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Embedded Fest 2019. Антон Волошин. Connected Mobility: from Vehicle to Cloud

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Vehicle connection with the outside world is one of the modern trends of automotive industry development. The key element of connected vehicle is telematics control unit (TCU). From the one hand telematics unit interacts with electronic control units (ECUs) in vehicle, such as Head Unit, Board Control Module, etc. over CAN or Automotive Ethernet, from the other hand – with the cloud services via modem and CDMA\GSM\LTE networks. TCU provides a wide range of useful features: remote commands, remote diagnostics, Wi-Fi hotspot, car positioning, online traffic and hazard information besides the basic emergency call functionality. Telematics essentials and architecture, as well as features implementation in detail, will be presented. Integration and homologation testing specifics will also be discussed.

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Embedded Fest 2019. Антон Волошин. Connected Mobility: from Vehicle to Cloud

  1. 1. www.luxoft.com 2019-11-20 Connected Mobility: from Vehicle to Cloud Anton Voloshyn, Program Manager, Connected Mobility Engineering, Automotive LOB Luxoft
  2. 2. www.luxoft.com Content 2 1) Vehicle to outside world interaction 2) Telematics essentials and HW/SW architecture 3) Deep dive into application features 1) Emergency Call 2) Remote Commands 3) Online Traffic and Hazard Information 4) Remote Diagnostics 4) This is just a beginning of the trip 1) 5G and V2X
  3. 3. www.luxoft.com Vehicle to Outside World Interaction 3 There are few kinds of interactions: • Dealer or emergency service operator • OEM cloud, where car data is storing and processing • Personal mobile device (smartphone, smart watch, tablet) or web based interface • Vehicle to Vehicle/Infrastructure/Pedestrian/Network The key element of such interactions is Telematics Unit.
  4. 4. www.luxoft.com Telematics essentials and architecture (1/3): overall 4 What is Telematics Unit? The Telematics Unit is essentially a mobile phone located in your vehicle. From the one hand Telematics Unit provides cellular CDMAGSMLTE network communication between back-end cloud services and the vehicle, from another hand between Telematics Unit and other ECUs (Head Unit, motion sensors, board control unit, etc.) through automotive data protocols (CAN or Automotive Ethernet).
  5. 5. www.luxoft.com Telematics essentials and architecture (2/3): HW 5 Basic architectural requirements: • CAN Interface: vehicle status information (Key-ON), VIN, vehicle speed information and external sensors • Power Management ensures a stable power supplier to all components in their defined voltage and current ranges, manages overvoltage situations jump starts, alternating voltages, interruptions, short circuits and others. • Audio interfaces for the speaker, the microphone and the corresponding drivers (AD, DA converter, amplifier etc.), buzzer or similar acoustic device • Human Machine Interface (HMI) manages the interfaces to the status LED’s for visual feedback and the suppression button. • The Network Access Device and eSim in-band modem capability and is usually controlled using AT-commands • Antennas for cellular network connectivity and for GNSS signal reception. • The GNSS provides a location information. It also indicated with a confidence bit, whether the position can be trusted. • The RTC is a real-time clock (or physical clock), which measures the physical time and ensures the update of the time even when the in-vehicle system is OFF.
  6. 6. www.luxoft.com Telematics essentials and architecture (3/3): SW 6 TCU SW architecture is layered: BSPOS – Platform Infrastructure – Application Board Support Package (BSP) eCall Qualcomm MDM 9628 (Cortex A7 and Qualcomm NAD) Flash: 512MB NAND Flash, RAM: 256MB DRAM WiFi Hotspot Remote Commands Remote Diagnostics Traffic and hazard Car positioning HW OS/BSP Platform Infrastructure Application UART Driver Linux OS SPI Driver UBI FS SDIO Driver WiFi Driver MMC Driver Ethernet QMI Phone Manager Location Manager Connection Manager Diagnostics Time Manager Persistent Storage Vehicle Service Thermal Power Management VBATTDead Reckoning Audio Manager Configuration Manager CAN LIN Life Cycle Manager IPC Router Call Manager SMS Manager Network Info Signal Strength MQTT Service Fleet xEV Provisioning OTA Updates Health Report Phone as a Key BUB
  7. 7. www.luxoft.com Emergency Call Functionality (1/6) 7 eCall - European traffic alert system (analogue is E911 in USA). Mandatory in all new cars sold within the EU from April 2018. The EU expects that eCall will save 2,500 lives each year and reduce the number of people who are seriously injured by 15%. Two types of eCall: automatic or manual. Once eCall service is triggered in vehicle, minimum set of data (data and time, GPS coordinates, vehicle information) is collected and transferred to the local emergency center. eCall feature is subject to certification in the country where the cars are manufactured and sold. Our team takes part in TCU certification from Asia to North America.
  8. 8. www.luxoft.com Emergency Call Functionality (2/6): overall 8 eCall is a 112 emergency call triggered either manually by vehicle occupants or automatically as soon as an in-vehicle sensor detects a serious collision. When activated, eCall establishes an audio connection with the relevant PSAP (Public Safety Answering Point). Using the audio connection, the Minimum Set of Data (MSD) is sent to the PSAP operator. The most important data is the accurate geo-location (and direction vector) of the collision scene, and the exact make and model of the vehicle. Knowing the exact location of the collision is vital allowing the rescue services to arrive much faster at the accident scene. Time saved translates into lives saved.
  9. 9. www.luxoft.com Emergency Call Functionality (3/6): sequence diagram 9 eCall normal communication sequence eCall quasi-normal communication sequence
  10. 10. www.luxoft.com Emergency Call Functionality (4/6): MSD 10 Minimum Set of Data (MSD) as expressed in the EN15722:2019 MSD MSD Version MSD Structure MSD ID Control VIN Vehicle Propulsion Storage Type Timestamp Vehicle Location Vehicle Direction Recent Vehicle Location N1 Recent Vehicle Location N2 Number Of Passengers Optional Additional Data Control Automatic Activation Test Call Position Can Be Trusted Vehicle Type Vehicle Propulsion Storage Type Gosoline Tank Present Diesel Tank Present Compressed Natural Gas Liquid Propane Gas Other Propulsion Storage Vehicle Location Position Latitude Position Longitude Recent Vehicle Location N1 Latitude Delta Longitude Delta Optional Additional Data Old Data Name Value Type Description MSD Version INTEGER (0…255) MSD format version MSD ID INTEGER (0…255) Message identifier, starting with 1 for each new eCall transaction and to be incremented with every application layer MSD retransmission following a new ‘Send MSD’ request after the incident event Automatic Activation BOOLEAN true = Automatic activation false = Manual activation Test Call BOOLEAN true = Test call false = Emergency Position Can Be Trusted BOOLEAN true = Position can be trusted false = Low confidence in position Vehicle Type ENUM The supported vehicle types are as follows ( passenger vehicle, buses and coaches, light commercial vehicles, heavy duty vehicles, motorcycles) VIN VIN number according to ISO 3779 Name Value Type Description Vehicle Propulsion Storage Type INTEGER (0…255) Contains information about the presence of propulsion storage inside the vehicle sending the MSD Timestamp INTEGER Timestamp of the initial data message generation within the current eCall incident event. The timestamp is represented in seconds elapsed since midnight January 1st, 1970 UTC. Vehicle Location The last known vehicle position determined at the latest moment possible before message generation. Vehicle Direction INTEGER (0…255) The vehicle’s last known real direction of travel (expressed in 2°- degrees steps from magnetic north (0– 358, clockwise) determined at the latest moment possible before message generation. Recent Vehicle Location N1 Known location of the vehicle some time before the generation of the data for the MSD message Recent Vehicle Location N2 Known location of the vehicle some time before recent location N1 Number Of Passengers INTEGER (0…255) Number of occupants in the vehicle according to available information Recent Vehicle Location N2 Latitude Delta Longitude Delta
  11. 11. www.luxoft.com Emergency Call Functionality (5/6): Dead Reckoning 11 GPS (1Hz) Tacho (5Hz or 10Hz) Gyro / Wheel Speeds (5Hz or 10Hz) (Delta) Distance determination (Delta) Heading determination Speed Heading Position calculation Kalman Filters Latitude/Longitude Position, Heading, Speed (5Hz) (Delta) Distance (Delta) Heading The navigation system then uses a Kalman filter to integrate the always-available sensor data with the accurate but occasionally unavailable position information from the satellite data into a combined position fix. Dead reckoning is today implemented in some high-end automotive navigation systems in order to overcome the limitations of GPS/GNSS technology alone. Satellite microwave signals are unavailable in parking garages and tunnels, and often severely degraded in urban canyons and near trees due to blocked lines of sight to the satellites or multipath propagation.
  12. 12. www.luxoft.com Emergency Call Functionality (6/6): 2 Wheeler (trigger criteria) 12 1. Riding over speed bums in a row with 2 different heights and different vehicle speeds. 3. Ascending a border at a inappropriate speed of 15 km/h 2. Descending a border at a inappropriate speed of 40 km/h 4. Wheelie. Riding with lifting up the front wheel with a minimum angle of 45° with a following strong rear wheel brake usage. 5. Stoppie. Riding with lifting up the rear wheel with a minimum angle of 30° by strong usage of the front wheel brake and a following sudden release oh the front wheel brake.
  13. 13. www.luxoft.com More Telematics Features 13 Remote functions: remote engine start/stop, remote door lock/unlock Telematics Unit functionality is not limited by eCall Traffic and Hazard information WiFi Hotspot inside your vehicle Remote diagnostics: diagnostics data transfer to service center Firmware Over The Air: update your system remotely Car positioning Battery charge status of electrical vehicles and obtaining the coordinates of the nearest charging station considering charge capacity
  14. 14. www.luxoft.com Remote Commands (1/2): interface with the Cloud Services Telematics Communication Protocol is designed to provide communication between Vehicle’s TCU and Cloud Services, based on MQTT (Message Queue Telemetry Transport - is an extremely lightweight publish/subscribe open source messaging transport) protocol for message communication leveraging TCP protocol. The payload, sent from the TCU to Cloud and vice-versa, is defined using GPB (Google Protocol Buffers is a language-neutral, platform-neutral extensible way of serializing data structures to define payloads for communications protocols, data storage…etc.) to take advantage of the name-value pair model for creating data structures. 14 Massage type Definition Cloud Request Cloud Request is Cloud initiated sequence where Cloud Service sends a request to Vehicle/TCU to perform any action or to get any information. Cloud Response Cloud Response is TCU’s response of a Cloud Request. It carries the success or failure of a command and optionally response data. In some cases, the Cloud Response will just indicate that the action is “in progress” and an Alert will be sent later indicating the success or failure of the action. Vehicle Info Update Vehicle Info Update is TCU/Vehicle initiated message when the vehicle identifies a condition to send data to the Cloud. Correlated Vehicle Info Update: message sent in response to a command is called correlated alert. Non-correlated Vehicle Info Update: message which is sent as part of a vehicle event and not in correspondence to a command is called non-correlated alert Vehicle Request Query is TCU initiated sequence to request some information from Cloud/SDN. Vehicle Response Cloud sends the response of a Query in Query Response message carrying the requested information subscription topic – named logical channel /<Region> /<VIN> /<Message type> Cloud Services MQTT Message Broker Vehicle topic topic
  15. 15. www.luxoft.com Remote Commands (2/2): example Remote functions: remote engine start/stop, remote door lock/unlock, etc. 15
  16. 16. www.luxoft.com Traffic and Hazard Information (1/2): overall Traffic and Hazard Information: knowing where the car is located through GPS receiver and destination, the TCU can obtain the traffic congestion and traffic incidents information from the cloud service. 16
  17. 17. www.luxoft.com Traffic and Hazard Information (2/2): in vehicle communication Traffic and Hazard data is much bigger than usual CAN message – 8 bytes (TP – 4096 bytes, TP-on-TP > 4096 bytes) 17
  18. 18. www.luxoft.com Remote Diagnostics: Unified Diagnostics Services 18 Service Overview Functional Unit SID Service Name Diagnostic and Communication Management $10 Diagnostic Session Control $11 ECU Reset $27 Security Access $28 Communication Control $3E Tester Present $83 Access Timing Parameter $84 Secured Data Transmission $85 Control DTC Setting $86 Response On Event $87 Link Control Data Transmission $22 Read Data By Identifier $23 Read Memory By Address $24 Read Scaling Data By Identifier $2A Read Data By Periodic Identifier $2C Dynamically Defi ne Data Identifi er $2E Write Data By Identifier $3D Write Memory By Address Stored Data Transmission $14 Clear Diagnostic Information $19 Read DTC Information Input Output Control $2F Input Output Control By Identifier Remote Activation of Routine $31 Routine Control Upload Download $34 Request Download $35 Request Upload $36 Transfer Data $37 Request Transfer Exit Common Response Codes Hex Description 10 General reject 11 Service not supported 12 Sub-Function not supported 13 Incorrect message length or invalid format 14 Response too long 21 Busy repeat request 22 Conditions not correct 24 Request sequence error 25 No response from sub-net component 26 Failure prevents execution of requested action 31 Request out of range 33 Security access denied 35 Invalid key 36 Exceeded number of attempts 37 Required time delay not expired 38-4F Reserved by Extended Data Link Security Document 70 Upload/Download not accepted 71 Transfer data suspended 72 General programming failure 73 Wrong Block Sequence Counter 78 Request correctly received, but response is pending 7E Sub-Function not supported in active session 7F Service not supported in active session Common Response Codes Hex Description 01 Report number of DTC by Status Mask 02 Report DTC by Status Mask 03 Report DTC Snapshot Identification 04 Report DTC Snapshot Record by DTC number 05 Report DTC Snapshot Record by Record number 06 Report DTC Extended Data Record by DTC number 07 Report number of DTC by Severity Mask Record 08 Report DTC by Severity Mask Record 09 Report Severity Information of DTC 0A Report Supported DTC 0B Report First Test Failed DTC 0C Report First Confirmed DTC 0D Report Most Recent Test Failed DTC 0E Report Most Recent Confirmed DTC 0F Report Mirror Memory DTC by Status Mask 10 Report Mirror Memory DTC Extended Data Record by DTC number 11 Report number of Mirror Memory DTC by Status Mask 12 Report number of Emissions Related OBD DTC by Status Mask 13 Report Emissions Related OBD DTC by Status Mask 14 Report DTC Fault Detection Counter 15 Report DTC with Permanent Status DID is Diagnostic ID DTC is Diagnostic Trouble Codes
  19. 19. www.luxoft.com Testing features 19 Automotive homologation is the process of certifying vehicles or a particular component in a vehicle that it has satisfied the requirements set by various statutory regulatory bodies. It is mandatory to get this approval to export automobile products or components. On power-up, according to EN 16062 the eCall IVS shall perform a self-test without attempting to connect to the cellular network: GNSS receiver, Speakers, Microphone, eCall Button, Status indicator, GNSS Antenna, Cellular Antenna , eSim card/chip, Backup battery
  20. 20. www.luxoft.com 20 This is just a beginning of the trip (5G and V2X)
  21. 21. www.luxoft.com 21 Two complementary transmission modes (1/2)
  22. 22. www.luxoft.com 22 Two complementary transmission modes (2/2)
  23. 23. www.luxoft.com Q&A
  24. 24. www.luxoft.com Thank you