1. SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE, BUILDING AND DESIGN
BACHELOR OF QUANTITY SURVEYING (HONOURS)
CONSTRUCTION SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT
Building Information Modelling (BIM)
Group Members: David Choong Yuen Loong 0329961
Esther Chuah Ning Sie 0321422
Lau Chong Yen 0318973
Lau Yi Yin 0318969
Tay Soon Huat 0319095
Submission Date: 29th November 2016
Lecturer: Ms. Tay Shir Men
TABLE OF CONTENT
Item Content Page
1.0 Introduction to BIM 2
2.0 3D Model:Visualization Model 3
2.1 Services Provided by BIM 3D 3
2.2 List of Software for 3D Modelling
2.3 Advantages to CSCM 4
2.4 Disadvantages and Costs 5
3.0 4D Model:Time Model 6
3.1 Services Provided by BIM 4D 6
3.2 List of Software for 4D Modelling 6
3.3 Advantages to CSCM 7
3.4 Disadvantages and Costs 7
4.0 5D Model:Cost Model 8
4.1 Services Provided by BIM 5D 8
4.2 List of Software for 5D Modelling 8
4.3 Advantages to CSCM 9
4.4 Disadvantages and Costs 9
5.0 6D Model:Energy Model 10
5.1 Services Provided by BIM 6D 10
5.2 List of Software for 6D Modelling 11
5.3 Advantages to CSCM 11
5.4 Disadvantages and Costs 11
6.0 7D Model:Energy Model 13
6.1 Services Provided by BIM 7D 13
6.2 List of Software for 6D Modelling 13
6.3 Advantages to CSCM 13
6.4 Disadvantages and Costs 14
7.0 Conclusion and Recommendation 15
1.0 INTRODUCTION TO BIM
Building Information Modeling (BIM) is an intelligent 3D model-based process that
equips architecture, engineering, and construction professionals with the tools to a more
efficiently plan, design, construct, and manage buildings and infrastructure. With BIM
technology, an accurate virtual model of the building is digitally constructed. By creating a
digital Building Information Model it enables those who interact with the building to optimize
their actions, resulting in a greater whole life value for the asset. It will explores the benefits,
costs, risks and rewards associated with BIM, interoperability and integration. Other than that,
it also helps the architects, engineers and constructors visualize what is to be built and to
identify any potential design, construction, or operational issues. This saves a lot of designer’s
time since each view is coordinated through the built-in intelligence of the model. Meanwhile,
it is intended to serve as a starting point for those members considering adopting BIM tools
and applications as part of their business practices.
Dimensions of BIM ranging from 3D to 7D and each dimensions providing different
services addition to the project, which are visualization model (3D), time model (4D), cost
model (5D), energy model (6D) and facilities management (7D) as shown in Figure 1.1. Each
dimensions of BIM will house each chapter, where the services and software available for the
BIM dimensions as well as the advantages and costs of BIM to construction supply chain
management (CSCM) are discussed in detail.
Figure 1.1: Services provided by each dimensions of BIM
2.0 3D MODEL:VISUALIZATION MODEL
2.1 Services Provided by BIM 3D
3D model is an existing integrated data model that various construction stakeholders
such as Architects, Builders, Civil Engineers, Manufacturers MEP System Engineers, MEP
System Engineers and Project Owners Structural Engineers, can extract and generate views
and information according to their needs. BIM 3D helps participants to manage their
multidisciplinary collaboration more effectively in modelling and analysing complex spatial and
structural problems which is more time saving.
Besides displaying the building in three dimensions, 3D BIM's visualizations also
provide simple schedule simulation and automatically update these views along with the
project life cycle, from the earliest conception to the final stage of a building. This animations
can be used as a good marketing tool for the buyer to have better understanding on the
BIM 3D has laser scanning, ground penetration radars (GPR) conversions features
that drive an accurate site layout. BIM 3D driven prefabrication ensure the prefabricated
components will fit once on-site. Thus, moving construction work to a warehouse environment
greatly reduces the cost and the risk of slips, trips, falls, and soft-tissue injuries. Moreover,
BIM 3D has a clash detection function to spot 'clashes' at an early stage in the construction
project where they should be much easier, cheaper and less time consuming to rectify.
2.2 List of Software for 3D Modelling
1. Autodesk Revit Architecture
2. Graphisoft ArchiCAD
3. Nemetschek Allplan Architecture
4. Gehry Technologies - Digital Project Designer
5. Nemetschek Vectorworks Architect
6. Bentley Architecture
7. 4MSA IDEA Architectural Design (IntelliCAD)
8. CADSoft Envisioneer
9. Softtech Spirit
10. RhinoBIM (BETA)
1. Autodesk Revit Structure
2. Bentley Structural Modeler
3. Bentley RAM, STAAD and ProSteel
4. Tekla Structures
6. Graytec Advance Design
7. StructureSoft Metal Wood Framer
8. Nemetschek Scia
9. 4MSA Strad and Steel
10. Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis
1. Autodesk Revit MEP
2. Bentley Hevacomp Mechanical Designer
3. 4MSA FineHVAC + FineLIFT + FineELEC + FineSANI
4. Gehry Technologies - Digital Project MEP Systems Routing
5. CADMEP (CADduct / CADmech)
2.3 Advantages to CSCM
3D BIM enable the completion of visualization of the resource flow status, supply-
network visibility and accurate information concerning the status of material at different stages
to be enhanced. As a result, the managers have access to a BIM model with the full range of
material information. Besides that, BIM capability also accurately provides a detailed take off
in an early phase of the procurement process of the construction supply chain management.
Design intent communication will be effective, multidisciplinary collaboration is encouraged
and able to resolve potential problem at an early stage.
2.4 Disadvantages and Costs
3D Modelling is implemented at the initial phase of the construction project, which
covers procurement and design phase. The implementation of 3D BIM cause increased time
spent in the design phase due to revision of model to reduce error. BIM requires more effort
at the outset of a project. When BIM is used, it is insufficient for a contractor to simply submit
plans for its own work and then begin construction. The contractor must first sit down with the
designer and other prime contractors and create the collaborative model. BIM is not yet
universally used among construction professionals. There is always the possibility that one of
your partners or subcontractors may not use BIM and may not be able to use your models.
Besides that, the application of 3D modelling will increase cost in the design phase for the
software and expert staff for running the software. The relative newness of BIM means that
there are limited numbers of experts working in the field. Software purchase may require an
additional investment in training and education. The use of BIM requires significant training
and as with any software program there are costs associated with the software such as
purchasing, licensing and training. A contractor may need to upgrade its computer system to
effectively use the BIM software.
3.0 4D Model:Time Model
3.1 Services Provided byBIM 14D
4D BIM is used for constructionsite planning related activities, suchas project phrasing
and scheduling. It allows participants to extract and visualize the progress of their activities
through the lifetime of the project.
The utilization of 4D BIM technology can result in improved control over conflict
detection or over the complexity of changes occurring during the course of a construction
project. 4D BIM provides methods for managing and visualizing site status information, change
impacts as well as supporting communication in various situations such as informing site staff
or warning about risks.
Construction sequences can be reviewed as a series of problems using 4D BIM,
enabling users to explore options, manage solutions and optimize results. It enables
construction product development, collaborative and transparent project implementation,
partnering with the supply chain and production of components.
With the help of schedule visualization, participants will be able to make sound
decisions and changes to the projects based on multiple sources of accurate real-time
information. 4D BIM show the critical path and the dependency of project sequences in chart
form. When happen that there is some changes in the project design, advanced BIM model
will automatically identify all the chances that will affect the critical path and will indicate what
the corresponding impact will be on the overall delivery of the project.
3.2 List of Software for 4D Modelling
1. Synchro Professional Software
3. Vico Control Software
3.3 Advantages to CSCM
BIM visualization capability allows the generation of reports and alerts graphically.
Therefore, the time required to provide a list of all the materials is largely diminished and,
instead of using statistics reports, the 3D visualization of the material status is displayed at
any specified time by comparing the incoming quantity and the planned quantity to date. Many
BIM tools provide scheduling functionality and simple functions to link construction schedule
to the 3D model, allowing visualization of the sequential construction of the building. When
material status cannot be easily seen on a construction site due to physical obstacles,
computer-aided visualization is needed to facilitate reporting of process status. The visual
report produced by BIM can clearly demonstrate the availability of materials and their final
locations, which ultimately facilitate monitoring and properly provide process transparency.
3.4 Disadvantages and Costs
Although one of the advantages of using a BIM model is that changes can be made
quickly, BIM can disrupt the general procurement and construction process when ordering
items that require a long lead time. For example, a contractor may need to order material
based on the dimensions of the design. Ordering this material may take weeks or months. If
the dimensions change, as may occur when multiple contractors are inputting information into
a model on a continual basis, the contractor may be left with insufficient time to order the
material. Another challenges of implementing BIM is to manage resource and information,
after the complete implementation of BIM and network based integration. The company that
is implementing BIM has to ensure that the suppliers and subcontractors follow suit. This
involvement and implementation of BIM by suppliers and subcontractors will lead to
management of more information. Moreover, mapping and management of resources is still
done in a traditional way. New legal and construal processes are to be in place for the
successful implementation of BIM. The firm has to select an experienced and skilled partner
that can support with proficiency, knowledge, experience and resources.
4.0 5D MODEL:COST MODEL
4.1 Services Provided by BIM 5D
5D BIM is used for budget tracking and cost analysis related activities. The 5D BIM
associated with 3D and 4D will allow participants to visualize the construction activities and its
related costs over time. The dominant models in 5D BIM are Quantity Extraction,
Prefabrication Solution, Real Time Conceptual Model, Trade Verification, Cost Planning and
5D BIM provides methods for extracting and analysing costs,evaluating scenarios and
changes impacts. Cost data can be added to each object item enabling the 5D BIM model to
generate a rough estimation and material cost calculation. This valuable tool will ease the
participant in conducting the value engineering. The utilization of 5D BIM technology can result
in a greater accuracy and predictability of project's estimates, scope changes and materials,
equipment or manpower changes. With the help of 5D BIM, participants will be able to
generate an array of essential estimating informations faster and more accurately, such as
materials quantities, costs, size, area estimates and productivity projections, while project
changes are made, estimating information will automatically adjusts, thus allowing a better
4.2 List of Software for 5D Modelling
1. Autodesk Navisworks
2. Solibri Model Checker
3. Vico Office Suite
4. Vela Field BIM
5. Bentley ConstrucSim
6. Tekla BIMSight
7. Glue (by Horizontal Systems)
8. Synchro Professional
4.3 Advantages to CSCM
5D BIM is able to develop a more efficient, cost-effective and sustainable construction.
BIM makes it possible to define discrete quantifiable elements to show detailed material and
component properties. BIM is a multi-faceted integrator of processes for the monitoring and
control of materials in the construction supply chain. BIM supports the material flows in
construction by reinforcing the existing and establishing new communication protocols and
feedback mechanisms between the design and construction teams. For example, BIM
ensures accurate feedback channels in remote construction projects or monitors the supply
chains by integrating tracking technologies to enhance the visibility during the material delivery.
Likewise, BIM is also used for calculating the cash flows and strengthening the feasibility and
control of project cost analyses.
4.4 Disadvantages and Costs
The lack of inter-operability is a barrier to use 5D BIM as there is no smooth exchange
of information across all BIM disciplines involved. The fragmented construction industry
caused the vendors often run software in proprietary type of formats that restrictthe exchange
of critical building data between multiple organizations, especially comes to cost information,
thus incompatibility between the BIM model and estimating platforms is seen as a major barrier
to 5D BIM implementation. Although IFC standards is generated to create neutral file format
but without complete inter-operability, items suchas estimates and schedules of quantities will
be missed.Furthermore, lack of integration in the model will result in difficulties to model costs
for the project. This is due to parties in the industry work separately and thus the information
required for BIM also separated and integration of information took time to be integrated
5.0 6D MODEL:ENERGY MODEL
5.1 Services Provided by BIM 6D
6D BIM helps perform energy consumption analyses. The utilization of 6D BIM
technology can result in more complete and accurate energy estimates earlier in the design
process. It also allows for measurement and verification during building occupation, and
improved processes for gathering lessons learned in high performance facilities.
The model of 6D BIM consists of conceptual energy analysis, detailed energy analysis
via Eco Tech, sustainable element tracking, conceptual energy via DProfiler, lighting and day
lighting analysis, LEED tracking, sun and shadow studies, airflow, climate and solar radiation
analysis. Sensors of the modeling provide feedback and data record when building is under
operation. Hence, energy efficiency of the building can be evaluated and cost efficiency of the
building material can be calculated.
6D BIM captures data which include details about the components manufacturer, when
it was installed, the necessary maintenance that it requires and when, how to operate it at its
optimum level to enhance performance or conserve energy, and its expected lifespan. Once
linked into the information model, 6D data can support decision making during the design
process and the operation of the built asset once it’s in use.
At delivery phase, 6D BIM enables design teams to consider their impact of their
proposals over a built asset’s lifecycle, simulating outcomes and anticipated costs. But the
ultimate value, lies in the use of that data to support the operational phase. At handover,
project teams can pass their complete data set (known as an Asset Information Model or AIM
from that point) over to the end-user. The digital model offers them a more controlled,
accessible and easily navigable way of managing their information.
With this data on maintenance, lifespans and energy performance to hand, operators
can determine the costs of those activities and create spend profiles over a built asset’s life,
pre-planning maintenance activities years in advance. It helps them adopt a completely
planned and proactive approach to FM and operation as opposed to a reactive one when
unexpected events and costs can crop up at any moment.
Where maintenance does occur, or where an asset is extended, refurbished or
remodelled, operators can update the information model with the relevant points about that
5.2 List of Software for 6D Modelling
1. Autodesk Ecotect Analysis
2. Autodesk Green Building Studio
3. Graphisoft EcoDesigner
4. IES Solutions Virtual Environment VE-Pro
5. Bentley Tas Simulator
6. Bentley Hevacomp
5.3 Advantages to CSCM
Sustainability in building construction may be easily achieved through the use of BIM
tool because it readily incorporates all the information required for the sustainability
certifications like Leadership in Energy and Environmental Designs (LEED) or at the early
stage of design when suitability planning is done. All the data regarding the building is
managed through a central repository and required documents for the sake of certification
process may be delivered with a lot of convenience. Decisions made at management level are
based on data aggregation from lower levels in addition to open and extensible information
exchange with the supply chain. Decisions made at this level consider many factors such as
the strategy adopted by the management team in terms of achieving the emission targets and
the financial implications of any managerial and technical solutions for energy savings. The
integration with the suppliers and other stakeholders such as buildings’ staff or occupiers is
an essential element of the decision. Manufacturers’ data systems can also be integrated to
automatically generate execution details of the building systems with construction guidelines
provided by the manufacturers. This will provide the information needed for quantity take offs
and products used for various simulators and assessment tools. This could be to fix site
problems or liaise with occupiers for better use of the buildings.
5.4 Disadvantages and Costs
Current BIM system do not allow for knowledge sharing among energy managers
across all public departments. The restriction of sharing information unable to add value to the
used system which will affect the sustainability of the buildings, such as preservation of
historical building. Besides, various information which comes from various phases of the
building’s lifecycle should be available to operate and maintain the many complex energy
systems usedby buildings’ occupants. However, the building information is fragmented, which
is created over the building lifecycle by different teams with different objectives and stored in
dofferent system. Therefore, this identifies that lack of integration of information is the barrier
for energy managers in using BIM 6D.
6.0 7D MODEL:FACILITIES MANAGEMENT
6.1 Services Provided by BIM 7D
7D BIM is used by managers in the operation and maintenance of the facility
throughout its life cycle. It allows participants to extract and track relevant asset data such as
component status, specifications, maintenance operation manuals, warranty data etc.
With facility management application, the 7D BIM model includes life Cycle BIM
strategies, BIM as Built, BIM embedded O and M manuals, Cobic data population, BIM
maintenance Plan and BIM file hosting. Throughout the construction phase, the designer will
able to update the detail of the project as built model upon completion.
Besides, 7D BIM also features specifications, operations and maintenance manuals
and warranty information which is useful in conducting maintenance, computerized building
database for record, renovation and maintenance. This eliminates the problems that can
currently be experienced if the O&Mmanual has been misplacedor is kept at a remotelocation.
The utilization of 7D-BIM technology can result in easier and quicker parts
replacements,optimized compliance and a streamlined assetlife cycle management over time.
7D BIM provides processes for managing subcontractor or supplier data and facility
component through the entire facility life cycle.
6.2 List of Software for 7D Modelling
1. Bentley Facilities
2. FM:Systems FM:Interact
3. Vintocon ArchiFM (For ArchiCAD)
4. Onuma System
6.3 Advantages to CSCM
The integration of BIM and 7D CAD simulation models able to optimizes asset
management from design to demolition. In the operation and maintenance of the facility, BIM
can act as central repository for the Building data which may help to increase the safety and
emergency response plan through integrating building information with simulation to avoid
clashes and detect security planning in the early stages of fire, earthquake and explosions
and its impact on structural damage.
6.4 Disadvantages and Costs
7D modelling is more concern on post-construction and project life cycle where
frequent updates are inserted into the modelling which will result in the difficulty in managing
additional volume and complexity of digital information. This will require an upgrade in
hardware and software to manage the information which will lead to increase in cost. Training
will also need to be provided to facilities managers to understand and operate BIM which will
incur cost. Interoperability between software applications by different party and different point
of time will cause large number of data exchange and updating takes place. This is due to
individual and firms will have their own preferred system, software application and processes.
7.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
In conclusion, BIM is a powerful tools which rely heavily on information to support the
building model. Different dimensions of BIM are developed for different services and to be
implemented at different stages of the projects which requires inputs of information by different
professionals. The promiseand advantages of an integrated information and database sharing
model across the entire life span of a built asset have been identified and the barriers to
implementation are as well identified.
BIM ensure efficiencies and effectiveness through collaboration at all stages of
construction cycle. BIM has the power in construction and operation phase which reduce the
construction time and reduce the spending on operation and overhead cost. BIM improves the
process of construction and reduce project documents. In CSCM context, BIM is able to
accurately provide detailed take-off at the early stage of procurement process, detailed
planning of the material delivery, enhance information flows and precise decision making by
However, there are challenges which commonly faced by each dimensions of BIM,
which includes reluctance to change, high costof software,hardware and training, higher front
loaded fees, difficulties in information storage, software incompatibility with other parties, lack
of integration security and management of resources. However, with the increased usage of
BIM, the solutions to overcome the barriers will be identified to enhance the BIM functions.
The use of modern software that allows BIM in construction projects represents a
technological progress with many advantages for all participants, ranging from clients, design
team, consultants and contractors in design and construction stages to occupants, energy
managers, facilities managers during the post-construction stage. In quantity surveyor
perspective, BIM will enhance its profession especially in the efficiency and accuracy of
quantity surveying functions, including taking-off quantities, cost estimating, planning
processes and cost management.
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