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Positivism in Social Science

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it is a report about Positivism by August Comte who give the history of mankind develops in three stages:
1. Theological Stage
2. Metaphysical Stage
3. Positivist Stage

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Positivism in Social Science

  1. 1. Positivism in SocialPositivism in Social ScienceScience
  2. 2. PositivismPositivism  a philosophy developed ina philosophy developed in EuropeEurope  An epistemological doctrine thatAn epistemological doctrine that the true knowledge is only aboutthe true knowledge is only about the fact. The fact or the factualthe fact. The fact or the factual is an object that can beis an object that can be observed empirically with ourobserved empirically with our senses. The term ‘positive’senses. The term ‘positive’ doesn’t mean normatively, butdoesn’t mean normatively, but descriptively. It means ‘thedescriptively. It means ‘the factual’.factual’.
  3. 3.  comes from the Frenchcomes from the French word "positivisme", whichword "positivisme", which is derived from the rootis derived from the root word positif, and denotesword positif, and denotes that something isthat something is arbitrarily imposed on thearbitrarily imposed on the mind by sensorymind by sensory experience.experience.  it came to be associatedit came to be associated with the scientific methodwith the scientific method
  4. 4. August ComteAugust Comte  the proponent ofthe proponent of positivism.positivism.  he suggested thathe suggested that theology andtheology and methaphysics aremethaphysics are flawedflawed  According to ComteAccording to Comte the history of mankindthe history of mankind develops in threedevelops in three stages:stages: 1. Theological Stage1. Theological Stage 2. Metaphysical Stage2. Metaphysical Stage 3. Positivist Stage3. Positivist Stage
  5. 5. Theological StageTheological Stage  Man searched the causes of naturalMan searched the causes of natural phenomena behind the empirical worldphenomena behind the empirical world and found the superhuman forces likeand found the superhuman forces like idols (fetishism), gods (polytheism)idols (fetishism), gods (polytheism) and God (monotheism).and God (monotheism).  There was a progress of knowledgeThere was a progress of knowledge from the knowledge of impersonalfrom the knowledge of impersonal forces to personal God.forces to personal God.  The social organization wasThe social organization was absolutismabsolutism  But this stage can be compared withBut this stage can be compared with the infantile stage of human person.the infantile stage of human person.
  6. 6. Metaphysical StageMetaphysical Stage  In this stage the natural forces wereIn this stage the natural forces were not imagined as superhuman forces.not imagined as superhuman forces. They were grasped with abstractThey were grasped with abstract concepts like ‘cause’, ‘ether’ , ‘being’,concepts like ‘cause’, ‘ether’ , ‘being’, ‘substance’ etc. There was no more‘substance’ etc. There was no more God in this stage, because God wasGod in this stage, because God was conceptualized as an abstract entity.conceptualized as an abstract entity.  The social organization was lawsThe social organization was laws oriented societyoriented society  This stage is comparable with theThis stage is comparable with the stage of adolescence of humanstage of adolescence of human person.person.
  7. 7. Positivist StagePositivist Stage  Man explains the natural phenomenaMan explains the natural phenomena factually, i.e. he doesn’t try to explainfactually, i.e. he doesn’t try to explain them through theological orthem through theological or metaphysical causes. So, the fall of anmetaphysical causes. So, the fall of an apple is not cause by God or by theapple is not cause by God or by the ‘primal cause’, but by ‘gravitation’. We‘primal cause’, but by ‘gravitation’. We can observe neither God nor primalcan observe neither God nor primal cause. They are not facts. Only fact iscause. They are not facts. Only fact is observable.observable.  The social organization is industrialThe social organization is industrial societysociety  In this stage the mankind reach theIn this stage the mankind reach the stage of maturity of his knowledge.stage of maturity of his knowledge.
  8. 8. The Science and theThe Science and the Social Behind theSocial Behind the Study of SocietyStudy of Society
  9. 9.  Science is often attributed asScience is often attributed as natural or physical science. Asnatural or physical science. As its name implies, this science isits name implies, this science is concerned with the study ofconcerned with the study of nature—the physical andnature—the physical and natural behaviours andnatural behaviours and phenomena without the social,phenomena without the social, cultural, or human context.cultural, or human context. ScienceScience
  10. 10.  social sciences revolve around thesocial sciences revolve around the behaviour of humans as a peoplebehaviour of humans as a people or human societies, its production,or human societies, its production, and operations. This type ofand operations. This type of science is also very concerned withscience is also very concerned with cultural and human contexts andcultural and human contexts and tries to explain how the worldtries to explain how the world works. Its main aim is to study theworks. Its main aim is to study the complex and changing phenomenacomplex and changing phenomena that occur in human and social lifethat occur in human and social life and their interactions with oneand their interactions with one another.another. Social SciencesSocial Sciences
  11. 11. FundamentalFundamental ConceptsConcepts What does Social Science emphasize?What does Social Science emphasize? IndividualIndividual Social actors, and active, mindful, and consciousSocial actors, and active, mindful, and conscious decision makersdecision makers NatureNature Environment, social structures that provide theEnvironment, social structures that provide the physical, biological, and social context of collectivephysical, biological, and social context of collective actions or social phenomenaactions or social phenomena CultureCulture shared and collective actions, ideas and values thatshared and collective actions, ideas and values that are exhibited by a particular group of peopleare exhibited by a particular group of people SocialSocial StructureStructure patterns of behavior and interaction, which havepatterns of behavior and interaction, which have been institutionalized over timebeen institutionalized over time ActionAction decisions, activities and interactions made bydecisions, activities and interactions made by human beingshuman beings
  12. 12. Social Science Discipline and TheirSocial Science Discipline and Their EtymologiesEtymologies  Anthropology- "anthropos"(human),Anthropology- "anthropos"(human), "logos"(study of)"logos"(study of)  Demography- "demos"(people),Demography- "demos"(people), "graphien"(description)"graphien"(description)  Economics- "economy"(householdEconomics- "economy"(household management)management)  Linguistics- "Lingua" (tongue,Linguistics- "Lingua" (tongue, language)language)
  13. 13.  History- "histoire"(recorded andHistory- "histoire"(recorded and documented events)documented events)  Political Science-"politika", "polis"(affairPolitical Science-"politika", "polis"(affair of the cities)of the cities)  Psychology-"psyche"(mind),Psychology-"psyche"(mind), "logos"(study of)"logos"(study of)  Sociology-"socius"(people together,Sociology-"socius"(people together, associate), "logos"(study of)associate), "logos"(study of)
  14. 14. THANKTHANK YOUYOU
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it is a report about Positivism by August Comte who give the history of mankind develops in three stages: 1. Theological Stage 2. Metaphysical Stage 3. Positivist Stage

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