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Waste Management Hierarchy

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Waste Management Hierarchy by Dr. Prasad Modak

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Waste Management Hierarchy

  1. 1. Table of Contents  Trends in Waste Generation  Impact of waste – poor waste management  Waste Management Hierarchy  Integrated Solid Waste Management  Towards Circular Economy
  2. 2. What is Waste?
  3. 3. Typical Contribution of Waste streams in Urban Areas Source: EMC Master database , 2014
  4. 4. Waste Treatment Infrastructure Treatment Storage DisposalCollection Landfill Incineration Treatment Recycling Waste to Energy Segregation
  5. 5. Waste Generation Across Various Regions of the World Total waste currently generated is approx. 3532 tons/day in which OECD countries generate maximum waste. By 2025 in which East Asia could make major contribution. Source: What a Waste, World Bank:
  6. 6. Waste Generation is Linked to Per Capita Income Source: Economic Times Source: EMC’s Master Country Database (n.p., 2014) using primarily data from the EU, OECD and World Bank; Lawless (2014), Waste Atlas: Recycling and resource recovery around the world (Unpublished master’s thesis). University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.
  7. 7.  Organic waste enjoys maximum fraction of the waste generated across all income level while paper waste is high in upper-middle and high income countries. Waste characteristics by Income Levels Source: EMC’s Master Country Database (n.p., 2014) using primarily data from the UN and World Bank and Hoornweg & Bhada-Tata (2012)
  8. 8. Cost of inaction In Asia 50-70% of revenues are spent on waste management and the cost of inaction eats away 5% of the GDP
  9. 9. World’s 50 Biggest Waste Dumpsites  Largest number of dump sites are found in African countries followed by Asia Source: Waste Atlas Partnership (2014). Waste Atlas: The World’s 50 Biggest Dumpsites, 2014 Report.
  10. 10. . GHG emissions at various stages of waste disposal and management Greenhouse Gases (GHG) are gases that trap heat in the atmosphere. The primary GHG water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane, Nitrogen oxide, sulphur dioxide and ozone. Different stages of Waste Management contribute to GHG emissions. The yellow lines depicts the emissions from different process and the green lines shows the remediation technique or the methods to avoid GHG emissions.
  11. 11. Reduce Reuse Recycle Reduce Reuse Recycle Priority Adoption Long Term ?
  12. 12.  Phasing out open dumping & controlling disposal is an important first step
  13. 13. Waste streams that can be recycled to recover valuable secondary resources SCRAP METALS • Aluminium • Ferrous (Steel) • Lead • Zinc • Copper 15
  14. 14. MSW • Paper • Plastic • Glass Waste streams that can be recycled to recover valuable secondary resources 16
  15. 15.  Waste is a resource and should be recognized as such In fact the whole waste management system should be designed around recycling and resource recovery. Decentralized solutions are effective
  16. 16.  The private sector (both formal and informal) is a key player in solid waste management. They can support the local authority and innovate in recycling
  17. 17. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC WASTE • PCB with valuable metals • Copper • Gold • Palladium • Silver • Plastic Waste streams that can be recycled to recover valuable secondary resources 19
  18. 18. CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION WASTE • Asphalt • Concrete • Rock • Sand • Wood Waste streams that can be recycled to recover valuable secondary resources 10-15% of total waste in developed countries is C&D waste 20
  19. 19. •One ton of electronic scrap from PCs contains more gold than that recovered from 17 tons of gold ore and 40 times more concentration of copper than that in copper •Recycling 1 ton of aluminium saves,  1.3 metric tonne of bauxite residues  15 m3of cooling water  0.86 m3 of process water  2TCO2 avoided  11 kg of SO2 avoided • Recycling 1 ton of paper will save up to 17 trees and 50 % water Benefits of recycling – some facts and figures 21
  20. 20. Benefits of recycling waste streams - Example Recovery of Obsolete Mobiles - Japan Recycling campaign launched in Nov 2009 involving 1886 stores and super markets selling mobiles •People who return mobiles had a chance to enter a lottery to win 12 – 600 dollars •569,464 mobiles collected •22 kg gold, 140 mg silver, 10 g copper, 4 mg palladium recovered in 4 months 22
  21. 21. PPP Model for Centralized Community Based Composting in Dhaka by Waste Concern (WC) Communities Private Fertilizer Companies. Waste Concern DCC & PWD MoEF Providing Seed Money Coordinating the Program Communities participate in door-to- door waste collection program & contribute towards its cost. PUBLIC PRIVATE COMMUNITY Providing Land and other logistics WC ensures the quality of compost WC provides technical support and facilitation for community based SWM and composting Fertilizer companies buy all the compost PPP MODEL: CASE FOR COMMUNITY BASED COMPOSTING IN BANGLADESH Donor
  22. 22. Wongpanich Private Waste Recycling, Thailand ● Recognized as a model for recycling business in Thailand and neighboring countries ● Provides important benefits such as − poverty reduction − create job opportunities − market value for waste − educate people − and increase awareness within community Wongpanich Waste Recycling Factory, Thailand Factory Building Storage of Separated & Cleaned Plastic Containers Recyclable transportation
  23. 23. Case study: Credai Clean City Movement, Kerala, 2007  The Confederation of Real Estate Developer's Associations of India (CREDAI)  Launched a corporate social responsibility (CSR) project  Aim: spreading awareness to help citizens implement self-contained solid waste management systems in their communities  Technology: Decentralized systems applicable to different conditions – such as bio digester bins for apartments and bio digester pots for individual homes Achievements  Processed 72 tonnes of biodegradable waste from 48000 apartments in the city  It has created jobs for people below the poverty line for the last three years  Saved Rs. 8.91 Crores (@ Rs. 3391 per tonne) for the government. 25
  24. 24. Case study - The Clean City Championship – A Participatory Approach for Improved Solid Waste Management in Warangal, 2012  Low cost participatory approach  Strong leadership from the administrators and politicians  Financial grants for the championship were first secured from different departments at State level  Intensive pre-championship activities were carried out  Transportation plan and rationalization of vehicles  Route and loading plans for entire city on GIS maps  Tie-ups  Stakeholder involvement  Training and capacity building  Championship spread over 7 days Achievements  WMC was able to reduce 30 to 40% of waste going to the dumpsite.  Solid waste management wing was established  Data updated on real-time basis  There has been a reduction in O&M costs by 30%  This model of championship has been replicated in Guntur and Visakhapatnam in Andhra Pradesh and many more have showed interest 26 Source: http://www.indiaenvironmentportal.org.in/files/file/municipal%20solid%20waste%20management.pdf
  25. 25. Quezon City, Philippines  Started with ‘Linis Ganda’ Linkages across supply chain Recognition & respectability  uniforms, ID, access  politically connected Organise co-operatives Facilitate affordable credit Photo credits: Embassy of Japan in the Philippines; Government of the Philippines, 2006 Year Total IWBs 1997 6% 4% 2006 25% 16% 2009 37% 24% 10 year increase in recycling
  26. 26. Weigh bridge Sorting Inert Storage Organic storage Bio- methanation or Composting plants Material Recovery Centre Innovation centre Street lights Waste Sorting Centres Gardens Methane gas for street lights and to fuel transport vehicles Processed materials for users Compost to gardens Waste Sorting Centre Waste Generators/ Decentralized Integrated Eco-system
  27. 27. Sudokwon Eco-Energy Complex Town Sludge-to-Solid Fuel (2,700ton/day) Organic Waste-to-Biogas (1,500ton/day) Construction Waste-to-Fuel (4,000ton/day) Testing complex Other energy plants Combustible WtE plant (2,000ton/day) RDF plant (200ton/day, Apr. 2010) Sludge solidification plant (1,000ton/day, Dec. 2008) RDF-dedicated Boiler (600ton/day) 21
  28. 28. Wastes Not Being Viewed as “Resources” Need for fundamental change in our mindset and attitudes Resource efficiency and circular economy The Closed Loop Economy By reducing production of wastes, and by maximising the use of reusable and recyclable materials, a city can achieve greater resource efficiency Source: ADB and IGES (2008). Toward Resource-Efficient Economics in Asia and the Pacific: Reduce Reuse Recycle. Asian Development Bank, Manila • Closed-Loop Economy • Recycle Based Society • Sound Material-Cycle Society • Green Growth and Circular Economy
  29. 29. Moving from Negative Loop to Positive * Depletion, Degradation, Deterioration, Deforestation, Desertification
  30. 30. Linear to Circular Economy Linear and Circular Economy
  31. 31. Regulations on recycling of waste • Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) Regulations Sets targets for recycling e-waste in EU, China, California (USA), Saskatchewan (Canada) and Ireland. • Voluntary criteria for recycled paper  Standard for recycled paper products GECA 11-200 under the Australian Ecolabel Program  Blue Angel Basic Criteria for Award of the Environmental Label for Recycled Paper (RAL-UZ 14) in Germany  Hong Kong Green Label Scheme (HKGLS) Product Environmental Criteria for Paper Folders with Recycled Content (GL-001-004)  Ecomark criteria for recycled paper in India • Regulation for recycling batteries  EU, USA, Japan, India, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey 33
  32. 32. Schemes to stimulate recycling - Examples TAKE BACK PROGRAMS • German Packaging Ordinance 1991 - Packaging waste recycled through Duales System Deutschland (DSD) • British Columbia Recycling Regulation 2004 - Left over paint returned at 100 depots operated by Product Care. Eco-fees or eco-taxes collected DEPOSIT REFUND SYSTEMS • South Korea – Food containers, tires, batteries, lubricants, pesticide containers, and plastics • Bottle bills in U.S 34
  33. 33. 환경부 자원순환국 Online waste disposal verification system (Allbaro) Asbestos disposal measures Follow-up management performance deposit for waste disposal facility Volume based waste fee system Reduce the use of disposable items and packaging Waste charge system Promote the recycling of construction wastes and used metal scrap EPR system(24 items) Eco-Assurance system for WEEE and vehicles Nature Materials Natural Resources Recyclable Resources WtE and biomass Eco-energy complex towns Low-carbon green villages ①Energy-efficient Production, Distribution, Consumption ④Advanced treatment for pollution prevention ③Energy recovery from waste resources ②Material recycling to reduce raw materials Waste 10
  34. 34. Sound Material Society