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Introduction Just as modern urban planning beneﬁts from use of quantitative tools analysing trafﬁc ﬂows and roadway air dispersion models, perhaps modern enterprise architecture might beneﬁt from similar use of quantitative tools to analyse data and information ﬂow in an organisation for improved design? This presentation outlines organisational network analysis and associated quantitative tools which might provide useful for enterprise architects: – Organisational Network Analysis – Enterprise Architecture – Why ONA might be of interest to enterprise architects – Current applications of ONA – Potential applications for enterprise architecture, including enterprise knowledge, content & record management – Potential issues relating to ONA !emilicon.com!
Social Network Analysis • Organisational Network Analysis (ONA) developed from social network analysis (SNA), the network approach to the study of behaviour, applying the same theories to organisations and individuals/groups within them. • Social Network Analysis developed following Jacob Moreno’s introduction of sociometric ideas and tools in 1934, and subsequently following World War II the Group Networks Laboratory at M.I.T. to advance such research was founded by Alex Bavelas. In the 1970s, the study of social networks expanded as an interdisciplinary ﬁeld with the development of graph theory (the mathematical modelling of nodes/vertices and their connections/edges) and computer processing capability. • According to the International Network for Social Network Analysis, SNA has been applied to organisational behavior, inter-organisational relations, the spread of contagious diseases, mental health, social support, the diffusion of information, and animal social organisation. • Today it is an international effort with its own professional organisations, journals, research centres, training centres, and computer programmes designed speciﬁcally to facilitate the analysis of structural data which is: 1. Guided by formal theory organised in mathematical terms. 2. Grounded in the systematic analysis of empirical data.emilicon.com!
Organisational Network Analysis • ONA is the analysis of connections/ties between and among individuals, groups and organisations, termed the the ‘nodes’. • ONA has historically been a part-manual process undertaken with the aid of surveys using statistical software to process the results. More recently, use of network analytic tools to both collect and process quantitative data to map and analyse underlying communication patterns in an organisation have automated the process. • ONA has been termed an ‘organisational x-ray’, it helps reveal the real, informal organisation, that not revealed or represented by a hierarchical organisation chart. • Consequently, ONA may provide illuminating insight into how your organisation is currently sharing unstructured data and information, both internally and externally. General ONA Process as it might be applied to Enterprise Architecture: • Agree the Problem (hypotheses, boundaries, relationships to be analysed, demographics) • Collect the Data (automated data mining, focus groups, surveys, interviews) • Analyse Data (network mapping software, quantiﬁable metrics, apply ﬁlters and analyse speciﬁc groups/departments) • Validate and Discuss Results (preliminary review, one-to-one interviews, presentation) • Identify Next Steps (planning, training, organisation changes, potential architecture gaps/revisions, individual/group/technology interventions, follow-up analysis)emilicon.com!
Network Analysis Social/organisational network analysis concepts include: • Network Size – the count of the number of members/nodes. • Network Centralisation - the degree to which relationships within a network are focused around one or a few central network members. High network centrality means that knowledge ﬂows within a network are dependent on few single nodes and removal of such network members may corrupt knowledge ﬂows. • Network Density - the total number of network ties/connections divided by the total number of possible ties. This measure is of interest for those interested in building connections within and between organisations, as density describes the overall linkages. Three key types of network structures: • Cliques/‘Clusters of Expertise’ - are identiﬁed through dense connections between sub-sets of network members. They are important for understanding the behaviour of a whole network, as they might develop their own attitude toward other groups. • Bottlenecks – form when networks are split into loosely coupled components. Key network members holding components together are called bridges. While bottlenecks are obstacles to knowledge sharing within a network, too many links can lead to inefﬁciency of knowledge exchange. Therefore, links should be coordinated efﬁciently. • Hubs - are ‘nodes’/members which are important as simultaneous actors in many clusters in clustered networks. Hubs are enablers of effective knowledge transfer, and can effectively link different sub-groups and facilitate knowledge ﬂows between different departments or external resources. Network efﬁciency can be strongly dependent on hubs. Sources: http://www.fmsasg.com/SocialNetworkAnalysis http://www.wissensnetzwerke.de/files/kb_ebook02_social_network_analysis_knowledge_sharing.pdfemilicon.com!
Network Analysis (2) • Degree Centrality - is an indicator of expertise and power of network members. Degrees are the number of direct connections a node has. An individual with the most direct connections in a network is the most active node in the network, a connector or hub in this network. What really matters is where those connections lead to, and how they connect the otherwise unconnected. • Betweenness Centrality – helps identify knowledge brokers and gatekeepers within a network. Individuals between two important groups play a broker role in the network, a powerful role and potential single point of failure. A node with high between-ness has great inﬂuence over what ﬂows, or doesn’t, in the network. Location is key. • Closeness Centrality - shows the integration or isolation of network members. The pattern of some direct and indirect ties allow some individuals to access all the nodes in the network more quickly than anyone else. They are in an excellent position to monitor information ﬂow in the network and have the best visibility into what is happening in the network. Sources: http://www.fmsasg.com/SocialNetworkAnalysis http://www.wissensnetzwerke.de/files/kb_ebook02_social_network_analysis_knowledge_sharing.pdfemilicon.com!
Network Analysis (3) • Network Reach - Not all network paths are created equal and recent research suggests that the shorter paths in the network are more important. • Network Integration - It is important to be on many efﬁcient paths in networks that reach out to various parts of the extended network, those well integrated in the network of paths have both local and distant information. Network metrics are often measured using geodesics, or shortest paths, however not all information/inﬂuence ﬂows along the networks shortest paths only as networks operate via direct and indirect, shortest and near-shortest paths. • Boundary Spanners - are often more central in the overall network than their immediate neighbors whose connections are only local, within their immediate cluster. Individuals can be a boundary spanner via bridging connections to other clusters or via concurrent membership in over-lapping groups. Boundary spanners are well- placed to be innovators, since they have access to ideas and information ﬂowing in other clusters. They are in a position to combine different ideas and knowledge, found in various places, into new products and services. • Peripheral Players - Most people would view the nodes on the periphery of a network as unimportant. Peripheral nodes may be connected to networks not currently mapped and may have their own network outside of the company -- making them important resources for fresh external information. Sources: http://www.fmsasg.com/SocialNetworkAnalysis http://www.wissensnetzwerke.de/files/kb_ebook02_social_network_analysis_knowledge_sharing.pdfemilicon.com!
Data, information, knowledge, content and records Explicit Knowledge is 10101 Data is a Information is KNOWLEDGE knowledge that raw linked data is created when 01010 material captured at a people and can be readily articulated and 10101 fact certain point and given meaning/ information shared without connect and that Tacit Knowledge is 01010 context context (it may information is put knowledge that is be held in internalised by 10101 (e.g. an attribute, organisation to use (e.g. to make individuals & may be difﬁcult to articulate 01010 sounds, intranets/ case ﬁles/ conclusions, (e.g. skills) it may be words, decisions, transferred through 10101 images, documents/ judgements, structured videos/ interviews/ 01010 statistics, numbers) databases) forecasts) observation, imitation & practise / task analysisContent is a collective term used to denote all recorded material belonging to anorganisation, whether physical or electronic, structured or unstructured,.Records are ‘information created, received, and maintained as evidence and information byan organisation or person, in pursuance of legal obligations or in the transaction of business’emilicon.com!
Enterprise Knowledge and Content Management Knowledge and Content Management (KCM) is a range of practical techniques & technology used to share explicit & tacit knowledge between people in an organisation. Associated technology and techniques include: Technology Techniques Content Management Systems Peer Assist Intranets & Web/Videoconferencing Lessons Learned Reviews Web Content Management Systems Mentoring Knowledge Bases, Portals Case Studies Online Forums & Messaging Tools Knowledge Briefs Collaborative Tools (eg. wikis, SharePoint) Communities of Practice Search Tools & Analytics Knowledge-Sharing Rewards Social Network Analysis Tools Knowledge Mapping Electronic Document & Records Management Systems Information Management supports KCM by organising, controlling, retrieving, acquiring & maintaining the data/information that employees use to build knowledge.emilicon.com!
The Information Lifecycle • Organisational Network Analysis has clear application for both IT-oriented or otherwise enterprise knowledge, content and record management in helping identify current manual workarounds and information sinks in the organisation. • Such analysis would help enterprise knowledge, content & record managers to adjust collaboration/record management/email systems and processes to enable information throughout its life to be appropriately captured and managed, from initial receipt through to eventual archive as a record then/or disposal/destruction. Source: JISC - http://www.jiscinfonet.ac.uk/infokits/information-lifecycle/introduction/modelemilicon.com!
Enterprise Architecture As IT systems become more complex, they generally require more planning. As such, Enterprise Architecture (EA) was developed by John Zachman in 1987 to address managing the increasing complexity of IT systems by creating order from chaos, and focus on business values to be derived from those IT systems. As originally devised by Zachman, the objective of EA was to support “business alignment to IT, integration, response to change, and reduced time to market”. While in different organisations the meaning of Enterprise Architecture varies: referring to EA guidelines/rules, to logical and technical EA design, and to methodologies for delivering effective EA design, Gartner currently deﬁnes EA as: • ‘The process of translating business vision and strategy into effective enterprise change by creating, communicating and improving the key requirements, principles and models that describe the enterprises future state and enable its evolution’ • The scope of enterprise architecture includes the people, processes, information and technology of the enterprise, and their relationships to one another and to the external environment, [where] enterprise architects compose holistic solutions that address the business challenges of the enterprise and support the governance needed to implement them. Other current types of IT architecture include: software, application, infrastructure, technology, business, information, solution, and organisational architecture.emilicon.com!
Enterprise Architecture Enterprise architects are those who specialise in the broadest possible view of IT architecture within an organisation. Current, leading traditional Enterprise Architecture approaches include: – The Open Group Architectural Framework (TOGAF) – The Zachman Framework for Enterprise Architectures and taxonomy (really a methodology for organising and categorising architectural artifacts) – MIKE 2.0 (Method for an Integrated Knowledge Environment) including the EA framework, the Strategic Architecture for the Federated Enterprise, a specialist information/content management approach.emilicon.com!
Enterprise Architecture – TOGAF9TOGAF9ArchitectureDevelopmentMethod::Map Input Output Key*DeliverableITEM Top<Level Preliminary PhaseA PhaseB PhaseC PhaseD PhaseE PhaseF PhaseG PhaseH Item?ARCHITECTURE: VISION BUSINESS IS<DATA IS<APPLICATION TECHNOLOGY OPPORTUNITIES MIGRATION IMPLEMENTATION CHANGE &SOLUTIONS PLANNING GOVERNANCE MANAGEMENTITERATIONCYCLE: ARCHITECTURECONTEXT ARCHITECTUREDEFINITION ARCHITECTUREDEFINITION ARCHITECTUREDEFINITION ARCHITECTUREDEFINITION TRANSITIONPLANNING TRANSITIONPLANNING ARCHITECTUREGOVERNANCE ARCHITECTURE GOVERNANCETOGAF NO refer*toOther*architecture*framework(s) NO refer*toArchitecture*governance*strategy NO existingIT*strategy NO existingOrganisational*Model*for*Enterprise*Architecture NO existing,*UPDATEDARCHITECTUREFRAMEWORK(TAILORED) YES existing,*TAILORED TAILOREDBUSINESSPRINCIPLES,GOALS&DRIVERS YES existing,*RESTATED REFINED VALIDATEDARCHITECTUREPRINCIPLES YES existing,*UPDATED REFINED ELABORATED DATA:*VALIDATED/NEW APP.*VALIDATED/NEW TECH.*VALIDATED/NEWREQUESTFORARCHITECTUREWORK YES CREATED UPDATED,IFANY NEW*REQUESTSSTATEMENTOFARCHITECTUREWORK YES APPROVED UPDATED(ifnecess.) UPDATED(ifnecess.) UPDATED(ifnecess.) UPDATED(ifnecess.) UPDATED(ifnecess.) UPDATED*(if*necess.)ARCHITECTUREREQUIREMENTSSPECIFICATION YES DRAFT,*INCLUDING*BELOW DRAFT,*INCLUDING*BELOW DRAFT,*INCLUDING*BELOW DRAFT,*INCLUDING*BELOW FINALISEDGap*Analysis NO RESULTS*SUMMARISED UPDATED UPDATED UPDATEDTechnical*Requirements NO DRAFTED RELEVANT*TO*THIS*STAGE RELEVANT*TO*THIS*STAGE FROM*B*&*CTechnical:*Business*Requirements NO DRAFTED UPDATED UPDATEDTechnical:*Data*Requirements NO DRAFTED UPDATEDTechnical:*Application*Requirements NO DRAFTED UPDATEDTechnical:*Technology*Requirements NO DRAFTED UPDATEDInteroperability*Requirements NO DATA*;*DRAFTED APP.*;*DRAFTEDTechnology*Architecture*Constraints NO DRAFTED UPDATEDREQUIREMENTSIMPACTASSESSMENT YES NOT*COVERED*ANYWHERECAPABILITYASSESSMENT YES DRAFTED UPDATED,INCLUDINGBELOWEnterprise*Architecture*Maturity*Profile NO DRAFTEDTransformation*Readiness*Report NO DRAFTEDCOMMUNICATIONSPLAN YES CREATEDARCHITECTUREROADMAP YES DRAFT*(with*bus.*Arch.*components) UPDATED*(with*data*components) UPDATED*(with*app.*components) UPDATED*(with*Tech.*components) UPDATED,*if*necess. FINALISED UPDATESIMPLEMENTATION&MIGRATIONPLAN YES OUTLINE DETAILEDGOVERNANCEMODEL YES CREATED<FRAMEWORK DRAFTED*;*IMPLEMENTATION*MODEL FINALISED,BUSINESS&ITOPSMODELCHANGEREQUEST(S) YES DRAFTED,*from*lessons*learned UPDATED UPDATED*(if*necess.)COMPLIANCEASSESSMENT(S) YES CREATED UPDATED*(if*necess.)ARCHITECTURECONTRACT(s) YES DRAFTED,forimplementationprojects SIGNED UPDATED*(if*necess.)ARCHITECTURE<COMPLIANTSOLUTIONS YES DEPLOYED,INCLUDING*ALL*BELOWARCHITECTURE*COMPLIANT*SYSTEM NO IMPLEMENTEDARCHITECTURE&SOLUTIONBUILDINGBLOCKS(docs&models YES existing,*POPULATED POPULATED POPULATEDfromARCHITECTUREREPOSITORY)Architecture*Compliance*Recommendations*&*Dispensations NO DRAFTEDService*Delivery*Requirements NO DRAFTED,*recommendationsPerformance*Metrics NO RECOMMENDATIONSService*Level*Agreements*(SLAs) NO DRAFTEDARCHITECTUREVISION YES DRAFT,*INCLUDING*BELOW UPDATEDKey*High;Level*Stakeholder*Requirements NO refinedARCHITECTUREDEFINITIONDOCUMENT YES DRAFT,*INCLUDING*BELOW DRAFT,*INCLUDING*BELOW DRAFT,*INCLUDING*BELOW DRAFT,*INCLUDING*BELOW DRAFT,*INCLUDING*BELOW FINALISED UPDATED,POST<IMPLEMENTATIONBusiness*Architecture*;*Baseline NO create*vision DETAILED*(if*appropriate) FINALISEDBusiness*Architecture*;*Target NO create*vision DETAILED FINALISEDViews NO addressing*key*stakeholder*concerns DATA*views APP.*views TECH.*views FINALISEDData*Architecture*;*Baseline NO create*vision DETAILED FINALISEDData*Architecture*;*Target NO create*vision DETAILED FINALISEDApplication*Architecture*;*Baseline NO create*vision DETAILED FINALISEDApplication*Architecture*;*Target NO create*vision DETAILED FINALISEDTechnology*Architecture*;*Baseline NO create*vision DETAILED FINALISEDTechnology*Architecture*;*Target NO create*vision DETAILED FINALISEDIncrements NO IDENTIFIED FINALISEDInteroperability*&*Co;existence*Requirements NO DRAFTED FINALISEDImplementation*&*Migration*Strategy NO DRAFTED FINALISEDProject*List*&*Project*Charters NO INCLUDED FINALISED(A.D.D.SUB<SECTION::TRANSITIONARCHITECTURE) YES DRAFT,*INCLUDING*BELOW UPDATED UPDATED,POST<IMPLEMENTATIONGaps,Solutions&DependenciesMatrix/Assessment NO DRAFTED,*based*on*ARS*Gap*Analysis UPDATEDRisk*Register NO DRAFTED UPDATEDImpact*Analysis NO DRAFTED*;*Project*List UPDATED implementation*RecommendationsDependency*Analysis*Report NO DRAFTED UPDATEDImplementation*Factor*Assessment*&*Deduction*Matrix NO DRAFTED UPDATED Source: http://www.emilicon.com/timeline/2012/01/15/enterprise-architecture-togaf9emilicon.com!
Emergent Enterprise Architecture • In 2009, Gartner initially identiﬁed an emergent approach to Enterprise Architecture for which tools such as ONA are ideally suited to support. • Gartner’s emergent approach guided enterprise architects to embrace the inversion of control and relinquish their previous control of all EA decision making and accept that that business units demand more autonomy. The further noted: 1. “The ﬁrst key characteristic of the emergent approach is best summarised as ‘architect the lines, not the boxes’, which means managing the connections between different parts of the business rather than the actual parts of the business themselves,” said Bruce Robertson, research vice president at Gartner. 2. “The second key characteristic [of emergent EA] is that it models all relationships as interactions via some set of interfaces, which can be completely informal and manual – for example, sending handwritten invitations to a party via postal letters - to highly formal and automated, such as credit-card transactions across the Visa network.”emilicon.com!
Enterprise Architecture Gartner identiﬁed seven properties differentiating emergent architecture from the traditional approach to EA: 1. Non-deterministic: In the past, EAs applied centralised decision-making to design outcomes, now they must decentralise decision-making to enable innovation. 2. Autonomous actors: EAs can no longer control all aspects of architecture, they must recognise the broader business and devolve control to constituents. 3. Rule-bound actors: Where in the past EAs provided detailed design speciﬁcations for all aspects of the EA, they must now deﬁne a minimal set of rules to enable choice. 4. Goal-oriented actors: Previously, the only goals that mattered were corporate goals, but this has now shifted to each constituent acting in their own best interests. 5. Local Inﬂuences: Actors are inﬂuenced by local interactions and limited information. Feedback within their sphere of communication alters the behaviour of individuals. As no individual actor has data about all of an emergent system, EA must increasingly coordinate. 6. Dynamic or Adaptive Systems: The system (the individual actors as well as the environment) changes over time. EA must design emergent systems to sense and respond to changes in their environment. 7. Resource-Constrained Environment: An environment of abundance does not enable emergence; rather, the scarcity of resources drives emergence.emilicon.com!
Why connect ONA and EA • For a technology ﬁeld, traditional enterprise architecture employs surprisingly limited use of technology to support its design, save for modelling software used to draw building blocks and models, and associated business process management. • The underpinning review of submitted requirements and proposed enterprise architecture is generally based on the knowledge and expertise of individuals. • Such use of additional tools is not yet reached mainstream adoption. Accordingly, in the 2011 Gartner Magic Quadrant for Enterprise Architecture no proﬁled EA tools connected organisational network analysis with EA for modelling and business process improvement beneﬁt. • Source: Gartner Magic Quadrant for Enterprise Architecture Tools, November 2011emilicon.com!
Current uses of ONA Trampoline Systems currently uses ONA to help organisations using ONA to convert email archives into GraphML ﬁles for import into industry-standard network analysis and visualisation tools including InFlow, NetDraw and UCINET, supporting the following: • Internal collaboration – to identify organisational brokers, gaps, bottlenecks, isolated teams and critical partners, to provide a strategic basis for implementing new collaboration tools, to work with the strongest networkers and brokers to drive adoption and usage, to measure improvements over time to calculate strategic return on investment. • Vendor management – to map vendor relationships, ﬂag fragmented relationships, and streamline vendor management. • Restructuring – to take a pre-restructure snapshot of a target department, to identify risks posed to external relationships, connections to the rest of the organisation, and teams that may be left isolated. To support restructure plan revision to account for such risks, to take a post-restructure snapshot to track progress and plan further action, increasing the success of restructure. • Mergers & acquisition – to take organisational snapshots immediately post-acquisition to identify key inﬂuencers and brokers in the acquired business and factor this into integration planning, to subsequently monitor increasing connection, identify gaps and plan action, and increase success of integration. • Expertise management – to analyse expertise of personnel close to retirement, to highlight gaps where no other personnel can cover the expertise that will be lost, to identify employees best placed to up-skill and ﬁll the gaps.emilicon.com!
Example email-based ONA Map Trampoline’s SONAR Server is an analytical engine with natural language processing and social network analysis algorithms to identify information ﬂows, social networks and tasks occurring within a company. Source: http://www.trampolinesystems.com/products/sonar-frameworkemilicon.com!
ONA in practice • World Health Organisation World Health Survey (survey-based ONA) – to compile comprehensive baseline information on the health of populations and on outcomes associated with the investment in health systems, baseline evidence on the way health systems are currently functioning, and monitor inputs, functions, and outcomes. • Italian Public Sector - (a) to ascertain the robustness of the core human competencies, (b) to determine the efﬁciency of the current organisational structure and design, and (c) to assess ONA methodology as a management tool. The analysis succeeded in providing insights into organisational processes which prompted managers to address problems and take advantage of network strengths. The ﬁndings shed some light on how individual performance improvement can be achieved via targeted efforts to align the actual organisation with the informal collaboration networks. • Brazilian Telecommunications Firm – to help organisations understand their social networks and develop a transitional management model from the poorly adaptive Taylorism model (based on top-down power and control) into a more cooperative, motivated and innovative model. At the macro level identiﬁed: formal and informal groups and different sub-cultures challenging future integration. At the individual level, identiﬁed and contextualised: direct inﬂuencers inside areas, bridge builders between areas, informal leaders, bottlenecks, outsiders and isolated individuals. • Vodafone – to map connections between (anonymised) individuals in the UK using their network’s mobile data for sales and marketing targeting. !emilicon.com!
Example inter-organisational network analysis Network Analysis applied to the architecture industry in London where SNA was used to map connections using online software UCINET which aided in the visualisation of networks. The following inter-organisational anlaysis is derived from a list of London’s top 20 tallest (completed) buildings connecting all companies involved in the construction of each building (with information sourced from Emporis.com). ‘The whole network as illustrated in the first diagram below, comprised one single component (self-contained unit) as all of its points in the component (companies) can reach one another through one or more paths. Accordingly the density of the graph is relatively high with 5.5% where density describes the general level of linkage among the points in the self-contained network. The more points are connected to one another, the more dense the graph will be, in this case, it means that a number of companies worked together on multiple projects.’ In most network maps: • thickness shows frequency of interactions • arrows (if included) show the direction of interactions (ie A asks B, B doesnt ask A) • network density measures are the number of ties that exist in reality / number of possible ties. The aim is not to get to density 100% but we hope to see more coordination over time Source: http://tacity.co.uk/category/social-network-analysis/emilicon.com!
Potential Uses of ONA for EA Essentially, ONA-related collection and analysis of patterns in unstructured communications such as emails, existing CRM systems, VOIP phonecalls/ webinars, mobile call and text records, website and Intranet analytics, collaboration sites, and calendar entries both internal and external to an organisation can provide a vivid map of current information sharing, by: • Automating Creation of Current and Future State Organisation Views - Obtain a current-state ONA view of an enterprise and review it against key business needs and areas of interest to target future-state EA addressing those needs and potential problem areas. • Supporting Solication of Requirements for EA Improvement - Identify the key connectors in the organisation who might be best placed to provide business requirements for EA improvements. • EA Risk Management - Take a pre-adjusted enterprise architecture snapshot of the target department or organisation. Identify risks posed to external connections, connections to the rest of the organisation and teams that may be left isolated. Revise architecture plan to account for these risks, take post- architecture implementation snapshot to track progress and plan further action to increase the success of the new architecture. • EA for Integration with External Systems – ONA might help identify means to improve connections with external business parterns/organisationsemilicon.com!
Potential Uses of ONA for EA (2) • Identify EA Improvement Opportunities - Current-state ONA might help identify opportunities to build/modify systems to better capture enterprise data and information, identify potential issues with existing systems which have led to manual workarounds or information-sharing bottlenecks, and identify problem areas which might be addressed before they materialise as issues. • EA-Related Business Process Management and Modelling – ONA might support smarter decisions about changing the formal organisation structure and introducing new processes into organisations. ONA provides insight into how work is really accomplished in an organisation, how decisions are made, and the effectiveness of the existing organisational structures. • EA for Mergers & Acquisitions – ONA might provide insight into challenges of integration following restructuring, mergers, or acquisitions. By identifying speciﬁc individuals or groups who are most likely to have the most inﬂuence across group borders and boundaries, enterprise architects might take steps to retain people who are key to a network and identify key stakeholders. • Identiﬁcation of EA Gaps – ONA might support identiﬁcation of architectural gaps that could signal opportunities for future IT and business improvements.! • EA for Change Management - ONA might support IT-related and non-IT change management programmes by identifying key communicators and system users.emilicon.com!
Issues Organisational Network Analysis has the potential to be immensely valuable to organisations but various concerns and risks should be addressed or further investigated prior to initiating ONA, including but not limited to: Privacy Issues – Assure conﬁdential handling of all data from the outset and clearly communicate such conﬁdentiality through the publication of privacy guidelines, including: – For reporting - anonymisation of all personal data and analysis of de-personalised data. – Security of stored data and location of stored data to comply with information security directives. – Establish authorisation and control for access to data. – Undertake data analysis via security-approved and trained individuals only. HR Concerns - Social network analysis should not be abused for evaluation and assessment of employees, disciplinary action as a direct result from network analysis should be avoided, communications should highlight positive outcomes and not individual mistakes. Implementation Costs – self-explanatory, dependent on your organisation & choices. Period of Usefulness – ONA is often nothing more than a snapshot in time. IT Constraints - Signiﬁcant obstacles may need to be overcome and planned for in order to run ONA analytics tools in your organisation. Just as a tool such as The National Archives’ DROID File Proﬁling Tool (open-source software which can identify ﬁles across an enterprise - http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/information-management/our-services/dc-ﬁle-proﬁling- tool.htm) often encounters organisational bureaucratic/security barriers, so too will ONA tools which will need to be addressed according to your organisation.emilicon.com!
Resources :: Theory • Center for Computational Analysis of Social and Organizational Systems - http://www.casos.cs.cmu.edu • Gartner – Emergent Enterprise Architecture - http://www.gartner.com/it/page.jsp?id=1124112 • Gartner – 2011 Hype Cycle for Enterprise Architecture - http://www.gartner.com/id=1751916 • Gartner – 2011 Magic Quadrant for Enterprise Architecture Tools - http://www.gartner.com/id=1839614 • International Network for Social Network Analysis - http://www.insna.org/sna/what.html • JISC – Information Lifecycle - http://www.jiscinfonet.ac.uk/infokits/information-lifecycle/introduction/model • Knowledge Management for Development Wiki - http://wiki.km4dev.org/wiki/index.php/Social_Network_Analysis • Knowledge Sharing Toolkit - http://www.kstoolkit.org/Social+Network+Analysis • MIKE 2.0 SAFE Architecture - http://mike2.openmethodology.org/wiki/Enterprise_Architecture • Social Network Analysis: A Practical Method to Improve Knowledge-Sharing - http://www.wissensnetzwerke.de/files/ kb_ebook02_social_network_analysis_knowledge_sharing.pdf • The Open Group Architecture Framework - http://www.opengroup.org/togaf • Zachman Framework Associates - http://www.zachmanframeworkassociates.comemilicon.com!
Resources :: Software/Consultancies • Inflow from (Valdis Krebs) - http://www.orgnet.com/inﬂow3.html • International Network for Social Network Analysis ‘Member Listed Software’ - http://www.insna.org/software/index.html • KM for Development ONA/SNA Software Recommendations - http://wiki.km4dev.org/wiki/index.php/Social_Network_Analysis • Netminer - http://www.netminer.com/index.php • NodeXL - http://nodexl.codeplex.com • ONA Catalogue of Tools - http://ona-prac.wikispaces.com/Analysis • Proximity - http://kdl.cs.umass.edu • Sentinel Visualiser - http://www.fmsasg.com/SocialNetworkAnalysis • Trampoline Systems’ SONAR Framework - http://www.trampolinesystems.com/products/sonar-frameworkemilicon.com!