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Eidgenössisches Nuklearsicherheitsinspektorat ENSI
ENSI
Antwort des ENSI
zur TFS-Frage 123
17. Juni 2014, 21. TFS-Sitzung
...
ENSIENSI
In Schweden (J. Swahn am 13. März am Atommüllkongress der
SES) und in den USA (Nature, 6. März 2014) wird seit ei...
ENSIENSI
Allgemeine Bemerkungen
• Das Konzept der möglichen Entsorgung radioaktiver
Abfälle (HAA/BE) in tiefen Bohrlöchern...
ENSIENSI
Auszug aus dem Bericht:
“The Disposal Subcommittee further concludes that geologic disposal in a
mined repository...
ENSIENSI
Zur Entsorgung des US-Abfallinventars an HAA/BE würden
nach dem DBD-Konzept (3 – 5 km tief im Granit) benötigt :
...
ENSIENSI
Chancen:
• Bohrtechnik ist heute weit fortgeschritten
• DBD weit weg vom Lebensraum des
Menschen und damit potent...
ENSIENSI
Klufthäufigkeit / Wasserführung
Wasserchemismus
und Fliesssysteme
(blau = saline Tiefenwässer)
7Antwort zu TFS-Fr...
ENSIENSI
• Geologische Kenntnisse über diesen Tiefenbereich sind sehr gering
• Exploration eines geringdurchlässigen homog...
Eidgenössisches Nuklearsicherheitsinspektorat ENSI
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Technisches Forum Sicherheit: Antwort des ENSI zu Frage 123 betreffend Bohrlöcher

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Bis zu fünf Kilometer tiefe Löcher bohren und die radioaktiven Abfälle dort in Granit versenken – über diese Methode diskutierte das Technische Forum Sicherheit in seiner 21. Sitzung in Brugg. Bohrlöcher kommen für die Entsorgung radioaktiver Abfälle in der Schweiz indes nicht in Frage.

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Technisches Forum Sicherheit: Antwort des ENSI zu Frage 123 betreffend Bohrlöcher

  1. 1. Eidgenössisches Nuklearsicherheitsinspektorat ENSI ENSI Antwort des ENSI zur TFS-Frage 123 17. Juni 2014, 21. TFS-Sitzung E. Frank
  2. 2. ENSIENSI In Schweden (J. Swahn am 13. März am Atommüllkongress der SES) und in den USA (Nature, 6. März 2014) wird seit einiger Zeit geprüft, ob der atomare Abfall in «boreholes» versenkt werden kann. a) Gibt es in der Schweiz dazu auch Forschungsarbeiten und Pläne? b) Welche Chancen bzw. welche Risiken sind aufgrund der jetzt bekannten Forschungsresultate vorhanden? 2Antwort zu TFS-Frage 123 | 21. TFS-Sitzung | E. Frank TFS-Frage 123 von A. Weber und G. Winkler FG Si NL
  3. 3. ENSIENSI Allgemeine Bemerkungen • Das Konzept der möglichen Entsorgung radioaktiver Abfälle (HAA/BE) in tiefen Bohrlöchern (5-6 km) in Granit wird seit den 50’iger Jahren diskutiert (z. B. US National Academy of Science Report 1957, VSE/Nagra Konzept für die nukleare Entsorgung in der Schweiz 1978, siehe Figur rechts). • In verschiedenen Ländern wurden dazu Studien durchgeführt (z. B. NTB 80-04, SKB TR 89-39, SKB TR 98-05, Gibb et al 1999, 2008, 2012, Anderson MIT 2004, MKG Report 2006, Sandia National Laboratories Report 2009) • Nach dem Stop des Yucca Mountain Endlager- Projektes gibt es in den USA unter der Leitung der Sandia National Laboratories neue Forschungspläne für ein Tiefbohrexperiment DBD «Deep Borehole Disposal» (Blue Ribbon Commission Report 2012, Nature 2014). 3Antwort zu TFS-Frage 123 | 21. TFS-Sitzung | E. Frank Antwort zur Frage 123
  4. 4. ENSIENSI Auszug aus dem Bericht: “The Disposal Subcommittee further concludes that geologic disposal in a mined repository is the most promising and technically accepted option available for safely isolating high-level nuclear wastes for very long periods of time. This view is supported by decades of expert judgment and by a broad international consensus. All other countries with spent fuel and high-level waste disposal programs are pursuing geologic disposal. The United States has many geologic media that are technically suitable for a repository. Other concepts for geologic disposal have been proposed; these options may hold promise but will require further investigation. For the disposal of certain forms of waste, the Subcommittee identified disposal in deep boreholes (DBD) as a potential promising technology, but it requires further exploration and research.” 4Antwort zu TFS-Frage 123 | 21. TFS-Sitzung | E. Frank Blue Ribbon Commision Report 2012
  5. 5. ENSIENSI Zur Entsorgung des US-Abfallinventars an HAA/BE würden nach dem DBD-Konzept (3 – 5 km tief im Granit) benötigt : • 1000 Bohrlöcher (Bohrlochdurchmesser für Einlagerung = 45 cm) • Abstand der Bohrungen = 200m (wegen Wärmeproduktion) • Flächenbedarf für alle Bohrungen = 40 km2 5Antwort zu TFS-Frage 123 | 21. TFS-Sitzung | E. Frank Resultate der Sandia Studie 2009
  6. 6. ENSIENSI Chancen: • Bohrtechnik ist heute weit fortgeschritten • DBD weit weg vom Lebensraum des Menschen und damit potentiell lange Fliesspfade für allfällig freigesetzte RN • Grosse Tiefen schützen besser vor Erosion • Granit weist in diesem Tiefenbereich eine hohe mechanische Gesteinsfestigkeit, meist eine Abnahme der Klufthäufigkeit und damit verbunden sehr geringe Permeabiltäten auf • Granit-Tiefenwässer zeigen in dieser Tiefe meist eine hohe Salinität (stagnierende Wässer) • Ressourcenkonflikt klein Konzeptvorstellungen zur oberen Kruste in Schweden aus SKB TR 98-05 6Antwort zu TFS-Frage 123 | 20. TFS-Sitzung | E. Frank Antwort zur Frage 123 b : Chancen / Risiken
  7. 7. ENSIENSI Klufthäufigkeit / Wasserführung Wasserchemismus und Fliesssysteme (blau = saline Tiefenwässer) 7Antwort zu TFS-Frage 123 | 21. TFS-Sitzung | E. Frank Befunde und Modell (SKB TR-98-05) für das kristalline Grundgebirge Schwedens (1-5 km)
  8. 8. ENSIENSI • Geologische Kenntnisse über diesen Tiefenbereich sind sehr gering • Exploration eines geringdurchlässigen homogenen Granitkörpers schwierig (praktisch kein seismisches Abbild möglich) • Eine Bohrung liefert nur punktuelle lokale Information (Nadelstich), damit besteht Gefahr von unentdeckten wasserführenden Diskontinuitäten in unmittelbarer Nähe des Bohrlochs • Grosse Tiefen bedeuten stark erhöhte Felstemperaturen (in 6 km bis 200 Grad C) und Gebirgsdrücke. Zusammen mit dem Wärmeeintrag der Abfälle führt dies in den ersten 1000 Jahren zu einer hohen thermischen Belastung und zu komplexen T-H- M-C-Prozessen im Bohrloch und umgebenden Gebirge. • Qualität und Langzeitverhalten der Verrohrung, der Zementationen und der Bohrlochsiegel unbekannt: potenzielle Fliesspfade entlang Auflockerungszone oder entlang der Verrohrung • Einschluss beruht einzig auf der Barrierenwirkung der Geosphäre, kein gestaffeltes Mehrfachbarrierensystem möglich wie im KEG gefordert • Überwachung und Kontrolle des Einschlusses schwierig • Behälterintegrität und Rückholbarkeit nicht gegeben 8Antwort zu TFS-Frage 123 | 21. TFS-Sitzung | E. Frank Risiken des DBD-Konzeptes
  9. 9. Eidgenössisches Nuklearsicherheitsinspektorat ENSI Danke für die Aufmerksamkeit

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