Presentation in Health by Robee Calero And Mina Carreon
1. • Report in health:
Sumitted to: Christine luterte
Grade 7 st martha
6. What Is Hypothalamus?
• The hypothalamus is a section of the brain responsible for hormone production.
The hormones produced by this area of the brain govern body temperature, thirst,
hunger, sleep, circadian rhythm, moods, sex drive, and the release of other
hormones in the body. This area of the brain controls the pituitary gland and other
glands in the body. This area of the brain is small, but involved in many necessary
processes of the body including behavioral, autonomic, and endocrine functions.
The hypothalamus' primary function is homeostasis, which is to maintain the
body's status quo system-wide. Hypothalamic hormones include thyrotropin-releasing,
gonadotropin-releasing, growth hormone-releasing, corticotrophin-releasing,
somatostatin, and dopamine hormones. These hormones release into
the blood through the capillaries, traveling to the pituitary gland where their
effects are exerted. Oxytocin and vasopressin are also hypothalamic hormones.
The hypothalamus uses a set-point to regulate the body's systems including
electrolyte and fluid balance, body temperature, blood pressure, and body weight.
It receives inputs from the body, then initiates compensatory changes if anything
differentiates from this set-point. The set-point can migrate, but remains
remarkably fixed from day-to-day.
8. What is the pituitary gland?
• The pituitary is an important gland in the body and it is often referred to as the 'master gland', because it controls several of
the other hormone glands (e.g. adrenals, thyroid).
It is usually about the size of a pea and consists of two parts (often called lobes) - a front part, called the anterior pituitary
and a back part, called the posterior pituitary.
The pituitary gland sits in a bony hollow called the pituitary fossa. This is behind the bridge of the nose and below the base
of the brain, close to the optic nerves.
It is often considered the most important part of the endocrine system because it produces hormones that control many
functions of other endocrine glands.
The anterior pituitary makes several important hormones - growth hormone, puberty hormones (or gonadotrophins),
thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, which stimulates the thyroid gland to make Thyroxine), prolactin and
Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone (ACTH, which stimulates the adrenal stress hormone, cortisol). The posterior pituitary makes
the fluid balance hormone called anti-diuretic hormone (ADH).
What can go wrong with my pituitary gland?
The most common problem with the pituitary gland occurs when a benign growth (often referred to as 'adenoma' or
'tumour') develops. This can cause the gland to produce excess hormone, or it can block hormone production, or it can be
'non functioning' (hormone production not affected in any way).
Other rarer causes of pituitary disorders can include, for example, traumatic brain injury and pituitary infarction (also known
as pituitary apoplexy).
The endocrine system
Endocrine SystemThe endocrine system consists of various glands situated in different parts of the body (as shown above)
and each gland produces different hormones which regulate the activity of other organs and tissues in the body. These
hormones are released directly into the blood through the relevant gland.
13. What is Adrenal Glands
• the adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands)
are endocrine glands that sit at the top of thekidneys. They are
chiefly responsible for releasing hormones in response
to stress through the synthesis ofcorticosteroids such
as cortisol and catecholamines such as adrenaline (epinephrine)
and noradrenaline. They also produce androgens in their innermost
cortical layer. The adrenal glands affect kidney function through the
secretion ofaldosterone, and recent data (1998) suggest that
adrenocortical cells under pathological as well as
under physiologicalconditions show neuroendocrine properties;
within normal adrenal glands, this neuroendocrine differentiation
seems to be restricted to cells of the zona glomerulosa and might
be important for an autocrine regulation of adrenocortical
17. What is Thyroid?
• The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland that sits low on the
front of the neck. Your thyroid lies below your Adam’s
apple, along the front of the windpipe. The thyroid has two
side lobes, connected by a bridge (isthmus) in the middle.
When the thyroid is its normal size, you can’t feel it.
• Brownish-red in color, the thyroid is rich with blood vessels.
Nerves important for voice quality also pass through the
• The thyroid secretes several hormones, collectively called
thyroid hormones. The main hormone is thyroxine, also
called T4. Thyroid hormones act throughout the body,
influencing metabolism, growth and development, and
body temperature. During infancy and childhood, adequate
thyroid hormone is crucial for brain development.
21. What is Pancreas?
• The pancreas is an organ located in the abdomen. It plays an essential role in converting the food we eat into fuel
for the body's cells. The pancreas has two main functions: an exocrine function that helps in digestion and
an endocrine function that regulates blood sugar.
• Basic Anatomy: The pancreas is located behind the stomach and is surrounded by other organs including the small
intestine, liver, and spleen. It is about six inches long and is shaped like a flat pear. The wide part, called the head
of the pancreas, is positioned toward the center of the abdomen; the middle section is called the neck and the
body of the pancreas; the thin end is called the tail and extends to the left side. Several major blood vessels
surround the pancreas, the superior mesenteric artery, the superior mesenteric vein, the portal vein and the celiac
axis, supplying blood to the pancreas and other abdominal organs.
• Exocrine Function: The pancreas contains exocrine glands that produceenzymes important to digestion. When
food enters the stomach, these pancreatic juices are released into a system of ducts that culminate in the
main pancreatic duct. The pancreatic duct joins the common bile duct to form the ampulla of Vater which is
located at the first portion of the small intestine, called theduodenum. The common bile duct originates in the
liver and the gallbladder and produces another important digestive juice called bile. The pancreatic juices and bile
that are released into the duodenum, help the body to digest fats, carbohydrates, and proteins.
• Endocrine Function: The endocrine component of the pancreas consists of islet cells that create and release
important hormones directly into the bloodstream. Two of the main pancreatic hormones are insulin, which acts
to lower blood sugar, and glucagon, which acts to raise blood sugar. Maintaining proper blood sugar levels is
crucial to the functioning of key organs including the brain, liver, and kidneys.
24. What is Gonads?
• The reproductive organs (gonads) of the male
are the testes and ovaries for the females. The
testes hang in small outer pouch below the
pelvis. During puberty it releases testosterone
which leads to several physical changes.
Likewise, the ovaries in female are located in
each side of the womb in the pelvic region.
They secrete estrogen which stimulates many
physical changes young women go through at