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Introduction to Bioinformatics.

Slides contain information about why bioinformatics appeared,
who bioinformaticians are, what they do, what kind of cool applications and challenges in bioinformatics there are.
Slides were prepared for the Bioinformatics seminar 2016, Institute of Computer Science, University of Tartu.

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Introduction to Bioinformatics.

  1. 1. Introduction to bioinformatics Elena Sügis elena.sugis@ut.ee Bioinformatics Seminar MTAT.03.242, 2016
  2. 2. ?? ?
  3. 3. VSVS Questions we ask
  4. 4. Questions we ask
  5. 5. Questions we ask
  6. 6. Image credit:https://siteman.wustl.edu/glossary/cdr0000046470/ 1014 cells in human body 23 000 genes 23 pairs of chromosomes 3 billion pairs
  7. 7. Cell size and scale http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/cells/scale/
  8. 8. Central dogma What is DNA? What is the difference between DNA and RNA? Image credit: Genome Research Limited 100 000 different proteins 23 000 genes
  9. 9. Technology Image credit: Genome Research Limited Mass spectrometry Sequencing technologies v v v
  10. 10. Measuring levels of gene expression CELL DNA ON ONOFF RNA PROTEIN OFF G1 G2 G3 G4 Gene products carry out cellular function
  11. 11. v Gene expression profile Gene Expression profile Expression level G1 OFF 0 G2 ON 30 G3 ON 20 G4 OFF 0
  12. 12. Each cell has its own gene expression profile Gene Expression profile Expression level G1 OFF 0 G2 ON 30 G3 ON 20 G4 OFF 0 Gene Expression profile Expression level G1 OFF 0 G2 ON 30 G3 ON 20 G4 ON 20 HEALTHY CELL CANCER CELL
  13. 13. Single Nucleotide polymorphism •  variation in a single nucleotide that occurs at a specific position in the genome, where each variation is present to some appreciable degree within a population (e.g. >1%) •  underlie differences in our susceptibility to disease Image credit: Wikipedia
  14. 14. Experiments
  15. 15. Good old times Science knowledgeexperimenthypothesis analysis v v v
  16. 16. How we do it now lots of experiments v analysis Science knowledge hypothesis v v
  17. 17. Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field that develops methods and software tools for understanding biological data
  18. 18. Bioinformatics is •  an interdisciplinary field •  that develops methods and software tools •  for understanding biological data
  19. 19. Moore’s law Cost per genome
  20. 20. Why do we need bioinformaticians?
  21. 21. Because Excel can’t help anymore
  22. 22. Why do we need bioinformaticians? •  Amount of generated biological data requires sophisticated data analysis and management •  Programmers & statisticians lack biological knowledge •  Biologists don’t program •  These two don’t understand each other Slide is inspired by from “How to be a bioinformatician” by Christian Frech
  23. 23. Biologist talks to statistician http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hz1fyhVOjr4
  24. 24. What do bioinformaticians do?
  25. 25. What do bioinformaticians do? Word cloud from manuscript titles published in Bioinformatics from Jan 2013 to April 2014 Slide credit: “How to be a bioinformatician” by Christian Frech
  26. 26. Machine learning Algorithms Proteomics Black magic Sequences Modeling Bioinformatics is a broad field
  27. 27. What Does the Perfect Bioinformatician Look Like?
  28. 28. Computer Science
  29. 29. Computer Science Biology
  30. 30. Computer Science Biology Statistics
  31. 31. Perfect bioinformatician Computer Science Biology Statistics
  32. 32. Data comes in different forms Slide credit: D.Fishman, Introduction to ML in bioinformatics
  33. 33. Data ≠ Knowledge Slide credit: D.Fishman, Introduction to ML in bioinformatics
  34. 34. R. Matthiesen (ed.), Bioinformatics Methods in Clinical Research, Methods in Molecular Biology 593, DOI 10.1007/978-1-60327-194-3 2, © Humana Press, a part of Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010
  35. 35. Adopted from P.Vincent http://videolectures.net/deeplearning2015_vincent_machine_learning/ What is the main ingredient?
  36. 36. What is the main ingredient? Adopted from P.Vincent http://videolectures.net/deeplearning2015_vincent_machine_learning/
  37. 37. Databases Data management systems Data source
  38. 38. Simple data analysis pipeline Data Black Magic Result high quality data machine learning method awesome result
  39. 39. Simple data analysis pipeline Data Black Magic Result poor quality data machine learning method not so awesome result
  40. 40. Data Preprocessing Clean
  41. 41. Massage your data
  42. 42. 80 %
  43. 43. Predictive modeling
  44. 44. Tools & Services
  45. 45. Understand the disease better
  46. 46. Make more precise diagnosisML in Bioinformatics (part II)
  47. 47. Medical Imaging Cancer Images credit: D.Fishman, Introduction to ML in bioinformatics
  48. 48. image by Krista Fisher et al. Genetic risk assessment
  49. 49. Genetic risk assessment
  50. 50. Genetic risk assessment
  51. 51. Pharmacogenetics
  52. 52. Personalized medicine http://www.pfizer.ie/personalized_med.cfm
  53. 53. Population genomics large-scale comparison of DNA sequences of populations
  54. 54. What do these books contain? The Wellcome Human Genome Library in London (Left CC: Russ London, Right Source: Wellcome Collection)
  55. 55. This is a single human genome ~4GB The Wellcome Human Genome Library in London (Left CC: Russ London, Right Source: Wellcome Collection)
  56. 56. Moore’s law Cost per genome
  57. 57. Big Data: Astronomical or Genomical?, Zachary et al, PlosOne Biology 2015 The Age Of Big Data
  58. 58. Labs that produce data Research groups that can Labs that produce data Experts who can analyze data Analyze that
  59. 59. Data analysis Need to develop new: •  Preprocessing methods •  Analysis pipelines •  Methodology •  Algorithmic solutions •  Tools
  60. 60. IF YOU TORTURE THE DATA LONG ENOUGH IT WILL CONFESS TO ANYTHING Ronald Coase, Economist, Nobel Prize winner
  61. 61. http://baranzinilab.ucsf.edu/integration-large-scale-omics-data-sets Data Integration
  62. 62. Data storage The amount of sequencing data created is growing at a faster rate than economically available storage http://geschwindlab.neurology.ucla.edu/protocols/next-generation-sequencing
  63. 63. N Goldman et al. Nature 000, 1-4 (2013) doi:10.1038/nature11875 Using DNA as a digital archive media store sequenced DNA information in … DNA
  64. 64. N Goldman et al. Nature 000, 1-4 (2013) doi:10.1038/nature11875 Scaling properties of DNA-based storage If the cost of DNA synthesis falls by two orders of magnitude, it will become a sensible way to store data for the medium term (below 50 years)
  65. 65. Challenges •  Need of new compression methods •  Data integration methods •  Lack of specialists •  Need for new: –  Analysis pipelines –  Methodology –  Algorithmic solutions –  Tools
  66. 66. Challenges of being bioinformatician •  Biology is complex, not black and white –  As many exceptions as rules (e.g.: define “gene”) –  No single optimal solution to a problem –  Results interpretable in many ways (story telling, cherry picking) •  Understanding the biological question •  Field is moving incredibly fast –  Lack of standards, immature/abandoned software –  Much time spent on collecting/cleaning-up data, troubleshooting errors •  Hundreds of software tools and databases out there –  Easy to get lost –  Important to understand their strengths and weaknesses
  67. 67. Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE
  68. 68. Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE
  69. 69. Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE
  70. 70. Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE
  71. 71. Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE
  72. 72. Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE
  73. 73. Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE
  74. 74. Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE
  75. 75. Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE
  76. 76. Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE
  77. 77. Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE
  78. 78. Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE
  79. 79. Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE
  80. 80. Genes are us… and them.SOURCE:,JAVIER,HERRERO,,EUROPEAN,MOLECULAR,BIOLOGY,LABORATORY— EUROPEAN,BIOINFORMAT,ICS,INSTITUTE 50%

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