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MODULE 4 (Art and Philosophy- Imitationism and Representationism).pdf

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MODULE 4 (Art and Philosophy- Imitationism and Representationism).pdf

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. Lesson 4.1. Imitation Theory of Art and Beauty Lesson 4.2. Philosophical Theory of Music Lesson 4.3. Representation Theory of Art MODULE 4 Art and Philosophy: Imitationism and Representationism 2
  3. 3. At its most basic, the representational theory states that the fundamental, definitive quality of art is the ability to capture some aspect of reality. In short, if it's not a reflection of something that actually exists, then it's not art. This means that art can be defined foremost as an extension of human perception; it's a way to reflect the ways that the mind perceives and understands reality. The roots of representational theory date all the way back to ancient Greece, when imitation theory was the foundation of artistic principles. According to the ancient Greeks, the definitive role of art is to imitate nature in its most perfect forms. The aesthetic theory known as imitationalism applies to artworks that look realistic. These artworks contain recognizable, realistic looking objects and scenes that closely imitate what we see in the real world. If the primary purpose of the artwork is to show us how something looks in real life, then it belongs in this category. Imitational artworks are sometimes referred to as "representational" because they represent what we see in the real world. Chapter Overview 3
  4. 4. Readings Ancient Civilization: Ancient Greece. https://www.ushistory.org/civ/5e.asp. Bedard, M. (May 31, 2020) Plato’s Allegory of the Cave: Summary and Meaning for Screenwriters. https://www.studiobinder.com/blog/platos-allegory-of-the-cave/ Plato Allegory of the Cave. Republic, VII 514 a, 2 to 517a, 7. Translation by Thomas Sheehan. Videos What is Art? maARTe ako. https://www.youtube. com/results?search_query=ma arte+ako. 1. Examine the imitation theory by Plato as a philosophy of art and beauty. REFERENCES Lesson 4.1. Imitation Theory of Art and Beauty 4
  5. 5. Can you determine which among the artworks are alive? https://www.yo utube.com/wat ch?v=TjuV7S A6fj4 What is ART? - maARTe ako How do arts affects your perception of being alive? 5
  6. 6. The easiest thing is to imagine Plato as an enemy of art because he viewed art products of all kinds, whether poetry, theatre or painting as inferior copies of the ultimate reality. But it should be borne in mind that Plato's primary aim was not to evaluate the worth of aesthetic pleasure but to point out that representation through art was inferior to the ultimate truth. His concerns were not artistic but philosophical. Plato’s theory on art from The Republic claims that art is nothing more than a copy of a copy of an ideal, thrice removed. ❑ Using a couch as an example, Plato believed that the true artist was god, who then inspired the carpenter, who then inspired the painter, “thus we have three forms of couches and three overseers of their manufacture - the painter, the carpenter, and god.” ❑ He believed that art imitates reality, that it imitates the objects and events of ordinary life, be it images of nature, or a photograph of a ballerina. He saw art is nothing more than an imitation of people, places, and things that already exist. 6
  7. 7. PLATO 348-267 BC The Dialogue: The Republic IMITATIONISM Idealist Theory of Art KEY CONCEPTS 7
  8. 8. Imitation define as: ▪ Applies to artworks to create a realistic appearance. ▪ Realistic looking objects and scenes that clearly mimic what we see in the world around us. ▪ he main purpose of imitationism is to portray the subject matter as realistic as possible. Plato discussed art forms like tragedy, along with sculpture, painting, pottery and architecture, not as 'art' but as 'techne' or skilled craft. He regarded them all as instances of 'mimesis' or imitation. Plato criticised all imitations, including tragedies, for failing to depict the eternal ideal realities ('Forms' or 'Ideas'). Instead they offered mere imitations of things in our world, which themselves were copies of the Ideas. The easiest thing is to imagine Plato as an enemy of art because he viewed art products of all kinds, whether poetry, theatre or painting as inferior copies of the ultimate reality. But it should be borne in mind that Plato's primary aim was not to evaluate the worth of aesthetic pleasure but to point out that representation through art was inferior to the ultimate truth. His concerns were not artistic but philosophical. For Plato, the fact that art imitates (mimesis), meant that it leads a viewer further and further away from the truth towards an illusion. This belief leads Plato to the determination that art leads to dangerous delusion. 8
  9. 9. Raphael, The School of Athens, 1511 Raphael, The School of Athens (Detail) Leonardo as Plato Michelangelo as Aristotle IMITATIONISM BY PLATO 9
  10. 10. What is beauty? What is the essence of beautiful things? What is art? What is the essence of art? PHILOSOPHY OF BEAUTY Mona Lisa, 1503-06 Oil &tempera on wood 78 x 52cm The nature of beauty is one of the most enduring and controversial themes in Western philosophy, and is—with the nature of art—one of the two fundamental issues in philosophical aesthetics. Beauty has traditionally been counted among the ultimate values, with goodness, truth, and justice Leonardo da Vinci was known as the Renaissance Man. He helped society of the early 1500’s to see artists as genii. The artist portrayed Mona Lisa as elegantly dressed in the fashion of the day, and unadorned by jewelry. It is as if the artist wanted nothing to distract attention from her face, and her face is the epitome of Renaissance masterwork representing female beauty at that time. In fact, her gaze is mesmerizing and yet shyly seductive. In his paintings like Mona Lisa, few lines are evident rather, sfumato techniques have been employed. Sfumato is an Italian word used to describe changes of color, and especially tone, from light to dark by gradual stages. ARTIST WHO WAS CONSIDERED TO HAVE WORKED AND FIT WITHIN THE IMITATIONALISM STYLE OF ART 10
  11. 11. But for Plato’s theory on art from The Republic claims that art is nothing more than a copy of a copy of an ideal, thrice removed. ❑ Using a couch as an example, Plato believed that the true artist was god, who then inspired the carpenter, who then inspired the painter, “thus we have three forms of couches and three overseers of their manufacture - the painter, the carpenter, and god.” ❑ He believed that art imitates reality, that it imitates the objects and events of ordinary life, be it images of nature, or a photograph of a ballerina. He saw art is nothing more than an imitation of people, places, and things that already exist. 11
  12. 12. AESTHETICS BEAUTY UGLY is is is Logic Truth Falsity Metaphysics Reality Illusion Epistemology Knowledge Ignorance Ethics Good Evil Metaphysics :The branch of philosophy that deals with the first principles of things, including such concepts as being, knowing, substance, essence, cause, identity, time, and space. Epistemology: comes from the Greek words “episteme” and “logos”. “Episteme” can be translated as “knowledge” or “understanding” or “acquaintance”, while “logos” can be translated as “account” or “argument” or “reason” 12
  13. 13. IMITATIONISM BY PLATO WORLD OF BEING WORLD OF BECOMING WORLD OF ART REALITY Unchanging Eternal APPEARANCE Changing Temporal IMITATION Illusory Universal FORM Individual THING Illusion COPY Material Chair PHYSICAL Painting of Chair ARTISTIC Idea of Chair METAPHYSICAL Philosophy Art Studies Knowledge Idea of Beauty Beautiful Things Beautiful Artworks Ignorance Artist Demiurge 13
  14. 14. ART Beauty of Imitation ILLUSION IDEA Beauty of Forms REALITY MATTER Beauty of Things APPEARANCE Metaphysical Chair: Idea Physical Chair: Thing Copy of Physical Chair: Art IMITATIONISM Made by a Painter Made by a Carpenter Contemplated by Philosopher 14
  15. 15. IDEA OF BEAUTY ROSE DAWSON In the Film Titanic “Artistic Beauty” KATE WINSLET In This World “Physical Beauty” World of Art IMITATION World of Becoming APPEARANCE World of Being REALITY IDEA In the World of Ideas “Real Beauty” 15
  16. 16. Is a concept devised by the philosopher to reflect on the nature of belief versus knowledge. The allegory states that there exists prisoners chained together in a cave. Behind the prisoners is a fire, and between the fire and the prisoners are people carrying puppets or other objects. This casts a shadow on the other side of the wall. The prisoners watch these shadows, believing them to be real. Plato asserts that one prisoner could become free. He finally sees the fire and realizes the shadows are fake. This prisoner could escape from the cave and discover there is a whole new world outside that they were previously unaware of. This prisoner would believe the outside world is so much more real than that in the cave. He would try to return to free the other prisoners. Upon his return, he is blinded because his eyes are not accustomed to actual sunlight. The chained prisoners would see this blindness and believe they will be harmed if they try to leave the cave. Plato’s "Allegory of the Cave" 16
  17. 17. PLATO’S ALLEGORY OF THE CAVE Outside the Cave REAL WORLD ART Inside the Cave THIS WORLD 17
  18. 18. PLATO’S ALLEGORY OF THE CAVE Inside the Cave THIS WORLD Outside the Cave REAL WORLD ART 18
  19. 19. PLATO’S ALLEGORY OF THE CAVE Outside the Cave REAL WORLD ART Inside the Cave THIS WORLD 19
  20. 20. IMITATIONISM BY PLATO ▪ Things in this world are beautiful as appearances of the reality or idea of beauty or the universal form of beauty existing in the world of being. ▪ Art is beautiful as imitations of things in this world. ▪ Art is the imitation of the appearance of reality IMITATION OF THE APPEARANCE OF THE REAL CHAIR Van Gogh, Chair with a Pipe Leonardo, Portrait of Ginebra d’Benci IMITATION OF A PHYSICAL WOMAN 20
  21. 21. Beauty in the Human Form Ancient Greek sculptures were typically made of either stone or wood and very few of them survive to this day. Most Greek sculpture was of the freestanding, human form (even if the statue was of a god) and many sculptures were nudes. The Greeks saw beauty in the naked human body. Early Greek statues called kouros were rigid and stood up straight. Over time, Greek statuary adopted a more natural, relaxed pose with hips thrust to one side, knees and arms slightly bent, and the head turned to one side. Other sculptures depicted human action, especially athletics. A good example is Myron's Discus Thrower Another famous example is a sculpture of Artemis the huntress. The piece, called "Diana of Versailles," depicts the goddess of the hunt reaching for an arrow while a stag leaps next to her. Among the most famous Greek statues is the Venus de Milo, which was created in the second century B.C.E. The sculptor is unknown, though many art historians believe Praxiteles to have created the piece. This sculpture embodies the Greek ideal of. 21
  22. 22. CLASSICAL GREEK SCULPTURE Imitation of the Idea of Beauty Polycritus, Doryphorus Spear Bearer)450 BC Kouros, Ancient Greek Sculpture 600 BC Praxiteles Hermis 340 BC Praxiteles Aphrodite of Cnidos Venus de Milo, 150 BC Myron Discobolus (Disk Thrower) 340 BC PERFECT POSITION OF THE HUMAN BODY Position of rest between two movements 22
  23. 23. Evolution of Beauty 23
  24. 24. The imitationalism or mimetic theory of art claims that artwork is best when it imitates life. We’ve all experienced seeing an artwork from a distance and mistaking it for the real thing, rather than a replica. Those pieces are prized under imitationalism. The most realistic, the better. Society Nothing is more natural than for children to pretend and for human beings to create, using their imagination. Thus, any human society which is healthy will be a society where there is imitative art. The concept of art as imitation is also used in the sense of representation (representation of reality or nature). History Art does not teach us history because it is imitation, but because art imitates human actions, good art has to represent or depict character, character traits and personality. These later things are real, so it teaches us moral and psychological lessons. Education What art is imitating or representation is real and applicable to our lives. Art also displays and transmits this knowledge in a unique way. The audience are made to understand the universals at work in the drama or poetry and in that sense they internalize the knowledge of human nature and morality utilized by the playwright, poet or/the novelist. The Roles of Imitation Theory of Art : 24
  25. 25. Artist: Michael Angelo Date: 1512 Medium used: Fresco Title: Creation of Adam Question Can you draw a conclusion from this caricature inspired from the painting of Michael Angelo? 25
  26. 26. Readings Shimamura, A. (2012). Towards a Science of Aesthetics. A. Shimamura & S. Palmer, Aesthetic Science: Connecting Minds, Brains and Experiences. Oxford University Press. Analytic Perspectives in the Philosophy of Music. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. https://iep.utm.edu/music-an/ Videos Corelli: Sonata XII: La Follia: Music of the Spheres. (Jan. 20, 2015). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uKj2DzFt1zQ J.S. Bach – Toccata and Fugue in D minor BWV 565. (Sept. 29, 2010).https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nnuq9PXbywA Voice of Ascension - Palestrina: "Credo" from Missa Papae Marcelli. (Jan. 29, 2020). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W0QEMXSitrc Josquin Desprez: Ave Maria (Motet). (April 7, 2012). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kxLv2pPiQVI Ave Maria. (Jan. 8, 2017). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-9wxPWtvLlA Monks singing Gregorian Chant in a Catholic Benedictine Seminary. (Jan. 29, 2012). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CBwh1OXw6uI Gregorian - Losing My Religion (2011 Live). (April 20, 2012).https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YeAGO5OHJX8 Gregorian - My Heart Will Go On. (Sept. 24, 2012). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B7F71KXq-1M Swan Lake, Tchaikovsky - Dance of the Little Swans. (March 18, 2016).https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xd2nTXsivHs Muzzarelli, S. (Dec. 3, 2017). The Relationship between Music and the Mind. http://bit.ly/3sHXy2O 1. Interpret imitationism as the philosophical basis of ancient Greek art and of some classical compositions in music. REFERENCES Lesson 4.2. Philosophical Theory of Music 26
  27. 27. “If you want to keep your brain engaged throughout the aging process, listening to or playing music is a great tool. It provides a total brain workout.” Research has shown that listening to music can reduce anxiety, blood pressure, and pain as well as improve sleep quality, mood, mental alertness, and memory. 27
  28. 28. Key Take Aways: I hope you’ve found the information presented interesting and informative. For something so trivial like music there is so much to be learned about it. 1. Emotion: Music can influence our emotions by evoking responses from different parts of our brains. 2. Learning: Exposure to music from a young age will have a positive impact on learning ability to learn. 3. Memory: Music impacts our memory in that when a song is linked to a certain piece of information it is easier to recall that information when we hear the song. 28
  29. 29. Music isn’t simply sounds we hear. It is sounds we listen to. Analogously to natural languages, the process of listening to music involves understanding it as music. But how exactly should this understanding be characterized? Contemporary analytic philosophy has produced a debate regarding the way in which we should describe basic musical understanding. The philosophy of music attempts to answer questions concerning the nature and value of musical practices. Philosophy of music has attempted to solve the riddle of musical value: how is pure music valuable to our lives if it makes no reference whatsoever to our world? The most original solutions to this problem have tried to show that it is precisely the music’s abstractness that explains its value and appeal. 29
  30. 30. “Who am I?” THE BASIC QUESTION IN THE HUMANITIES Is sometimes expressed thru music KEY CONCEPTS https://www. youtube.com /watch?v=m Bcqria2wmg PHILOSOPHICAL THEORY OF MUSIC Concerns the structure of the Physical Universe -PYTHAGORAS COSMOLOGICAL EPISTEMOLOGICAL Concerns the Nature of Human Knowledge -PLATO 30
  31. 31. Where does it come from? KNOWLEDGE OF REALITY PHYSICAL UNIVERSE Where does it leads to? COSMOLOGICAL THEORY OF MUSIC PYTHAGORAS 570-490 BC Mathematician Astronomer Philosopher THE SOUND OF MUSIC THE SOUND OF THE UNIVERSE According to Pythagoras, “There is geometry in the humming of the strings; there is music in the spacing of the spheres.” 31
  32. 32. Music is the imitation of cosmic sound. Music of the Spheres Human Music Corelli, Sonata XII, Music of the Spheres "The eyes are made for astronomy, the ears for harmony, and these are sister sciences." PYTHAGORAS https://www.yout ube.com/watch?v =uKj2DzFt1zQ 32
  33. 33. EPISTEMOLOGICAL THEORY OF MUSIC BY PLATO SPIRITUAL SOUL MUSIC =Intelligent Soul/Mind Knowledge “If gymnastics is for the body, so as music is for the soul.” PHYSICAL BODY GYMNASTICS =Strong Body Health 33
  34. 34. MIMETIC ART DEGREE OF TRUTH APPEARANCES Realm of Opinion and Error IMITATION Realm of Ignorance LADDER OF KNOWLEDGE REALITY Realm of Knowledge LITERATURE HISTORY BIOLOGY PHYSICS MUSIC ASTRONOMY MATHEMATICS PHILOSOPHY Ideas or Forms Painting & Sculpture Biographies & Stories Numbers Harmony of Spheres Heavenly Bodies Earthly Bodies Animals & Plants Societies Bach, Toccata and Fugue in D Minor https://www.you tube.com/watch? v=Nnuq9PXbywA 34
  35. 35. Theological Theory of Music AUGUSTINE “Singing is praying twice over.” Sing a new song unto the Lord. Let your song be sung from mountains high. Sing a new song unto the Lord, singing alleluiah. THEOLOGY ON THE COMMUNION OF SAINTS HEAVEN God, Mary, Saints, Angels CHURCH TRIUMPHANT CHURCH MILITANT EARTH People Alive CHURCH SUFFERING HELL Moral Sinners PURGATORY Venial Sinners Prayer=Music Prayer = Music Palestrina, Credo https://www.yout ube.com/watch?v= W0QEMXSitrc 35
  36. 36. RELIGIOUS AND SACRED MUSIC LITURGICAL MUSIC Monophonic: One Sounded Music GREGORIAN CHANT Polyphonic: Many Sounded Music MOTET: Sacred Choral Music Renaissance Composers: Giovanni Palestrina Joaquin Des Prez PIPE ORGAN MUSIC MEDIEVAL AND RENAISSANCE MUSIC Des Prez (1450-1521) Misa Pange Lingua Motet LATIN movere ENGLISH “to move” Movement of many voices counterpointing one another https://www. youtube.com/ watch?v=kxLv 2pPiQVI 36
  37. 37. Ave Maria, Gregorian Chant 800 AD All voices singing in unison Pope Gregory I 590 AD https://www.youtu be.com/watch?v=- 9wxPWtvLlA GREGORIAN CHANT Glory to God in the highest, and peace to his people on earth. Lord God, heavenly king, almighty God and Father, we worship you, we give you thanks, we praise you for your glory. 37
  38. 38. Master of Chant, Losing My Religion, 1988 (Gregorian Rock Version) https://www. youtube.com /watch?v=Ye AGO5OHJX8 https://www.y outube.com/ watch?v=B7F 71KXq-1M Leoninus, Alleluia Angelus Domini https://www.y outube.com/ watch?v=CB wh1OXw6uI DEFINITION OF ART BASED ON IMITATIONISM Imitation of the appearances of people, things or events PAINTING SCULPTURE Imitation of the sound of the universe MUSIC Imitation of movements of animals, nature or things DANCE Imitation of life through language LITERATURE Imitation of life through action and dialogue DRAMA Four Little Swans https://www. youtube.com /watch?v=Xd 2nTXsivHs 38
  39. 39. Readings Shimamura, A. (2012). Towards a Science of Aesthetics. A. Shimamura & S. Palmer, Aesthetic Science: Connecting Minds, Brains and Experiences. Oxford University Press. Representation (arts). Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Representation_(arts) Cooper, D. (1999). Theories of Art. Companion to Aesthetics. http://users.rowan.edu/~clowney//Aesthetics/theories_of_art.htm 1. Identify artworks, styles, artists and philosophers that abide with representation theory. 2. Compare and contrast artworks, styles, artists and philosophers that abide with representation theory. REFERENCES Videos Amorsolo. https://youtu.be/D_EkOeVxGCw Fernando Amorsolo. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UzoJ_pcZVv4 Lesson 4.3. Representation Theory of Art 39
  40. 40. VENUS OF WILLENDORF She was created around 25,000 years ago, and is here mention as an excellent example of early representational art. ▪ Started many millenia ago with Late Paleolithic figurines and carving. ▪ Example: Venus of Willendorf- while not too terribly realistic, is clearly meant to show the figure of a woman. ▪ Throughout our history as art-creating human, most art has been representational. 40
  41. 41. The term 'representation' carries a range of meanings and interpretations. In literary theory, 'representation' is commonly defined in four ways. ▪ To look like or resemble ▪ To stand in for something or someone ▪ To present a second time; to re-present ▪ More viewer-friendly to vast majority of people than abstract or conceptual art. The reflection on representation began with early literary theory in the ideas of Plato and Aristotle, and has evolved into a significant component of language and communication studies. 41
  42. 42. Representationism is an image an appearance a copy a reproduction of things, people, objects or event. FIGURATIVE ART Art that contains representation. KEY CONCEPTS The work of representing may seem insufficiently ambitious. As the re-presenting or imitating of what nature or God has already created, it can at its best be technically notable, but must always be derivative and repetitious. The beauties of art are very seldom transcriptions, into a medium, of pre-existing natural beauties. Could we not claim that art is always a mimesis (a copying) of nature: if not of nature's visible appearances, then of its fundamental energies and their endless transformations? A typical representational account sees art as portraying the visible forms of nature, from a schematic cave drawing of an animal to the evocation of an entire landscape in sun or storm. The particularity of individual objects, scenes or persons may be emphasized, or the generic, the common, the essential. 42
  43. 43. A representational artist may seek faithfulness to how things are. He or she may dwell selectively on the ugly and defective, the unfulfilled; or on the ideal, the fully realized potential. The artist may see the ideal as reached by extrapolating from the empirical, "correcting’ its deficiencies; or by contemplating the alleged idea or form to which empirical objects approximate and aspire. Representational theories thus give the arts a distinctive cognitive role. The artist opens our eyes to the world’s perceptual qualities and configurations, to its beauties, ugliness's and horrors. REPRESENTATION OF PEOPLE Van Eyck, The Arnolfini Marriage 43
  44. 44. REPRESENTATION OF THINGS OR OBJECTS Van Gogh, Bedroom at Arles, 1888 Francisco, Mural on the History of the Philippines, 1963 REPRESENTATION OF EVENT 44
  45. 45. Copying nature according to the CHOICE of the artist, but the resulting image is still recognizable, like in the style of representation in cubist and fauvist art. WAYS OF REPRESENTING NATURE PHYSICAL ALTERATION SELECTIVE MODIFICATION PERCEPTUAL INTERPRETATION CHANGING the physical appearance of nature, like a natural marble that turn into a sculpture by carving and cutting. ENHANCING the appearance of nature, like a forest that becomes a garden by arranging and trimming the plants, or a woman beautifying herself by putting cosmetics on her face. Block of Natural Marble Michaelangelo, Pieta Forest Garden LANDSCAPING Art of environmental design COSMETOLOGY Art of Facial Beautification Natural Face Beautified Face 45
  46. 46. Real Woman (Natural Appearance) PERCEPTUAL INTERPRETATION OF NATURE Painting of a Woman (Cubist Style) Dora Maar The way of presenting the subject is ABSTRACTIVE Photo of Mrs. Matisse Matisse, Portrait of Mrs. Matisse, 1913 Representation in Fauvist Style 46
  47. 47. DEFINITION OF ART ACCORDING TO Representationism is the recreation of NATURE made by the artists created by God Natural Tree Painting of a Tree EXACT REPRESENTATION The more the art resembles nature, the more it becomes beautiful. The way of presenting the subject is REALISTIC 47
  48. 48. Zeuxis Who was the better painter? Parrhasius Zeuxis (or Zeuxippus) was a Greek painter of the fifth century BCE. He was born in Heracleia of Pontus but lived in Athens where he studied and spent most of his life. He painted idealised human figures but specialised in still life. None of his works survive today as is common with most ancient painters. Parrhasius was born in Ephesus, Ionia (now part of Turkey), and later settled in Athens. He was praised by ancient critics as a master of outline drawing, and he apparently relied on subtle contours rather than the new technique of chiaroscuro to suggest the mass of the human body. He also tried to portray various psychological states and emotions in his depictions of the face. Many of his drawings on wood and parchment were preserved and highly valued by later painters for purposes of study. His picture of Theseus adorned the Capitol in Rome; other works were chiefly mythological groups. His picture of the Demos, the personified people of Athens, was particularly famous. None of his works or copies thereof survive. versus 48
  49. 49. Zeuxis Who was the better painter? Parrhasius Zeuxis was born in Heraclea sometime around 464 BCE and was said to be the student of Apollodorus. Parrhasius (or Parrhasios) of Ephesus was a contemporary of Zeuxis. Both artists produced works on both wooden panels and frescoes on walls, unfortunately none of their work survives. The two were said to be the best painters of the fourth century BCE. The elder Pliny recorded a myth surrounding a competition between the two painters. It is said that Zeuxis created grapes that were so realistic that birds saw the image and attempted to eat then. Shortly after he went to view Parrhasius painting, and asked that the curtain be lifted so he could look at the image only to discover that the curtain was itself the painting. Zeuxis acknowledged his defeat, because while he had tricked birds the curtain of Parrhasuis had deceived a man and fellow artist. 49
  50. 50. TROMPE L’OEIL “trick the eye” Painting that looks so realistic that it fools the eye as if it sees the real thing. Magritte The Human Condition 1930 Magritte The Human Condition 1933 50
  51. 51. “Art is putting mirror up to nature.” “All the world is a stage, and men and women are merely players.” WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE LEONARDO DA VINCI “Art is a window to nature.” 51
  52. 52. Form of Art Form of Nature = Art reaches perfection and become divine CHINESE ART The drawing of forms which answer to natural form. CHIEH TZU YUAN “When painting has reached divinity (shen), there is an end of the matter.” WU TAO TZU (Wu Daozi) “Sage in Chinese Painting” STORY: He entered his own painting and lost there inside forever. Numerous legends gathered around Wu Daozi, often concerning commissions by Emperor Xuanzong. In one, Emperor Xuanzong called him to paint a wall of his palace. He painted a wall mural displaying a rich nature-scene set in a valley, containing a stunning array of flora and fauna and including a cave at the foot of a mountain. The story goes that he informed the emperor that it's not just what the emperor is able to see, Wu Daozi has made this painting in such a way, that a spirit dwells in the cave. Next, he clapped his hands and entered the cave, inviting the emperor to follow. The painter entered the cave but the entrance closed behind him and, before the astonished emperor could move or utter a word, the painting vanished from the wall. This story depicts the spirituality of art. 52
  53. 53. CHINESE ART The drawing of forms which answer to natural form. Drawing of a Humanities Student NATURE IN TRADITIONAL CHINESE PAINTING Zhang Daqian Scenery TAOISM ART 53
  54. 54. Constable, Hay Wain Monet, Field of Poppies CHRISTIAN ART Representational ICON Religious Images Leonardo, The Last Supper, 1498 Pieta, Michelangelo 1499 STYLE High Renaissance Art Michelangel o, God the Creator, Sistine Chapel Painting Detail 1512 54
  55. 55. Great art is a representational vision of values that dramatizes the beauties of the world and man’s compatible and efficacious place in it through images that portray a heighten reality, one that not only brings selected aspects of real life into sharp focus through compelling aesthetics but also communicates ideas. Classical Realism seeks perfection and universality, the idea of the ideal; e.g., ancient Greek sculpture. Romantic Realism seeks personal expression of values, imbuing art with feelings for ideas that the artist holds passionately about life and humankind, thereby suffusing the work with a glowing emotional essence. ROMANTIC REALISM In Philippine Art The contemporary Romantic expresses values through images of the present, the here and now, the real and relevant. Today’s Romantic uses form (the physical presentation) to communicate content (human values via subject matter) through individual style (emotional expression), thereby making the means and the end merge, blend, and re-emerge as one totality of experience that unifies mind, body, and soul. Romantic Realism in Philippine Arts through Fabian dela Rosa and Fernando Amorsolo shown: ▪ aspect of beauty ▪ Idyllic and exotic rural sceneries ▪ Forms of light and shadow ▪ For tourism purposes 55
  56. 56. How do you draw a beautiful scenery when you were young? 56
  57. 57. FABIAN DE LA ROSA 1869-1937 “Master of Genre” in Philippine Art Born in Paco, Manila Studied in Escuela de Bellas Artes and Academie Julian, Paris France Director, School of Fine Arts UP Won Gold and Bronze Award in St. Louis Exposition, 1904 Awarded Patnubay ng Sining at Kalinangan, 1968 57
  58. 58. De la Rosa, View of Santa Ana De la Rosa, Pasay Beach 1927 De la Rosa, A Remembrance of Villa Borghese, 1909 De la Rosa, Transplanting Rice, 1904 Won Gold Medal, St. Louis Exposition, 1904 De la Rosa, El Kundiman, 1930 De la Rosa, Aurora Aragon Quezon 58
  59. 59. Enrolled in Art School, Liceo de Manila Studied in UP School of Fine Arts and Academia de San Fernando, Spain Made more than 10,000 paintings Won First Prize, New York Fair, 1939 Dean, UP College of Fine Arts First Philippine National Artist Most popular painter in the country “Grand old man of Filipino painters” “Master of tropical scenery” “First Filipino impressionist” FERNANDO AMORSOLO 1892-1972 https://youtu.be/D_ EkOeVxGCw https://www.youtu be.com/watch?v=U zoJ_pcZVv4 59
  60. 60. Amorsolo Rice Plating Shows only aspects of beauty Amorsolo, Leyendo el Periodico, 1908 Won Second Place, Bazar Escolta sponsored by Asociacion Internacional de Artistas. Amorsolo was 16 years old. Amorsolo, Afternoon Meal of Rice Workers, 1929 Won First Prize, New York Fair 1929 Amorsolo, Tinikling 60
  61. 61. Amorsolo, Fruit Pickers Under the Mango Tree Amorsolo, The Market Scene 61
  62. 62. Amorsolo, The Making of Philippine Flag Amorsolo, The Celebration of the First Mass 62
  63. 63. Written by CAMILO OSIAS in 1917 Illustrated by FERNANDO AMORSOLO Textbook for elementary students during the American period ILLUSTRATION IN THE PHILIPPINE READERS Amorsolo, Patriotic Pledge 63
  64. 64. Amorsolo, A Woman Reading a Letter, 1917 ILLUSTRATION IN PHILIPPINE READER Amorsolo, A Woman Reading a Letter, 1917 ILLUSTRATION IN PHILIPPINE READER Amorsolo, Roasting Pig, 1917 ILLUSTRATION IN PHILIPPINE READER Amorsolo, Husband and Wife Harvesting Banana, 1917 ILLUSTRATION IN PHILIPPINE READER 64
  65. 65. Isidro Ancheta (1882-1946), Batis AMORSOLO’S FRIEND Dominador Castaneda (1904-1967), Women Washing by the Stream AMORSOLO’S FRIEND Cesar Buenaventura (1922-1983), Bahay Kubo AMORSOLO’S INFLUENCE Cesar Buenaventura, Bahay Kubo Cesar Buenaventura, Landscape, 1975 Praise for Amorsolo’s Representational Style Of Romantic Realism The paintings by Amorsolo are “True reflection of the Filipino soul.” Critique It is highly commercialized, and is meant for political propaganda by hiding the social reality under the appearance of order and beauty. 65
  66. 66. MMDA Art THE COMMON ART SCENERY WE KNOW NOW… Beauty sa Harap, Pero sa Likod Industrial Valley, Marikina Vandalism Marikina Industrial Valley Metro Gwapo Project, MMDA Bayani Fernando 66
  67. 67. Manasala, Madonna of the Slums, 1950 PHILIPPINE ART From Romantic Realism Through Modernism to Social Realism The Madonna of the Slums is said to be the portrayal of a mother and child from the countryside who became urban shanty residence once in the city. This image were tightly focus on the two subjects. As what you can see in the picture is a mother hugging her sibling with her two hands, as well as the child holding her mother’s face. This painting identifies the reality of the Philippine Society today which describes social care amidst hardships. Though the mother is the most happy even when she suffers pain to give birth for her child, even how difficult life is, a mother never ever back down to all life problems and challenges in the world she faces. Mother and child painting portrays the reality of being a mother even though how difficult life is she is the one always there not only to take good care and give love but also the soldier that protect her child in every time from the world that full of challenges. 67
  68. 68. 1. How do arts affects your perception of being alive? (Lesson 4.1) 1. Have any of your art skills improved during this project? 1. Can you draw a conclusion from this caricature inspired from the painting of Michael Angelo? (Lesson 4.1) Instructions: The answer to each question should have at least a minimum of 50 words. Assessment Analysis Reflection 68
  69. 69. RUBRICS FOR GRADING CRITERIA EXCELLENT (10 PTS) ABOVE AVERAGE (8 PTS) AVERAGE (6 PTS) BELOW AVERAGE (4 PTS) POOR (2 PT) ANALYSIS: Creativity and uniqueness Uniqueness of idea is thorough, informative, and demonstrates significant effort. Uniqueness of idea is informative and well thought. Uniqueness of idea is present, but some details missing/incorrect. Minimal detail provided, needs improvement. Absolute minimal effort. ASSESSMENT: Clarity: Message is clearly addressed Message is thorough, informative, and demonstrates significant effort. Message is informative and well thought. Message is present, but some details missing/incorrect. Minimal detail provided, needs improvement. Absolute minimal effort. REFLECTIONS: Impact: The idea is relevant to present situation The relevance is thorough, informative, and demonstrates significant effort. The relevance is informative and well thought. The relevance is present, but some details missing/incorrect. Minimal detail provided, needs improvement. Absolute minimal effort. 69
  70. 70. Make a representational work of art. CHOOSE ONLY ONE: a. Select a portrait picture of the model you want to copy by applying pencil or charcoal drawing and submit the two together to compare the model exactly as he or she looks like. Use 1/8 illustration board for drawing. The process on making your portrait drawing should be done by using time lapse mode of your cellphone camera. Submit it together with the final picture of your artwork. b. Make a landscape painting based on the style of Romantic Realism in Philippine art. You can use water color or acrylic paints. Use 1/8 illustration board for painting. The process on making your landscape painting should be done by using time lapse mode of your cellphone camera. Submit it together with the final picture of your artwork. SEE EXAMPLES OF TIME LAPSE: https://youtu.be/EwfO5EhPiKQ https://youtu.be/Tno-7P3FhJ0 Examples of Pencil or Charcoal Drawing Examples of Landscape Painting Module 4 70
  71. 71. DR. ALLAN C. ORATE, UE RUBRICS FOR ACTIVITY 4 CRITERIA Excellent (31-40 points) Good (21-30 points) Fair (11-20 points) Needs Improvement (1-10) Representational Artwork The artwork looks exactly like the model. The artworks looks like the model except for some parts. The artwork does not look like the model in many parts of the composition The artwork does not look like the model at all. Application of Romantic Realism Romantic realism is correctly applied to the whole composition. The composition correctly applies romantic realism except to some parts of it. Romantic realism is incorrectly applied to many parts of the composition. The composition does not apply romantic realism at all. 71
  72. 72. MODULE 4 72

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