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Telecommunications
      Systems
  and Networking


                     1
Learning Objectives
• Understand the concept of a network
• Apply Metcalfe’s law in understanding the
  value of a network
• Identify major developments and trends in
  the industries, technologies, and business applications of
  telecommunications and
  Internet technologies
• Provide examples of the business value of Internet, intranet,
  and extranet applications


                                                                  2
Learning Objectives
• Identify the basic components, functions, and types
  of telecommunications networks used in business
• Explain the functions of major components
  of telecommunications network hardware, software,
  media, and services
• Explain the concept of client/server networking




                                                        3
Network Concepts
• A network is an interconnected or interrelated chain,
  group, or system
• The number of possible connections on a network is
  N(N–1) or N2 –N
   – N = number of nodes (points of connection)
   – Example: 10 computers on a network = 10(10–1)
     = 10x9 = 90 possible connections




                                                          4
Telecommunication Trends




                           5
Telecommunications-Based Services




                                    6
Value of Telecommunications
          Networks




                              7
Digital Network Technologies
 • Telecommunications are being revolutionized
   by switch from analog to digital
    – Analog: voice-oriented transmission
    – Digital: discrete pulse transmission
 • Benefits
    – Higher transmission speeds
    – Moves larger amounts of information
    – Greater economy and much lower error rates
    – Transmits multiple types of communications (data,
      voice, video) on the same circuits

                                                      8
Internet Networking Technologies
    • Internet networking technologies are being
      used as technology platform
       –   Web browser suites
       –   HTML Web page editors
       –   Network management software
       –   Firewalls
    • Being applied in Internet, intranet, and
      extranet applications
    • Reinforces previous move toward client/server
      networks based on open-systems architecture



                                                      9
Internet2
• Next generation of the Internet
   – High-performance
   – Different infrastructure than the current Internet
   – Will not replace the current Internet
   – In use at over 200 universities, scientific institutions, communications
     corporations
   – May never become totally open
   – Users are connected via Abilene, a backbone
     that supports throughput of 10 Gbps
   – Infinite bandwidth



                                                                            10
Internet Service Providers
• ISP
  – A company that specializes in providing easy access to the
    Internet
  – For a monthly fee, provides software, user name,
    password, and Internet access
• ISPs themselves are connected to one another
  through network access points
  – One ISP can easily connect to another to obtain addresses
    of websites or user nodes


                                                             11
Internet Applications
• Most popular Internet applications and uses
   – E-mail
   – Instant messaging
   – Browsing the Web
   – Newsgroups
   – Chat rooms
   – Publish opinions, subject matter, creative work
   – Buy and sell
   – Downloading (data, software, reports, pictures, music, videos)




                                                                      12
Business Value of the Internet




                                 13
The Role of Intranets
• Many companies have sophisticated and
  widespread intranets, offering…
   –   Detailed data retrieval
   –   Collaboration
   –   Personalized customer profiles
   –   Links to the Internet
• Intranets use Internet technologies
   – Web browsers and servers
   – TCP/IP network protocols
   – HTML publishing and databases


                                          14
Intranets
• Intranets are protected by…
  – Passwords
  – Encryption
  – Firewalls
• Customers, suppliers, and other business
  partners can access an intranet via extranet
  links

                                                 15
Business Value of Intranets
• Intranets support
  – Communications and collaboration
  – Business operations and management
  – Web publishing
  – Intranet portal management




                                         16
Intranets as Information Portals




                                   17
Extranets
• Network links that use Internet technologies to
  connect the intranet of a business to the intranets of
  another
• Virtual Private Networks
   – Direct private network links, or private secure Internet
     links between companies
• Unsecured Extranet
   – Link between a company and others via the Internet,
     relying on encryption of sensitive data and firewall security
     systems


                                                                18
Extranet Connectivity




                        19
Business Value of Extranets
• Web browser technology makes customer and
  supplier access to intranets easier and faster
• Another way to build and strengthen strategic
  relationships
• Enables and improves collaboration between a
  business, customers, and partners
• Facilitates online, interactive product
  development and marketing


                                               20
Telecommunications Network Components
• Terminals
  – Any input/output device that uses networks
    to transmit or receive data
• Telecommunications processors
  – Devices that support data transmission, reception
• Telecommunications channels
  – Media over which data are transmitted, received
• Computers
  – All sizes and types


                                                        21
Types of Communications Networks
• Primary types of communications networks
  – Wide Area
  – Local Area
  – Virtual Private
  – Client/Server
  – Peer-to-peer



                                             22
Wide Area Network (WAN)
• Telecommunication network that covers a
  large geographic area




                                       23
Local Area Network (LAN)
• Connects computers within a limited physical area,
  such as an office, classroom, or building




                                                 24
Virtual Private Networks (VPN)
• Used to establish secure intranets and extranets
   – The Internet is the main backbone network
   – Relies on network firewalls, encryption, and
     other security features to build a “pipe” through the
     Internet
   – Creates a private network without the high
     cost of a separate proprietary connection




                                                             25
Virtual Private Network




                          26
Client/Server Networks
• Clients
   – End user personal computers or networked
     computers
• Servers
   – Used to manage the networks
• Processing
   – Shared between the clients and servers
   – Sometimes called a two-tier architecture
• Larger computer systems are being replaced
  with multiple client/server networks
                                                27
Client/Server Network




                        28
Network Computing
• Networks are the central computing resource
  of the organization
   – Thin clients provide a browser-based user interface
     for processing applets
• Thin clients include
   – Network computers
   – Net PCs
   – Other low-cost network devices or
     information appliances


                                                      29
Network Computing
• Application and database servers provide
   –   The operating system
   –   Application software
   –   Applets
   –   Databases
   –   Database management software
• Sometimes called a three-tier client/server
  model because it consists of
   – Thin clients
   – Application servers
   – Database servers

                                                30
Network Computing




                    31
Peer-to-Peer Networks
• Central Server Architecture
   – P2P file-sharing software connects all PCs
     to a central server
   – When a PC requests a file, the server searches
     all active peers on the network
   – The server sends the requesting PC a list of
     links to all active peers who have the file
   – Clicking a link connects the two PCs and
     automatically transfers the file to the
     requesting PC


                                                      32
Peer-to-Peer Networks
• Pure Peer-to-Peer Architecture
   – No central directory or server
   – File-sharing software connects one PC to
     another online user
   – When you request a file, the software searches every
     online user and sends you a list of active file names
   – Clicking a link automatically transfers the file from that
     user’s hard drive to yours



                                                                  33
Central Server Peer-to-Peer Networks
    • Advantages
       – Can better protect the integrity and
         security
         of the content and users of the network
    • Disadvantages
       – Directory server can be slowed or
         overwhelmed by too many users or
         technical problems


                                                   34
Peer-to-Peer Network Diagrams




                                35
Telecommunications Media
• Twisted-Pair Wire
  – Ordinary telephone
    wire
  – Copper wire is twisted
    into pairs




                             36
Telecommunications Media
 • Coaxial Cable
   – Sturdy copper or
     aluminum wire wrapped
     with spacers to insulate
     and protect it




                                37
Telecommunications Media
• Fiber-Optic Cable
  – One or more hair-thin
    filaments of glass
    fiber wrapped in a
    protective jacket




                                38
Wireless Technologies
• Terrestrial Microwave
   – Earthbound microwave systems transmit
     high-speed radio signals
   – Follows a line-of-sight path between relay systems
     spaced about 30 miles apart
• Communications Satellites
   – Serve as relay stations
   – Use microwave radio signals
   – Earth stations beam signals to the satellites
   – Not suitable for interactive, real-time processing

                                                      39
Wireless Technologies
• Cellular and PCS Telephone and Pager
  Systems
  – Geographic areas are divided into cells
  – Each cell has a low-power transmitter or
    radio relay antenna
  – Computers and other communications
    processors coordinate and control the
    transmissions to and from mobile users


                                               40
Wireless Technologies
• Wireless LANS
  – Uses wireless radio-wave technology to
    connect PCs within an office or a building
  – Can be high-frequency, similar to digital
    cellular, or low frequency (spread spectrum)
• Bluetooth
  – Short-range wireless technology
  – Connects PCs to devices, such as a printer
  – Fairly low cost to implement

                                                   41
Standard Capacity for Wireless LAN
• 802.11a – standard can transmit up to 54 Mbps in
  the unlicensed 5 GHz frequency range and has
  effective distance of 10 to 30 meters.
• 802.11b - standard can transmit up to 11 Mbps in the
  unlicensed 2.4 GHz frequency range and has effective
  distance of 30 to 50 meters.
• 802.11g - standard can transmit up to 54 Mbps in the
  unlicensed 2.4 GHz
• 802.11n – will transmit at more than 200 Mbps.

                                                    42
Wireless Technologies
• Other Wireless Systems
   – Cellular phones
   – Mobile radio
   – PDAs
• Telecommunications networks now play vital and
  pervasive roles in
   – Web-enabled e-business processes
   – Electronic commerce
   – Enterprise collaboration
   – Other applications that support business operations,
     management, and strategic objectives



                                                            43
The Wireless Web
• Wireless Internet access is growing as Web-
  enabled information appliances proliferate
   – Smart telephones, pagers, PDAs
   – All are very thin clients in wireless networks




                                                      44
Network Topologies
• Topology
  – The structure of a network
• Star Network
  – Ties end user computers to a central computer
• Ring Network
  – Ties local computer processors together in a ring on
    a relatively equal basis
• Bus Network
  – Local processors share the same communications
    channel

                                                     45
Network Topologies
• Mesh Network
  – Uses direct communications lines to connect some or all of
    the computers in the ring to
    each other
• Switch
  – A message-switching computer that handles
    data communication between autonomous
    local computers




                                                            46
Network Topologies




                     47

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Telecommunications systemsand networking

  • 1. Telecommunications Systems and Networking 1
  • 2. Learning Objectives • Understand the concept of a network • Apply Metcalfe’s law in understanding the value of a network • Identify major developments and trends in the industries, technologies, and business applications of telecommunications and Internet technologies • Provide examples of the business value of Internet, intranet, and extranet applications 2
  • 3. Learning Objectives • Identify the basic components, functions, and types of telecommunications networks used in business • Explain the functions of major components of telecommunications network hardware, software, media, and services • Explain the concept of client/server networking 3
  • 4. Network Concepts • A network is an interconnected or interrelated chain, group, or system • The number of possible connections on a network is N(N–1) or N2 –N – N = number of nodes (points of connection) – Example: 10 computers on a network = 10(10–1) = 10x9 = 90 possible connections 4
  • 8. Digital Network Technologies • Telecommunications are being revolutionized by switch from analog to digital – Analog: voice-oriented transmission – Digital: discrete pulse transmission • Benefits – Higher transmission speeds – Moves larger amounts of information – Greater economy and much lower error rates – Transmits multiple types of communications (data, voice, video) on the same circuits 8
  • 9. Internet Networking Technologies • Internet networking technologies are being used as technology platform – Web browser suites – HTML Web page editors – Network management software – Firewalls • Being applied in Internet, intranet, and extranet applications • Reinforces previous move toward client/server networks based on open-systems architecture 9
  • 10. Internet2 • Next generation of the Internet – High-performance – Different infrastructure than the current Internet – Will not replace the current Internet – In use at over 200 universities, scientific institutions, communications corporations – May never become totally open – Users are connected via Abilene, a backbone that supports throughput of 10 Gbps – Infinite bandwidth 10
  • 11. Internet Service Providers • ISP – A company that specializes in providing easy access to the Internet – For a monthly fee, provides software, user name, password, and Internet access • ISPs themselves are connected to one another through network access points – One ISP can easily connect to another to obtain addresses of websites or user nodes 11
  • 12. Internet Applications • Most popular Internet applications and uses – E-mail – Instant messaging – Browsing the Web – Newsgroups – Chat rooms – Publish opinions, subject matter, creative work – Buy and sell – Downloading (data, software, reports, pictures, music, videos) 12
  • 13. Business Value of the Internet 13
  • 14. The Role of Intranets • Many companies have sophisticated and widespread intranets, offering… – Detailed data retrieval – Collaboration – Personalized customer profiles – Links to the Internet • Intranets use Internet technologies – Web browsers and servers – TCP/IP network protocols – HTML publishing and databases 14
  • 15. Intranets • Intranets are protected by… – Passwords – Encryption – Firewalls • Customers, suppliers, and other business partners can access an intranet via extranet links 15
  • 16. Business Value of Intranets • Intranets support – Communications and collaboration – Business operations and management – Web publishing – Intranet portal management 16
  • 18. Extranets • Network links that use Internet technologies to connect the intranet of a business to the intranets of another • Virtual Private Networks – Direct private network links, or private secure Internet links between companies • Unsecured Extranet – Link between a company and others via the Internet, relying on encryption of sensitive data and firewall security systems 18
  • 20. Business Value of Extranets • Web browser technology makes customer and supplier access to intranets easier and faster • Another way to build and strengthen strategic relationships • Enables and improves collaboration between a business, customers, and partners • Facilitates online, interactive product development and marketing 20
  • 21. Telecommunications Network Components • Terminals – Any input/output device that uses networks to transmit or receive data • Telecommunications processors – Devices that support data transmission, reception • Telecommunications channels – Media over which data are transmitted, received • Computers – All sizes and types 21
  • 22. Types of Communications Networks • Primary types of communications networks – Wide Area – Local Area – Virtual Private – Client/Server – Peer-to-peer 22
  • 23. Wide Area Network (WAN) • Telecommunication network that covers a large geographic area 23
  • 24. Local Area Network (LAN) • Connects computers within a limited physical area, such as an office, classroom, or building 24
  • 25. Virtual Private Networks (VPN) • Used to establish secure intranets and extranets – The Internet is the main backbone network – Relies on network firewalls, encryption, and other security features to build a “pipe” through the Internet – Creates a private network without the high cost of a separate proprietary connection 25
  • 27. Client/Server Networks • Clients – End user personal computers or networked computers • Servers – Used to manage the networks • Processing – Shared between the clients and servers – Sometimes called a two-tier architecture • Larger computer systems are being replaced with multiple client/server networks 27
  • 29. Network Computing • Networks are the central computing resource of the organization – Thin clients provide a browser-based user interface for processing applets • Thin clients include – Network computers – Net PCs – Other low-cost network devices or information appliances 29
  • 30. Network Computing • Application and database servers provide – The operating system – Application software – Applets – Databases – Database management software • Sometimes called a three-tier client/server model because it consists of – Thin clients – Application servers – Database servers 30
  • 32. Peer-to-Peer Networks • Central Server Architecture – P2P file-sharing software connects all PCs to a central server – When a PC requests a file, the server searches all active peers on the network – The server sends the requesting PC a list of links to all active peers who have the file – Clicking a link connects the two PCs and automatically transfers the file to the requesting PC 32
  • 33. Peer-to-Peer Networks • Pure Peer-to-Peer Architecture – No central directory or server – File-sharing software connects one PC to another online user – When you request a file, the software searches every online user and sends you a list of active file names – Clicking a link automatically transfers the file from that user’s hard drive to yours 33
  • 34. Central Server Peer-to-Peer Networks • Advantages – Can better protect the integrity and security of the content and users of the network • Disadvantages – Directory server can be slowed or overwhelmed by too many users or technical problems 34
  • 36. Telecommunications Media • Twisted-Pair Wire – Ordinary telephone wire – Copper wire is twisted into pairs 36
  • 37. Telecommunications Media • Coaxial Cable – Sturdy copper or aluminum wire wrapped with spacers to insulate and protect it 37
  • 38. Telecommunications Media • Fiber-Optic Cable – One or more hair-thin filaments of glass fiber wrapped in a protective jacket 38
  • 39. Wireless Technologies • Terrestrial Microwave – Earthbound microwave systems transmit high-speed radio signals – Follows a line-of-sight path between relay systems spaced about 30 miles apart • Communications Satellites – Serve as relay stations – Use microwave radio signals – Earth stations beam signals to the satellites – Not suitable for interactive, real-time processing 39
  • 40. Wireless Technologies • Cellular and PCS Telephone and Pager Systems – Geographic areas are divided into cells – Each cell has a low-power transmitter or radio relay antenna – Computers and other communications processors coordinate and control the transmissions to and from mobile users 40
  • 41. Wireless Technologies • Wireless LANS – Uses wireless radio-wave technology to connect PCs within an office or a building – Can be high-frequency, similar to digital cellular, or low frequency (spread spectrum) • Bluetooth – Short-range wireless technology – Connects PCs to devices, such as a printer – Fairly low cost to implement 41
  • 42. Standard Capacity for Wireless LAN • 802.11a – standard can transmit up to 54 Mbps in the unlicensed 5 GHz frequency range and has effective distance of 10 to 30 meters. • 802.11b - standard can transmit up to 11 Mbps in the unlicensed 2.4 GHz frequency range and has effective distance of 30 to 50 meters. • 802.11g - standard can transmit up to 54 Mbps in the unlicensed 2.4 GHz • 802.11n – will transmit at more than 200 Mbps. 42
  • 43. Wireless Technologies • Other Wireless Systems – Cellular phones – Mobile radio – PDAs • Telecommunications networks now play vital and pervasive roles in – Web-enabled e-business processes – Electronic commerce – Enterprise collaboration – Other applications that support business operations, management, and strategic objectives 43
  • 44. The Wireless Web • Wireless Internet access is growing as Web- enabled information appliances proliferate – Smart telephones, pagers, PDAs – All are very thin clients in wireless networks 44
  • 45. Network Topologies • Topology – The structure of a network • Star Network – Ties end user computers to a central computer • Ring Network – Ties local computer processors together in a ring on a relatively equal basis • Bus Network – Local processors share the same communications channel 45
  • 46. Network Topologies • Mesh Network – Uses direct communications lines to connect some or all of the computers in the ring to each other • Switch – A message-switching computer that handles data communication between autonomous local computers 46

Hinweis der Redaktion

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