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gender mainstreaming. (1).ppt

  1. Gender Mainstreaming Facilitator: Dr Tina Adusah-Karikari BPA L 400 G & Dev
  2. Organisational Culture • “Culture” is a set of socially-defined norms for behavior, art, beliefs, institutions and all other aspects of a given population that shapes its identity. • “Organizational culture” is the environment of the organization—how it perceives, thinks, feels about, and responds to situations affecting its purpose, program, and the way it is run. • Organizational culture is based on the history, important ideas, experiences, traditions, and language shared by members of the organization (CEDPA, 2006). BPA L 400 G & Dev
  3. Why Mainstream Gender at the Workplace? Organizations consist of people working together. Individuals offer different perceptions, learning experiences and attitudes to their working world.  Differences between individuals on the basis of personality or gender can be a source of developing creativity or root of conflict and frustration. BPA L 400 G & Dev
  4. Why Manage Gender at the Workplace? A good manager must recognize individual potential and harness talent to achieve organizational goals. In many cases, however, emphasis is placed on outcomes or results rather than the people.  It is important that managers recognize the many commonplace stereotypes about women and men employees that exist within the organisation. BPA L 400 G & Dev
  5. Gender Policies  Gender blind policies recognise no distinction between the sexes. It assumes that development benefits can be shared by all.  Gender neutral policy recognises and protects the interest of both men and women and leaves the redistribution of resources and responsibilities unchanged.  Gender specific policy: meet targeted needs of women or men within the existing redistribution of resources and responsibilities.  Gender redistributive policy refers to interventions intended to transform existing distribution of resources and responsibilities to create balanced gender relationship. BPA L 400 G & Dev
  6. • Are there specific policies, laws/procedures in your organization:? State them • Are they gender sensitive or blind? BPA L 400 G & Dev
  7. • Gender analysis is the systematic gathering and examining information on gender differences and social relations in order to identify understand and redress inequalities based on gender BPA L 400 G & Dev
  8. What is Gender Mainstreaming? Gender Mainstreaming is a process to ensure that both men and women have equal access to and control over resources, decision-making, and benefits at all stages of the development process and projects. 2 BPA L 400 G & Dev
  9. Overview of Gender Mainstreaming • Gender Mainstreaming is: “…. The process of assessing the implications for women and men of any planned action, including legislation, policies or programmes, in all areas and at all levels. It is a strategy for making women’s as well as men’s concerns and experiences an integral dimension of the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies and programmes in all political, economic and societal spheres so that women and men benefit equally and inequality is not perpetuated”. (Economic and Social Council for 1997, UN.) BPA L 400 G & Dev
  10. TAKE NOTE! BPA L 400 G & Dev A gender-mainstreaming approach does not look at women in isolation, but instead assesses the situation of women and men – both as actors in the development process, and as its beneficiaries.
  11. Overview of Gender Mainstreaming • It is a commitment to ensure that women’s as well as men’s concerns and experiences are integral to the design, implementation, M&E of all legislation, policies and programmes so that women and men benefit equally and inequality is not perpetuated. • It represents an attempt by gender advocates to build on the successes of the past and address some challenges. • Gender mainstreaming uses available resources in a way that ensures the greatest benefit for all (men, women, girls and boys). BPA L 400 G & Dev
  12. Essence of mainstreaming • Mainstreaming can reveal a need for changes in goals, strategies and actions to ensure that both women and men can influence, participate in and benefit from development processes. • This may lead to changes in organizations – structures, procedures and cultures – to create organizational environments which are conducive to the promotion of gender equality. BPA L 400 G & Dev
  13. BPA L 400 G & Dev What is the mainstream? • Inter-related set of dominant ideas and development directions, and decisions or actions taken in accordance with them: • Ideas - theories and assumptions • Practices – decisions and actions • These ideas and practices determine who gets what; Provide rationale for allocation of resources
  14. BPA L 400 G & Dev What is being mainstreamed? • The legitimacy of gender equality as a fundamental value that should be reflected in development choices and institutional practices: - Gender equality is recognised as not just a ‘women’s issue’ but a societal one - Gender equality goals influence mainstream economic and social policies that deliver major resources
  15. BPA L 400 G & Dev WHY GENDER MAINSTREAMING? • Shift in understanding of the Problem • Recognition that Gender Equality is integral to development goals • Realization that previous approaches were not resulting in real change in the position of women and gender equality
  16. What does it mean to be part of the mainstream? • Having equitable access to society’s resources, including socially valued rewards and opportunities • Equal participation in influencing what is valued, shaping development directions, and distributing opportunities BPA L 400 G & Dev
  17. Who is responsible for mainstreaming? Everybody, including • The political/administrative head of institution, • Professional staff • Auxiliary staff BPA L 400 G & Dev
  18. Who is responsible for gender mainstreaming GM Political Heads Professional Staff Auxiliary Staff Administrative Heads BPA L 400 G & Dev
  19. Basic Principles for Mainstreaming Gender Analysis / understanding of the history, context, rational, ideology and implications of gender equality in organisations at all levels. Ensuring that adequate accountability mechanisms for monitoring progress is established in MDAs and MMDAs. Ensuring the identification of issues and problems across all area(s) of activity should be such that gender differences and disparities can be Diagnosed BPA L 400 G & Dev
  20. BASIC PRINCIPLES CONT’D Identifying that gender is not an “individual or women’s issue” but societal and has implications for men as well as women. Commitment to equality Organizational/institutional structures and mechanisms in place to enhance gender mainstreaming to ensure day to day support for gender related initiatives and commitment BPA L 400 G & Dev
  21. BASIC PRINCIPLES CONT’D • Work with other collaborators in gender work both local and International bodies eg:, UN Agencies etc.  Strategic presence of National Machinery – Ministry of Gender, Children, Social Protection and Gender Desk Officers in all Ministries, Departments and Agencies to provide back stopping and to support gender mainstreaming initiatives.  Logistical resources including budget lines, office space and required equipment BPA L 400 G & Dev
  22. BASIC PRINCIPLES CONT’D  The adoption of gender mainstreaming policies and the formulation of specific mainstreaming strategies for all programmes and sectors.  Making gender issues an integral part of the organisation with enough budget / or resource allocation for it.  Human resource allocations - including training, recruitment, budget allocation etc. should consider the needs of men and women. BPA L 400 G & Dev
  23. Entry Points for Gender Mainstreaming • Institutional Level • Policy Level • Programs/Projects Level 3 BPA L 400 G & Dev
  24. Importance of Gender Mainstreaming  Gender analyses provides the basis of gender mainstreaming.  Before any project, decisions and plans are made on gender mainstreaming, there is the need to analyse the the gender equality situation and identify the expected results. It is thus a mandatory process of gender mainstreaming activities  It enhances the development of appropriate responses to address inequalities and meet the diverse needs of different categories of people. BPA L 400 G & Dev
  25.  Helps to identify any inequalities which might impede the impact of projects ensuring optimal contribution/impact of projects  Help to develop appropriate tools and technical capabilities  help planners design more efficient projects and improve overall productivity  Maps activities and resources of men and women in a community and highlight the differences BPA L 400 G & Dev
  26. A Strategy for Gender Mainstreaming • Clear Policy • Assessment of past Performance • Action Plan • Effective Partnerships 4 BPA L 400 G & Dev
  27. What is Gender Analysis? • Gender Analysis is the process of analyzing information in order to ensure that development benefits and resources are effectively and equitably targeted to both women and men, and to successfully anticipate and avoid any negative impacts development interventions may have on women or gender relations. • “A methodology for collecting and processing information about gender. It provides disaggregated data by sex, and an understanding of the social construction of gender roles, and how labor is divided and valued.” (UNDP) • Gender Analysis is conducted through a variety of tools and frameworks. 5 BPA L 400 G & Dev
  28. BPA L 400 G & Dev
  29. Gender Analyses  Gender Analysis is a systematic process used to highlight the differences between women, men, girls and boys in terms of distribution of power, privileges, resources, and limitations in a particular context.  It provides information on gender differences in relation to their division of labour, roles and responsibilities, relative conditions of living and positions in society.  It also looks at how gender is expressed in a particular context, including norms relating to sexuality and identity. BPA L 400 G & Dev
  30. BPA L 400 G & Dev
  31. When Do You Conduct a Gender Analysis? • Gender Analysis should be undertaken at all stages of a program/project cycle, including: • Identification of the project or activity; • Planning or design of the activity; • Implementation; and • Monitoring and evaluation. 6 BPA L 400 G & Dev
  32. Two key questions • 1. How will the varied roles and status of women and men within the household, community, workplace, etc. affect the work to be undertaken? • This question ensures that the differences in the roles and status of women and men are examined and any inequalities or differences that will limit the goals of a project or activity are considered in the project or activity design. • 2. How will the intended results of the work affect women and men differently? • This question considers the possible effect of a project or activity results on women and men so that the design is attuned to ensure equitable and sustainable impact. BPA L 400 G & Dev
  33. Variables • age • Social class • Ethnicity • Culture • race • religion and other ideologies • geographical environment • economic environment • political environment BPA L 400 G & Dev
  34. Principles of Gender Analyses • Be very specific • It is difficult if not impossible to de everything. Be specific with the responses you want • Critically examine what has been done previously • Look at what has been done by Government, NGOs etc • It should be based on relevance and usefulness • Include the perspectives of both sexes BPA L 400 G & Dev
  35. Principles, cont’d • Inclusive • Discuss with women and men in the countries and/or communities where the project will be implemented to solicit their perceptions of whether the project will result in equal outcomes for men and women and to reveal gender issues that may not have been considered in the initial stages of project design. • Make each group visible • -important to use gendered language BPA L 400 G & Dev
  36. Framework for gender analysis  Whilst the focus of this module is not on the framework of gender analyses, it is significant to indicated that many frameworks are available for gender analyses depending on various factors including the contexts and goals of your project/activity  The Harvard Framework was developed to gather data mainly at the community and household level. It enhances information organisation and can be adopted in many situations. This framework has four main components: the activity profile, access and control profile, influencing factors and checklist. The concentration for this section will be on the first two BPA L 400 G & Dev
  37. Gender Analysis The activity profile is a tool which answers a key question in gender analyses: Who does what? The access and resource control profile identifies who owns which resources to conduct the task in the Activity profile. The access and resource control profile looks at who actually controls the resources and not simply who has access to the resources. The key question here is, Who has access and control over which resources? BPA L 400 G & Dev
  38. Gender Analysis BPA L 400 G & Dev
  39. Key Questions in Conducting a Gender Analysis • Who does what? Are the roles, responsibilities, and priorities of men and women, both within and outside the household, different? • Who owns what? Who controls what? Who has access to what? Are there differences among women and men? • If there are differentials in the above two areas, what are the institutional, economic, and social factors that underlie, support, or influence them? 9 BPA L 400 G & Dev
  40. An activity profile for an agricultural project Activity Women Girls Me n Boys Productive activity Ploughing the land Weeding Preparation of Seedling Sowing Harvesting Animal breeding Transplanting Hoeing Income generating activity Household chores Collecting firewood Collecting water Feeding cattle Marketing farm proceeds BPA L 400 G & Dev
  41. Activity Wome n Girls Men Boys Household activities Cooking Caring for the child Caring for the sick Socio-political activities Participation in meetings Participation in weddings Participation funerals BPA L 400 G & Dev
  42. Access and control profile Access Women Men Control Women Men Resources Land Bulls and bullocks Equipment Labour Education /training Other Benefit Education Ownership of properties Political power Prestige Access to credit Possession of money from sale of BPA L 400 G & Dev
  43. How Do You Conduct a Gender Analysis? • Collect relevant data; • Identify relevant gender issues; and • Integrate relevant gender considerations into planning, design and implementation of a proposed development intervention. 7 BPA L 400 G & Dev
  44. What Information Do You Need for a Gender Analysis? • Collection of Relevant Data: Sex–disaggregated information for analysis (What is the current situation?) • Identification of Relevant Gender Issues: Understand the institutional, economic, social, and political contexts (What are the differentials and what are the constraints?) • Integration of Gender Considerations into Design and Implementation of a Proposed Intervention: Understand the priorities and needs of both men and women affected by the project (what do they need/want?) 8 BPA L 400 G & Dev
  45. Indicators for Gender Mainstreaming BPA L 400 G & Dev A gender policy in place, used and reported on regularly Periodic briefing on gender and reported regularly Gender base statistics data in place, updated and reported regularly Programme (s) to support national efforts in gender equality activities Specific sets of indicators in place for tracking progress on gender equality activities. Gender and gender mainstreaming training and capacity building activities, planned and implemented periodically •.
  46. BENEFITS OF GENDER MAINSTREAMING • Concerns of men, women, girls as well as boys are taken into consideration. • Women’s and men’s participation and contribution towards development at the local level is considered; and • It changes the unequal power and gender relations between men and women, reduce poverty and create the basis for sustainable development of society. BPA L 400 G & Dev
  47. Criteria for Good and Gender-Sensitive Governance • Participation • Transparency • Legitimacy • Effectiveness – Appointment of Gender Focal Persons: To coordinate, facilitate and monitor all the processes of equality / equity promotion by overseeing activities, mobilising resources and being a catalysts for change within and outside the organisations at all levels. • BPA L 400 G & Dev
  48. • Networking: Connect people - individual professionals and groups together as they integrate gender into their responsibilities and strategize to promote gender mainstreaming in their organisations and communities’ programmes. BPA L 400 G & Dev
  49. Challenges to gender mainstreaming – Lack/limited political will at the Decentralized Level – Lack of a clear gender mainstreaming (GM) policy or strategy – Inability to implement a coherent and consistent GM strategy – Lack of capacity at the decentralized levels – Frequent transfers of trained staff BPA L 400 G & Dev
  50. CONT’D • Lack of sex disaggregated data for gender analysis • Lack of appropriate personnel at the lower levels • Socio – cultural factors (inheritance, traditional and religious beliefs etc) • Inability to hold local government and government agencies accountable for non performance in mainstreaming gender • Limited support for Gender champion i.e. GDOs/GFPs BPA L 400 G & Dev
  51. BPA L 400 G & Dev SOME INDICATORS OF ACTION ON GENDER MAINSTREAMING • A gender mainstreaming strategy in place and used, reported upon regularly • A gender mainstreaming brief kit prepared • A gender profile for organisation or institution in place • Gender mainstreaming training and capacity building activities, planned and completed
  52. BPA L 400 G & Dev INDICATORS cont’d • A mechanism for networking with like-minded institutions in place • Specific sets of indicators for tracking progress on gender equality(including equity), gender-sensitive policies and changes in gender relations over time, in place and in use.
  53. BPA L 400 G & Dev Mainstreaming Approaches summary • Gender Policies • Gender Audit to reveal gaps • Capacity building, resource allocation, training and information dissemination • Responsibility allocation • Accountability systems; actual/potential capacity, induction and performance appraisal • Use of internal and external experts
  54. BPA L 400 G & Dev Summary cont’d • Programmatic, institutional and personal guideline on accepted standards • Affirmative action, numerical strength and stereotype elimination • Gender responsive human resource policies • Mechanisms for sustainability • Documenting experiences and lessons • Building alliances • Leading by example