities; - The families being tenants of Housing SA; - The partner agencies such as NPYWC, NHC, DFC, DASSA, Families SA, Red Cross; - The funding organisation Housing SA; - The amount of funding available; - The staff from partner agencies participating to the project and the program such as community workers, community officers, nurses and other experts; - The travel needs on the Lands; - The locations for meetings, activities and workshops in each community; - Accommodations and work facilities for workers; The throughputs elements of the project and program are: - All activities such as community meetings, PRA and AI exercises, visits in the communities; - Baseline survey; - Analysing of data; - Establishing of Family Support Workers in each community; - Delivery of the different modules; - Ongoing evaluation; The outputs elements of the project and program are: - The attendance of people to community meetings; - The participation of people to PRA and AI activities; - The participation of people to baseline survey; - The participation of families to workshops and one on one activities;
  19. 19. Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 19 - The creation of relationships between community members and team members; - The data gathered through the two baseline surveys; - The data gathered through PRA an AI activities; Specified and Anticipated Outcomes The tasks given in the Time Line, appendix 3, are specified outcomes. In addition to them, and compared to status at the beginning of the project, anticipated long term (at least 2/3 years after program start) outcomes are: - To have more families demonstrating successful tenancy; - To help prevent ongoing diseases such as scabies, skin infections, boils, head lice with the support of daily hygiene and vermin/germs management; - To improve women, men and children health status and well being in the APY communities; - To improve people‟s awareness about their health and what services they can receive from agencies; - To improve people‟s awareness and commitments towards rights and responsibilities; - To improve quality of life in the communities on the APY Lands; Management Information Systems – Interview Schedule Synopsis Appendix 4 For this project, various data such as health status, social economic status and others are needed. General existing data, demographic, socio-economic, health and service providers about the communities on the APY Lands are gathered through the Housing SA data, ABS and cross- agencies information. In addition, specific data about families‟ needs is collected through a baseline survey (quantitative and qualitative) to ascertain the status of women, children and men in relation to health, nutrition, education, as well as socioeconomic data at the time the project commences. All families moving into a new house or a renovated house will participate in the survey.
  20. 20. Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 20 The data and information gathered will be stored by the PC in a locked cabinet. The UCWPP PC will be the only person to have access to this confidential information. A report including information and statistics will be written and given when required. An interview schedule in Pytjantjatjara language and in English language is created by the PC and the FSW employed in the community. The interview schedule includes quantitative and qualitative questions (Appendix 4). A pilot interview is administered. A consent form is read to the interview participants in their language by the FSW and signed, at the beginning of each interview. Minutes or notes are taken for each community meeting, as well as for each team meeting. Notes are taken, with authorisation and support of local participants, during each PRA and AI activities, each workshop and program delivery session. Notes and Minutes are taken in English language and will be translated into Pitjantjatjara if needed. Evaluation report of the process, tasks and objectives, is discussed monthly. Baseline survey data is firstly entered into Microsoft Excel spreadsheets to allow a first examination of the number of responses per category, and then into SPSS program. Report about baseline survey results is written at the end of data analysis. Report about each half year of the project is written by UCWPP Program Coordinator and Housing SA Operations Manager. Biases Considering the cultural environment, UCWPP and Housing SA are aware of several biases such as: - Family setting, people present during interview; - Expectation of the interviewee; - Fears of the interviewee; - Language barriers; - Difference of interpretations from different stakeholders.
  21. 21. Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 21 Stakeholders Map – Appendix 5 It is essential to be able to work with key stakeholders and executive people in a way that considers everyone‟s agenda. Stakeholders involved in the project can change the direction of the project through even small discussion, action or wishes (Dwyer et al 2004:31-33). It is crucial to gain the support from people having significant position at political and community level. Government‟s representatives and Community Councils are key stakeholders as well as the consumers who bring contribution to the program. That is why it is important to manage expectations in the right direction and at the right level, keeping them transparent, realistic and achievable, as people can get disillusioned and then loose motivation and commitment to the project. Budget – Appendix 6 Conclusion While it is unreasonable to expect radical overall changes in tenancy within such a short time period of 12 months, changes in tenancy habits and overall use of the 9 Healthy Living Standards should be measurable after the period of three years with the families taking part in the program. Changes and restructuring of the very project may occur, as well as addition of new concepts and programs, as this belongs to the very core of this project and research, to evolve and develop according to the families and for the good of the communities.
  22. 22. Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 22 Appendix 1 Projects factors Following Green & Kreuter (2005:12-17) strategies, important factors to consider and involve in the frame of the Living Skills APY Lands program are: Predisposing factors: - People‟s knowledge - Attitudes - Motivation - Beliefs - Values - Perceptions - Culture - Confidence - Capacity - Education - Resilience Reinforcing factors: - Attitudes and behaviours about health - Attitudes and behaviours of peers, parents - Cultural environment - Structure of relationship - Hierarchy system - Kinship system - Social system and norms - Clients demand - Community leaders - Decision makers
  23. 23. Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 23 Enabling factors: - Availability of financial resources, local and external funding - Availability of social capital - Commitment - Accessibility - Referrals - Rules and laws - Skills, local and team‟s skills - Political context and policies - Local expertise - Workers‟ expertise - Collaborative work structures - Social capital Internal project factors: - Organisation commitment - Managing stakeholders - Decision-making structures - Plan and design - Realistic goals - Defining appropriate strategies - Sustainable outcomes - Managing resources, human resources and funding - Leadership skills - Managing changes - Adaptability - Cross-cultural intervention - Ethno sensitive intervention
  24. 24. Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 24 External project factors (which are interrelated to cultural patterns): - Poverty as economical factor - Inaccessibility to resources (geographical and economical factor) - Social factors within the communities - Traumas and mental distress, mental illness - Violence and abuse - Alcohol and drug misuse - Families hierarchy distribution within the communities - Political factors within and outside the communities - Decision making structures within the communities - Decision making structures within households - Individual factors - Biological factors - Peers‟ pressure - People‟s conditions of living - People‟s fear of unknown - People‟s values - People‟s health beliefs - People‟s expectations - People‟s wishes and dreams - People‟s attitude toward change
  25. 25. Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 25 Appendix 2 Timeline July 2010 to August 2010 Timeline and schedule are re-evaluated monthly in meetings with UCWPP and Housing SA. Timeline for September and October 2010 will be prepared mid-August 2010. Tasks July 5-9 July 12-16 July 19-23 July 26-30 August 2-6 August 9-13 August 16-20 August 23-27 Final program planning & modules 1st Visit community and agencies Amata 1st Visit community and agencies Mimili FSW recruitment Amata and Mimili Negotiate locations Amata and Mimili Baseline Survey Mimili Baseline Survey Amata Data analysis and needs assessments Modules preparation & setting Modules delivery Mimili Modules delivery Amata Meetings with partner agencies
  26. 26. Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 26 Appendix 3 The 9 Healthy Livings Standards From Housing SA guidelines 1 Body Hygiene Look after the body, why? Because it is the centre of health and also health for the soul and the spirit Why body hygiene is important, for babies, children, women and men; Washing to reduce disease and infections; Clean toilets, why? Clean bathroom, why? Body wash, hair wash, teeth wash; Scabies; impact on body, infections; Head lice; impact on body, infections; Boils, where are they from? How to reduce them? Nganampa Health sessions about STI and STD? Session about scabies What are these lice? Microscope use to see the vermin Painting posters for the house Hairdresser session in community Beauty day in community Storage of beauty and hygiene products to keep them safe for people to use.
  27. 27. Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 27 2 Beddings Cleanliness – clothes washing Scabies; impact on body, infections; Head lice; impact on body, infections; Boils Proper use of washing machine Washing beddings Washing clothes Proper storage for bed sheets, blankets and clothes Bedding off the ground Drying and airing in the sun 3 Look after the house - Removal of Waste Looking after the house because this is where the family can and want to be safe and comfortable Food scraps in the bin and not in the sink, why? Bagging, tying and binning rubbish, why? Recycling rubbish (if available service) Keeping rubbish safe from animals (dogs) and insects (flies, ants..) Use of wheelie bins Keep the habit to put all rubbish in the bin and not on the floor, ground, backyard and front yard Proper removal of heavy waste such as heavy metal or dangerous objects
  28. 28. Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 28 4 Nutrition and Kitchen Hygiene Keeping Kitchen clean and safe The use of cooking utensils Cleaning cooking surfaces, cooking utensils and crockery and cutlery Safe storage of cooking utensils, crockery and cutlery Separate dog-only plates and bowls Keep animals (dogs) and insects (flies, ants..) away from food, food preparation areas and cooking utensils, crockery and cutlery Why using cupboards and shelves for storage Washing hands with soap after toilets, touching dogs and cats Washing hands always before cooking food Fridge versus cupboard storage Fridge cleaning Looking after fridge Looking after kitchen equipment 5 Reduction of Overcrowding Impact on house cleanliness, 10 people making more dirt than 2 It is everyone‟s responsibility to keep the house clean, not just one person Impact on toilet, shower and other facilities Impact on property damages Impact on charges to tenants: water, electricity, gas, and finally food costs Impact on child learning and schooling
  29. 29. Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 29 Impact on potential child abuse or neglect Impact on rubbish and cleaning for the tenants How can visitors be kept accountable and responsible regarding inappropriate behaviours and their impacts on the family they are visiting? How can visitors be responsible and participate to house duties and work? How to act in the family house with respect and sharing behaviours Budgeting for living costs, food, clothes and general bills 6 Dogs Health and Hygiene Information workshops about how poor hygiene with dogs and cats impact on people‟s health and life Dog and cat‟s diseases and parasites can make children and adults sick No dogs and cats to be kept in houses or only with control of excrements and when dogs and cats healthy Dogs and cats to be regularly checked and medically treated against mange and other transferable diseases Use of Vet services through NHC programs 7 Controlling Dust and Vermin/Parasites/Snakes/Insects Health problems caused by dust mites, asthma, emphysema Keeping dust outside – closing door and windows, cleaning floors regularly Dusting house, shaking rugs outside Foot mats at the doors, outside and inside the house – shaking foot mats regularly
  30. 30. Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 30 Health problems caused by mice, flies, mosquitoes, cockroaches, ants Keeping vermin and insects from entering the house and property with control action such as rodent poison (kept away safe from children), ants (talc baby powder very effective against ants and non dangerous) Looking after flies screen and screen doors Minimise water for mosquitoes Control rubbish in the rubbish trolley bin outside the house No food on the floor No holes in the floor or in the walls (snakes and mice), call maintenance Housing SA No animals defecating in the house 8 Controlling living area temperatures – housing costs Keep doors and windows closed when either heating or cooling the house Look after heating and cooling systems Make sure air-conditioning is working properly – call maintenance Make sure heater is working properly – call maintenance Switch heater or cooler off when leaving the house Do not leave heater or cooler on all the time Electricity costs and impacting negatively on health Conserving water and power Budgeting for rent and bills
  31. 31. Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 31 9 Reducing Risk Situations/Sustaining Safe Environment Reporting maintenance if something can hurt children and adults such as broken window, broken door or walls, faulty or broken light globes, faulty or damaged power points, faulty gas, broken stove or cookers, broken/defect heating or cooling, to prevent accidents happening to family members Fire safety – careful in the use of fires and heating Leave smoke alarms in the house on the ceilings, do not remove them Children safety, watch children around fire place, watch children around heating, cooling, cooking washing areas People‟s health - Keep dogs and cats healthy
  32. 32. Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 32 Appendix 4 Interview Schedule Synopsis The questions have to be appropriately formulated according to the culture, habits, and conventions within communities. The interview schedule includes quantitative and qualitative questions regarding people‟s needs, nutrition habits, resources utilization, and social capital (Tesoriero et al 2006:61), targeting: - Household constitution; - How many girls, boys, and age; - Daily activities; - Housing needs/wishes; - Coping strategies with house work and issues; - Nutrition habits; - Family members health status; - Who in the family access and use health services; - Economic information; - Social information; - Educational information; - Mental health information; - Decision maker in the family; Questions such as: - What activities do you do during the day?
  33. 33. Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 33 - Who do you talk to during the day and how often? (table) Name of rarely sometimes often very often Children Partner Sister Mother Other people and who - Did you have breakfast yesterday? What did you eat/drink for your breakfast? - Did you have lunch yesterday? What did you eat/drink for lunch? - Did you have dinner yesterday? What did you eat/drink for dinner? - What else did you eat/drink during the day yesterday? - How is the family organised to do all the house tasks such as cleaning, cooking, shopping..? - What are the furniture do you think are important to have in your house to make it comfortable for you and your family? - What utensils do you like to use for cooking? Stove, open fire, slow cooker.. - Who do you think has to look after the house and the furniture in the family? - What do you need towards feeling safe in your house? - What makes you feel happy in your house? - To what school level do you like to send your children to? - If child does not go to school, explain why and what do they do during the day if they do not go to school? - Who in your family makes decisions about your children‟s education? - Who in your family makes decisions about how to spend the money? - Do you want to learn about how to organize your budget and money, how you can make it easier to make the money last?
  34. 34. Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 34 - The community gives facilities. How are you utilizing these facilities? (table) Daily weekly monthly PY KU building computers Centrelink community officers Community Office Homemaker Centre Tafe Clinic Store School Youth Shed Church Football and Netball court Bush Bee (Bush bus) - Which facilities do you not use? And for what reason? - Who do you consult when you are sick? - And for your children? - Is there anything that prevents you from going to the clinic when you are sick? If yes, what? - Do you use traditional medicines or herbal medicine? If yes, for what reason? - Who in your family decides about what medical treatments are received? - When do you feel sad? And why? - What do you do to feel happy again? - Do you sometimes help other people? With food, shelter, money.. - Do you sometimes receive help from other people? Food, shelter, money.
  35. 35. Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 35 - What are your family expenditure for one week/month, food, clothing..? - Do you have enough money to pay these expenses? - Do you have Foxtel/Austar at home? - Do you have a working phone line at home? - What things do you do for personal enjoyment/recreation? (table) How often with whom where Visiting family/friends Watching television Listening to music Cooking Dancing Singing Painting Making baskets Playing cards Chatting with friends/family in the community Going to church Participating to Inma Going out bush Going on camp out bush Travelling to various communities on the APY Lands Travelling to Alice Springs Travelling to other places - What are the celebrations/special events you are doing with your family? - What are the celebrations/special events you are doing with your community? - What is the next important happening in your life that will make you very happy?
  36. 36. Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 36 Appendix 5 Stakeholders Map Stakeholders Important To be aware of / to consider Community Leaders Are the key people within communities – possess power within communities – decision makers. Relationships are very important to build on. Appropriate behaviours from the work team is crucial, according to conventions and culture. Listen to people‟s voices. APY Executive Council Is the Aboriginal Executive political decision maker at the APY Lands level. Will decide what is good for the community and its members. Is respected by people. Has a position of power and influence. Community Council members Are the political influences on decision making at community and APY Lands level. Have to be worked with from the current political perspective, appropriate discussions according to culture and conventions. Strong decision making in the community. Families and tenants in each community Are the key beneficiaries of the program, the core of the project‟s mission. Have to be involved in the project from the start, to be listen to and to be respected as their own experts and decision makers. Families Support Workers Are the key officers who are members of the communities – experts within their area – they deliver the program with the PC and ensure ongoing support to families at the community level. Team work; PC has to support FSW on ongoing basis. FSW are key workers representing the Program from within the communities. They have expertise and local knowledge, as well as power and influence. FSW are recruited and employed by UCWPP. Housing SA Department contracting UCWPP for the delivery of the program. Collaborative team work between UCWPP and Housing SA Umuwa. UCWPP is accountable to Housing SA. UCWPP Contractors funded by Housing SA for delivery of the Living Skills Program on the APY Lands. Program Coordinator (PC) refers to the Executive Manager located in Port Pirie. DFC Department to work in partnership with Housing SA and UCWPP PC. Subject to negotiations and schedule.
  37. 37. Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 37 NPYWC NGO based in Alice Springs, delivering various services on the APY Lands. To work in partnership with the UCWPP PC to deliver support in specific activities and workshops. Subject to negotiations and schedule. NHC NGO based in Alice Springs and delivering ongoing health care, programs and support to community members through their clinics based in each community. To work in partnership with the UCWPP PC to deliver support in specific workshops and activities. Subject to negotiations and schedule. Tafe SA Tertiary Education. There is one Tafe delivering different certificates studies in each community. Subject to negotiations and schedule. FAMILIES SA Anti-Poverty Team Department for child protection and crisis care. Anti-poverty team to work in partnership with Housing SA and UCWPP PC for specific workshops. Subject to negotiations and schedule. FAHCSIA Two Government Business Managers are currently respectively working in Mimili and Amata (only). Work relationships at various levels according to the programs and activities FAHCSIA has in Mimili and Amata. It is for those two communities only. DPC Two Government Business Managers are responsible for the East and for the West Communities. Subject to negotiations and schedule.
  38. 38. Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 38 Appendix 6 Budget
  39. 39. Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 39 Budget – cont.
  40. 40. Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 40 References Atkinson, J 2002, Trauma trails, recreating song lines: The Transgenerational effects of trauma in Indigenous Australia, Spinifex, North Melbourne. Barone, E 2007, Resilience amidst dominant discourses: an exploration of factors affecting the life of refugee women from Middle Eastern backgrounds resettled in metropolitan Adelaide, University of South Australia, Adelaide. Bulbeck, C 1998, Social sciences in Australia, 2nd edn, Harcourt Brace & Company, NSW. Dwyer, J, Stanton, P & Thiessen, V 2004, Project management in health and community services – getting good ideas to work, Routledge, London. Edwards, R & Ribbens, J 1998, „Living on the edges – Public knowledge, private lives, personal experiences‟, in Feminist dilemmas in qualitative research – Public knowledge and private lives, eds J Ribbens & R Edwards, Sage Publications, London, pp.1-23. Freire, P 1972, Pedagogy of the oppressed, Penguin Education, Ringwood, VIC. Green, LW & Kreuter, MW 2005, Health program planning – An educational and ecological approach, 4th edn, McGraw-Hill Companies Inc., NY. Guerin, B 2005, Changing communities and societies, viewed 7 August 2006, <http://catalogue.library.unisa.edu.au/cgi-bin/scandoc.cgi?app=2&folder=2975&doc=1>. Guerin, B & Guerin, P.B., 2008, „Maintaining relationships in remote communities: implications for living in remote Australia‟, The Australian Community Psychologist, 20(2), pp.74-86. Ife, J 2002, Community development – Community-based alternatives in an age of globalisation, 2nd edn, Pearson Education Australia, NSW.
  41. 41. Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11– Emmanuelle Barone Page 41 Jackson, C & Pearson, R 1998, Feminist visions of development – gender analysis and policy, Routledge, NY. Konner, M 2007, „Trauma, adaptation, and resilience: A cross cultural and evolutionary perspective‟, in Understanding trauma – Integrating biological, clinical and cultural perspectives, eds LJ Kirmayer, R Lemelson & M Barad, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp.300-338. Kettner, PM, Moroney, RM & Martin, LL 1999, Designing and managing programs – An effectiveness-based approach, 2nd edn, Sage Publication Inc., California. O‟Connor, I, Wilson, J & Setterlund, D 2003, Social work and welfare practice, 4th edn, Pearson Education Australia, French Forest, NSW. Stokes, G 2002, Acceptance – Wisdom from around the world, MQ Publications Limited, London. Tesoriero, F, Barone, E & Umbers, A 2006, Healthy districts project – Report of stage 1, University of South Australia, Adelaide. Waller, MA 2001, „Resilience in ecosystem context: Evolution of the concept‟, American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, vol.71, no.3, pp.290-297.

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