Diese Präsentation wurde erfolgreich gemeldet.
Wir verwenden Ihre LinkedIn Profilangaben und Informationen zu Ihren Aktivitäten, um Anzeigen zu personalisieren und Ihnen relevantere Inhalte anzuzeigen. Sie können Ihre Anzeigeneinstellungen jederzeit ändern.
Performed By;
Siah-Armah Edmund
Supervised By;
Professor Mag. Dr. Alexander Schwarz-Musch
Dr. in Eithne Knappitsch
1
Maste...
2
CHAPTER 1:
INTRODUCTION
•BACKGROUND
•PROBLEM DEFINITION AND PURPOSE OF RESEARCH
•RESEARCH QUESTION AND SUB QUESTIONS
•ST...
3
CHAPTER 1:
INTRODUCTION
BACKGROUND
PROBLEM
DEFINITION AND
PURPOSE OF
RESEARCH
RESEARCH
QUESTION AND
SUB QUESTIONS
STRUCT...
4
CHAPTER 1:
INTRODUCTION
BACKGROUND
PROBLEM
DEFINITION AND
PURPOSE OF
RESEARCH
RESEARCH
QUESTION AND
SUB QUESTIONS
STRUCT...
5
CHAPTER 1:
INTRODUCTION
BACKGROUND
PROBLEM
DEFINITION AND
PURPOSE OF
RESEARCH
RESEARCH
QUESTION AND
SUB QUESTIONS
STRUCT...
6
CHAPTER 1:
INTRODUCTION
BACKGROUND
PROBLEM
DEFINITION AND
PURPOSE OF
RESEARCH
RESEARCH
QUESTION AND
SUB QUESTIONS
STRUCT...
7
CHAPTER 1:
INTRODUCTION
BACKGROUND
PROBLEM
DEFINITION AND
PURPOSE OF
RESEARCH
RESEARCH
QUESTION AND
SUB QUESTIONS
STRUCT...
8
CHAPTER 2:
THEORETICAL
PART
THE ECOWAS
REGION
THEORY OF
ADVERTISEMENT
THEORY OF
STANDARDIZATION
AND ADAPTATION
THEORY OF...
9
CHAPTER 3:
EMPIRICAL PART
TELECOMMUNICATIONS
IN THE SUB RERION
METHODOLOGY
RESULTS OF RESEARCH
DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
Loc...
10
CHAPTER 3:
EMPIRICAL PART
TELECOMMUNICATIONS
IN THE SUB RERION
METHODOLOGY
RESULTS OF RESEARCH
DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
 ...
11
CHAPTER 3:
EMPIRICAL PART
TELECOMMUNICATIONS
IN THE SUB RERION
METHODOLOGY
RESULTS OF RESEARCH
DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
Re...
12
CHAPTER 3:
EMPIRICAL PART
TELECOMMUNICATIONS
IN THE SUB RERION
METHODOLOGY
RESULTS OF RESEARCH
DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
Pr...
13
CHAPTER 3:
EMPIRICAL PART
TELECOMMUNICATIONS
IN THE SUB RERION
METHODOLOGY
RESULTS OF RESEARCH
DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
Or...
 Analysis to dissociate events of a narrative (story and
disclosure)
 Code samples
 Examine samples
14
CHAPTER 3:
EMPIR...
15
CHAPTER 3:
EMPIRICAL PART
TELECOMMUNICATIONS
IN THE SUB RERION
METHODOLOGY
RESULTS OF RESEARCH
DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
Sa...
16
Coding Units and Guidelines
MAIN
CATEGORIES
GENERIC
CATEGORY
SUB-CATEGORY MAIN CATEGORIES GENERIC CATEGORY SUB-CATEGORY...
17
CHAPTER 3:
EMPIRICAL PART
TELECOMMUNICATIONS
IN THE SUB RERION
METHODOLOGY
RESULTS OF RESEARCH
DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
Re...
18
CHAPTER 3:
EMPIRICAL PART
TELECOMMUNICATIONS
IN THE SUB RERION
METHODOLOGY
RESULTS OF RESEARCH
DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
Ad...
19
CHAPTER 3:
EMPIRICAL PART
TELECOMMUNICATIONS
IN THE SUB RERION
METHODOLOGY
RESULTS OF RESEARCH
DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
Ad...
20
CHAPTER 3:
EMPIRICAL PART
TELECOMMUNICATIONS
IN THE SUB RERION
METHODOLOGY
RESULTS OF RESEARCH
DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
TR...
21
CHAPTER 3:
EMPIRICAL PART
TELECOMMUNICATIONS
IN THE SUB RERION
METHODOLOGY
RESULTS OF RESEARCH
DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
Mi...
22
CHAPTER 3:
EMPIRICAL PART
TELECOMMUNICATIONS
IN THE SUB RERION
METHODOLOGY
RESULTS OF RESEARCH
DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
 ...
23
CHAPTER 3:
EMPIRICAL PART
TELECOMMUNICATIONS
IN THE SUB RERION
METHODOLOGY
RESULTS OF RESEARCH
DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
 ...
24
CHAPTER 3:
EMPIRICAL PART
TELECOMMUNICATIONS
IN THE SUB RERION
METHODOLOGY
RESULTS OF RESEARCH
DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
 ...
25
CHAPTER 3:
EMPIRICAL PART
TELECOMMUNICATIONS
IN THE SUB RERION
METHODOLOGY
RESULTS OF RESEARCH
DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
MA...
26
1. age or target grouping
2. culture considerations
3. advertisement theme and appeal
4. language and linguistic charac...
Standardization
Adaptation
INVISIBLE
Self-Actualization
Self-Esteem
Love and belonging
Safety needs
Physiological needs
65...
28
CHAPTER 5:
CONCLUSION
AND OUTLOOK
SUMMARY
LIMITATIONS
IMPLICATIONS FOR
FUTURE RESEARCH
 Know the internal and external...
29
CHAPTER 5:
CONCLUSION
AND OUTLOOK
SUMMARY
LIMITATIONS
IMPLICATIONS FOR
FUTURE RESEARCH
 Only one industry and two memb...
30
CHAPTER 5:
CONCLUSION
AND OUTLOOK
SUMMARY
LIMITATIONS
IMPLICATIONS FOR
FUTURE RESEARCH
 More samples spread across dif...
31
Master Thesis Defense
T h e E n d
For details and references, refer to the corresponding chapters of the thesis.
Nächste SlideShare
Wird geladen in …5
×

Advertisement in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS): Learning from the Telecomunications Industry

290 Aufrufe

Veröffentlicht am

Advertisement in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS): Learning from the Telecomunications Industry

Veröffentlicht in: Marketing
  • Als Erste(r) kommentieren

Advertisement in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS): Learning from the Telecomunications Industry

  1. 1. Performed By; Siah-Armah Edmund Supervised By; Professor Mag. Dr. Alexander Schwarz-Musch Dr. in Eithne Knappitsch 1 Master Thesis Defense “ADVERTISEMENT IN THE ECONOMIC COMMUNITY OF WEST AFRICAN STATES (ECOWAS)” LEARNING FROM THE TELECOMUNICATIONS INDUSTRY
  2. 2. 2 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION •BACKGROUND •PROBLEM DEFINITION AND PURPOSE OF RESEARCH •RESEARCH QUESTION AND SUB QUESTIONS •STRUCTURE OF THE RESEARCH CHAPTER 2: THEORETICAL PART •THE ECOWAS REGION •THEORY OF ADVERTISEMENT •THEORY OF STANDARDIZATION AND ADAPTATION •THEORY OF CULTURE CHAPTER 3: EMPIRICAL PART •TELECOMMUNICATIONS IN THE SUB RERION •METHODOLOGY •RESULTS OF RESEARCH •DISCUSSION OF RESULTS CHAPTER 4: GUIDELINE PROPOSAL •Advertisement Planning Roadmap CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION AND OUTLOOK •SUMMARY •LIMITATIONS •IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH Agenda
  3. 3. 3 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND PROBLEM DEFINITION AND PURPOSE OF RESEARCH RESEARCH QUESTION AND SUB QUESTIONS STRUCTURE OF THE RESEARCH Conflicts Advertiser's Company Policy & Strategy Advertisement Consumers/General Public Government
  4. 4. 4 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND PROBLEM DEFINITION AND PURPOSE OF RESEARCH RESEARCH QUESTION AND SUB QUESTIONS STRUCTURE OF THE RESEARCH 333 Million + Inhabitants Different Colonizers 4 International Languages National borders are not representative of national cultures Over 7.50 million Intra-regional Migration 1000 + Native Languages Mixture of Languages and Culture Imported Culture 15 Countries Local Culture
  5. 5. 5 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND PROBLEM DEFINITION AND PURPOSE OF RESEARCH RESEARCH QUESTION AND SUB QUESTIONS STRUCTURE OF THE RESEARCH  Identify required ad components  Identify communication process  Propose a generalized advertisement guideline for making ads Purpose of Research
  6. 6. 6 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND PROBLEM DEFINITION AND PURPOSE OF RESEARCH RESEARCH QUESTION AND SUB QUESTIONS STRUCTURE OF THE RESEARCH “TO WHICH EXTENT CAN ADVERTISEMENTS BE ADAPTED IN THE ECOWAS REGION?”  How diverse is the ECOWAS region in terms of culture?  Which factors affect adaptation and standardization of ads?  What elements of an ad should be adapted or standardized?
  7. 7. 7 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND PROBLEM DEFINITION AND PURPOSE OF RESEARCH RESEARCH QUESTION AND SUB QUESTIONS STRUCTURE OF THE RESEARCH
  8. 8. 8 CHAPTER 2: THEORETICAL PART THE ECOWAS REGION THEORY OF ADVERTISEMENT THEORY OF STANDARDIZATION AND ADAPTATION THEORY OF CULTURE • Visible/Invisible • Verbal/Non Verbal • Low/High Context Culture • Socio-Culture • Socio-Economy Adaptation & Standization • Ad Appeals • Ad Channels Ad. Content Culture Communication Advertisement
  9. 9. 9 CHAPTER 3: EMPIRICAL PART TELECOMMUNICATIONS IN THE SUB RERION METHODOLOGY RESULTS OF RESEARCH DISCUSSION OF RESULTS Local Foreign Benin 5 54 2 3 Burkina Faso 3 38 0 3 Cape Verde 2 93 1 1 Cote d'Ivoire 6 70 1 5 Gambia 4 84 2 2 Ghana 6 78 1 5 Guinea 4 45 1 3 Guinea Bissau 3 54 1 2 Liberia 6 42 1 5 Mali 3 63 1 2 Niger 4 25 1 3 Nigeria 5 58 2 3 Senegal 3 74 0 3 Sierra Leone 5 46 1 4 Togo 2 39 1 1 OWNERSHIP COUNTRY NUMBER OF MOBILE OPERATORS Mobile Penetration % National Communications Authority or Autorite De Regulation Des Telecommunications’ of the respective member states Overview of the Telecommunications Industry in ECOWAS
  10. 10. 10 CHAPTER 3: EMPIRICAL PART TELECOMMUNICATIONS IN THE SUB RERION METHODOLOGY RESULTS OF RESEARCH DISCUSSION OF RESULTS  Inductive content analysis (qualitative and quantitative)  Linguistic analysis (Narratology)  Semiotic analysis were applied  Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) software  The services of two human coders were also solicited as the human contribution to content analysis necessary. To examine critically the logic, composition and protocols of the sampled ads. Krippendorff, 2004, p. xvii; Neuendorf, 2002, p. 40. Structure
  11. 11. 11 CHAPTER 3: EMPIRICAL PART TELECOMMUNICATIONS IN THE SUB RERION METHODOLOGY RESULTS OF RESEARCH DISCUSSION OF RESULTS Reproduced from Elo & Kynga, 2008, p.110. Inductive Content Analysis
  12. 12. 12 CHAPTER 3: EMPIRICAL PART TELECOMMUNICATIONS IN THE SUB RERION METHODOLOGY RESULTS OF RESEARCH DISCUSSION OF RESULTS Preparation Phase  Research topic  Objectives  Scope  Choice of approach (Inductive)  Sampling  Drawing up of coding guideline
  13. 13. 13 CHAPTER 3: EMPIRICAL PART TELECOMMUNICATIONS IN THE SUB RERION METHODOLOGY RESULTS OF RESEARCH DISCUSSION OF RESULTS Organizing Phase  The samples were then broken down into coding units  Categorization according to coding rule Reporting Phase  results were presented  Results were discussed, mapped, conceptualized and compared with literature
  14. 14.  Analysis to dissociate events of a narrative (story and disclosure)  Code samples  Examine samples 14 CHAPTER 3: EMPIRICAL PART TELECOMMUNICATIONS IN THE SUB RERION METHODOLOGY RESULTS OF RESEARCH DISCUSSION OF RESULTS Linguistic Analysis (Narratology) / Cognitive Narratology Semiotics / Science of Significance
  15. 15. 15 CHAPTER 3: EMPIRICAL PART TELECOMMUNICATIONS IN THE SUB RERION METHODOLOGY RESULTS OF RESEARCH DISCUSSION OF RESULTS Sampling Procedure Industry Countries (Ghana & Nigeria) Television ads (<2yrs on national TV; one local & one foreign) Substantial Market Share within the ECOWAS MTN & GLO
  16. 16. 16 Coding Units and Guidelines MAIN CATEGORIES GENERIC CATEGORY SUB-CATEGORY MAIN CATEGORIES GENERIC CATEGORY SUB-CATEGORY COMPANY This sub-categoty shows which companies and wheter or not it is a focus on in the ad (foreign or international) and the extent to which the company is potrayed in the TV spot (low, medium or high). PRODUCT / SERVICE Whether or not and which product or service offering is highlighted in the TV spot is stated. The parameters of the extent of its emphasis is also illustrated. CAST This describes who the cental actor(s) in the TV spot are. Their social influence is also illustrated. AGE /GENDER OF MAIN CHARACTER (S) The ages and gender (marked as 'M' nd 'F' for male and female respectively) of the central images mentioned as casts are listed respectively. SETTING (ACTIVITY / PLACE) In this sub-category, the settings and happenings for in the fore and background of the TV spot are described. The profoundness of culture specificalities are noted. NATIONAL SYMPBOLS / COLORS National symbols or colors visible in the TV sopt is recorded. The frequency of their appearance is also defined in the parameters. LANGUAGE(S) Languages spoken in the TV spot are docummented in this sub-category. The regularity of their use is also described. ACTIONS This refers to all actions, gestures and and signs characteristic of visible culture. Frequency is also measured. SCREEN CAPTION / SLOGAN Outstanding sreen captions and slogans that are seen are captured in this sub-category. HIGHEST COUNT WORDS The two most recurring words in the origional version of the ad, with the exception of common words are counted with 'LIWC' software. NOTABLE PHRASES All other outstanding and significat combination of words are documented. HIGHLIGHTED / STRESSED WORDS Uncommon words that are repeated freguently or accented in the voice over parts of the ad. MUSIC Reference is made to significant and unisolated vocal and or instrumental sounds heard in the span of the TV spot VOICES In this sub-category, reference is made to human voices heard during the ad and whether they are live or mimicked. The parameters define the the number of voices heard and whether or not they have international associations. SPOKEN SLOGANS Outstanding sreen captions and slogans than the official company slogan that are spoken or heard are captured in this sub-category. OTHERS Other isolated and non human or non intrumental sounds are recorded. TARGET AUDIENCE This sub-category defines who views the TV spot, whom it was originally intended for and their possible level of associaton. APPEALS Rational, emotional and moral appeals identified are stated. LENGTH The legnth of the TV spot is recorded. It is measured in comparison to the worldwide advertising industry rule of thumb in the parameters. NUMBER OF SCENES The number of scense that characterize the TV sopt is counted. CENTRAL IMAGE Highlighted elements of the TV spot are described and the extent of their usage, emphasis or frequency is potrayed in its parameters. OTHER ELEMENTS OFTHE TV SPOT Other uncategorizable coding units are classified in this section. CODING RULE The viewers or consumers of the TV spot are classified. The benefits derived from the ad are also noted and measured in the parameters. This generic category illustrates other relevant general features of the TV spot and its compexity compared to industry standards in the parameters. VIEWERS FEATURES CATEGORIES VIDEO ELEMENTS OF TV SPOT Visual elements of the ad contents are identified, categorized, analyzed and documented. CULTURAL ELEMENTS Both visible and invisible cultural elements are identified and recorded. Notable and reccuring words or combination of words are documented and measured in the parameters. AUDIO ELEMENTS OF TV SPOT SOUNDS Audible elements of the TV spot are identified and analyzed in this category. Isolated and unisolated sounds clearly audible from the TV spot are defined measured and recorded. TEXT / DRAWN ELEMENTS OFTV SPOT Written and drawn elements such as texts, logos and drawings are analyzed. KEYWORDS / PHRASES
  17. 17. 17 CHAPTER 3: EMPIRICAL PART TELECOMMUNICATIONS IN THE SUB RERION METHODOLOGY RESULTS OF RESEARCH DISCUSSION OF RESULTS Reliability and Validity Reliability test  Two coders from Ghana and Nigeria were trained  4 coder checks were performed (once before, once after and twice during the coding process)  Sampled ads were acquired from national TV stations on a CD- ROM Validity test  Was valid if at least two out of the three coders (author inclusive) agreed on a coding variable  Was invalid if vice versa  Sampled ads were run through the LIWC analysis tool twice with a 5 month interval
  18. 18. 18 CHAPTER 3: EMPIRICAL PART TELECOMMUNICATIONS IN THE SUB RERION METHODOLOGY RESULTS OF RESEARCH DISCUSSION OF RESULTS Adapted Standardized COMPANY  PRODUCT / SERVICE  CAST  AGE / GENDER OF MAIN CHARACTER (S)  SETTING (ACTIVITY / PLACE)  NATIONAL SYMPBOLS / COLORS  LANGUAGE(S)  ACTIONS  SLOGAN / CATION  HIGHEST COUNT WORDS  NOTABLE PHRASES  HIGHLIGHTED / STRESSED WORDS  MUSIC  VOICES  SPOKEN SLOGANS OTHERS  TARGET AUDIENCE  APPEALS  LENGTH  NUMBER OF SCENES  MTN CENTRALIMAGECULTURALELEMENTS TEXT/DRAWN ELEMENTSOFTV KEYWORDS/ PHRASES AUDIOELEMENTSOFTVSPOT SOUNDS OTHERELEMENTS FEATURES TECHN ICAL PARAMETERS VIDEOELEMENTSOFTVSPOT
  19. 19. 19 CHAPTER 3: EMPIRICAL PART TELECOMMUNICATIONS IN THE SUB RERION METHODOLOGY RESULTS OF RESEARCH DISCUSSION OF RESULTS Adapted Standardized COMPANY  PRODUCT / SERVICE  CAST  AGE / GENDER OF MAIN CHARACTER (S)  SETTING (ACTIVITY / PLACE)  NATIONAL SYMPBOLS / COLORS  LANGUAGE(S)  ACTIONS  SLOGAN / CAPTION  HIGHEST COUNT WORDS  NOTABLE PHRASES  HIGHLIGHTED / STRESSED WORDS  MUSIC  VOICES  SPOKEN SLOGANS  OTHERS  TARGET AUDIENCE  APPEALS  LENGTH  NUMBER OF SCENES  TEXT/DRAWN ELEMENTSOFTV SPOT KEYWORDS/ PHRASES AUDIOELEMENTSOFTV SPOT SOUNDS OTHERELEMENTS FEATURE S TECHNIC AL PARAMETERS VIDEOELEMENTSOFTVSPOT CENTRALIMAGECULTURALELEMENTS GLO
  20. 20. 20 CHAPTER 3: EMPIRICAL PART TELECOMMUNICATIONS IN THE SUB RERION METHODOLOGY RESULTS OF RESEARCH DISCUSSION OF RESULTS TRANSLATED TRANSCRIPT OF MTN GHANA AD LIWC Dimension Your Data Personal Texts Formal Texts Self-references (I, me, my) 2.08 11.4 4.2 Social words 12.5 9.5 8 Positive emotions 5.21 2.7 2.6 Negative emotions 0 2.6 1.6 Overall cognitive words 5.21 7.8 5.4 Articles (a, an, the) 2.08 5 7.2 Big words (> 6 letters) 15.62 13.1 19.6 Word Count 96 TRANSLATED TRANSCRIPT OF MTN NIGERIA AD LIWC Dimension Your Data Personal Texts Formal Texts Self-references (I, me, my) 4.35 11.4 4.2 Social words 6.52 9.5 8 Positive emotions 0 2.7 2.6 Negative emotions 0 2.6 1.6 Overall cognitive words 1.09 7.8 5.4 Articles (a, an, the) 5.43 5 7.2 Big words (> 6 letters) 14.13 13.1 19.6 Word Count 92 TRANSLATED TRANSCRIPT OF GLO GHANA AD LIWC Dimension Your Data Personal Texts Formal Texts Self-references (I, me, my) 18.32 11.4 4.2 Social words 29.77 9.5 8 Positive emotions 11.45 2.7 2.6 Negative emotions 0 2.6 1.6 Overall cognitive words 0.76 7.8 5.4 Articles (a, an, the) 0.76 5 7.2 Big words (> 6 letters) 24.43 13.1 19.6 Word Count 131 TRANSLATED TRANSCRIPT OF GLO NIGERIA AD LIWC Dimension Your Data Personal Texts Formal Texts Self-references (I, me, my) 4.55 11.4 4.2 Social words 14.39 9.5 8 Positive emotions 1.52 2.7 2.6 Negative emotions 0 2.6 1.6 Overall cognitive words 3.79 7.8 5.4 Articles (a, an, the) 6.06 5 7.2 Big words (> 6 letters) 11.36 13.1 19.6 Word Count 132 LIWC Analysis
  21. 21. 21 CHAPTER 3: EMPIRICAL PART TELECOMMUNICATIONS IN THE SUB RERION METHODOLOGY RESULTS OF RESEARCH DISCUSSION OF RESULTS Mirrored Relationships (Basic Needs-Culture-Ad Appeals) Source: adapted from: cf. Maslow, 1943, pp. 370-396; Hofstede, G. & Hofstede et al., 2010, pp. 6-7; cf. Wells et al., 1992, p249.
  22. 22. 22 CHAPTER 3: EMPIRICAL PART TELECOMMUNICATIONS IN THE SUB RERION METHODOLOGY RESULTS OF RESEARCH DISCUSSION OF RESULTS  Power distance Index (PDI)  Individualism versus Collectivism (IDV)  Masculinity versus Femininity (MAS)  Uncertainty avoidance index (UAI)  Pragmatic versus Normative (PRA)  Indulgence versus Restraint (IND) Confirmed by the theories of culture
  23. 23. 23 CHAPTER 3: EMPIRICAL PART TELECOMMUNICATIONS IN THE SUB RERION METHODOLOGY RESULTS OF RESEARCH DISCUSSION OF RESULTS  How diverse is the ECOWAS region in terms of culture? 1000+ Native Languages 200+ Ethnic Groups 15 Countries 300 Million+ Inhabitants  CULTURALLY EXTREMELY DIVERSE Different Inherited Cultures Various Learned Cultures
  24. 24. 24 CHAPTER 3: EMPIRICAL PART TELECOMMUNICATIONS IN THE SUB RERION METHODOLOGY RESULTS OF RESEARCH DISCUSSION OF RESULTS  Which factors affect adaptation and standardization of ads?  Culture i. Cultural dimensions ii. Visible and invisible aspects iii. Verbal and non-verbal aspect iv. High and low context
  25. 25. 25 CHAPTER 3: EMPIRICAL PART TELECOMMUNICATIONS IN THE SUB RERION METHODOLOGY RESULTS OF RESEARCH DISCUSSION OF RESULTS MAIN CATEGORY VIDEO ELEMENTS OF TV SPOT TEXT / DRAWN ELEMENTS OF TV SPOT AUDIO ELEMENTS OF TV SPOT OTHER ELEMENTS GENERIC CATEGORY CENTRAL IMAGE CULTURAL ELEMENTS KEYWORDS / PHRASES SOUNDS FEATURES TECHNICA L SUB-CATEGORY COMPANY PRODUCT/ SERVICE CAST AGE/GENDEROF MAINCHARACTER (S) SETTING(ACTIVITY /PLACE) NATIONAL SYMPBOLS/ COLORS LANGUAGE(S) ACTIONS SLOGAN/ CAPTION HIGHESTCOUNT WORDS NOTABLEPHRASES HIGHLIGHTED/ STRESSEDWORDS MUSIC VOICES SPOKENSLOGANS OTHERS TARGETAUDIENCE APPEALS LENGTH NUMBEROF SCENES MTN & GLO PARAMETER S Adapted                 Standardize d xx xx x xx x x x x x x xx x PARAMETER S DEDUCED Adapted   0   0 0  0   0 0  0 Standardize d x x 0 x 0 0 0 0 0 x 0 SUMMED PARAMETER S Adapted 2 2 1 2 0 1 Standardize d 2 1 0 0 1 0 SUB-CATEGORY BALANCED ADAPTED ADAPTED ADAPTED STANDADIZ ED ADAPTED GENERIC CATEGORY ADAPTED ADAPTED ADAPTED BALANCED MAIN CATEGORY ADAPTED ADAPTED ADAPTED BALANCED  What elements of an ad should be adapted or standardized?
  26. 26. 26 1. age or target grouping 2. culture considerations 3. advertisement theme and appeal 4. language and linguistic characteristics CHAPTER 4: GUIDELINE PROPOSAL Components Guideline
  27. 27. Standardization Adaptation INVISIBLE Self-Actualization Self-Esteem Love and belonging Safety needs Physiological needs 65+ years 55 – 64 years 8 – 14 years 15– 24 years CULTURE 65+y rs. 0 yrs. AgeRangeOfCelebritiesUsedIn Ads AGE / TARGET 43 LANGUAGE 25– 54 years AD THEME AND APPEAL Most Popular / Government Sponsored Vernacular Vernacular, English English, Vernacular, Pidgin English English, Pidgin RationalEmotional VISIBLE 15 30 45 65 STORYTELLING / MUSIC Moral - History and Politics; Socio-Culture; Socio-Economy Averaged LIWC Results of all MTN and GLO Ads LIWC Dimension Your Data Personal Texts Formal Texts Self-references (I, me, my) 7.325 11.4 4.2 Social words 15.795 9.5 8 Positive emotions 4.545 2.7 2.6 Negative emotions 0 2.6 1.6 Overall cognitive words 2.7125 7.8 5.4 Articles (a, an, the) 3.5825 5 7.2 Big words (> 6 letters) 16.385 13.1 19.6 Word Count 112.75 Proposed Guideline Averaged LIWC Results of all MTN and GLO Ads LIWC Dimension Your Data Personal Texts Formal Texts Self-references (I, me, my) 7.325 11.4 4.2 Social words 15.795 9.5 8 Positive emotions 4.545 2.7 2.6 Negative emotions 0 2.6 1.6 Overall cognitive words 2.7125 7.8 5.4 Articles (a, an, the) 3.5825 5 7.2 Big words (> 6 letters) 16.385 13.1 19.6 Word Count 112.75 27
  28. 28. 28 CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION AND OUTLOOK SUMMARY LIMITATIONS IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH  Know the internal and external characteristics of the firm  Striking the right balance between adaptation and standardization  The balance is dependent on the target/age group  Advertisements should generally be highly adapted
  29. 29. 29 CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION AND OUTLOOK SUMMARY LIMITATIONS IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH  Only one industry and two member states were analyzed  The research was limited to ‘promotion’ of the marketing mix in the entire marketing process schematic  Just TV ads were analyzed  Content analysis is open to the interpretation of the researcher  An online (trial) version of the LIWC software was used (technical complexities could not be analyzed)
  30. 30. 30 CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION AND OUTLOOK SUMMARY LIMITATIONS IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH  More samples spread across different industries and member states  Broadcast, print and interactive ads should be analyzed  A full version of the LIWC software or any other similar should be purchased and used.
  31. 31. 31 Master Thesis Defense T h e E n d For details and references, refer to the corresponding chapters of the thesis.

×