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Raffaella Fontana, CNR

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Research and innovation at the CNR-OPD lab

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Raffaella Fontana, CNR

  1. 1. www.ino.cnr.it Research and innovation at the CNR-OPD lab Raffaella FONTANA International Workshop From cross-disciplinary research to heritage science Sala Luca Giordano, Palazzo Medici Riccardi Via Camillo Cavour 3 18th October 2018
  2. 2. WHAT research? Development of new instruments for the non-invasive diagnostics of artworks WHY non-invasive? Because artworks are “only sons of a widow mother” HOW to innovate? Thanks to the feedback of the final users/stackeholders (restorers, conservators, …) Research & innovation @ CNR-OPD lab
  3. 3. The Optical Metrology Lab @ Opificio  Opened in 1998  First optical lab into an institute of the Ministry of Culture and Tourism (MiBACT)
  4. 4. … to the present day From the origins…
  5. 5. From diffidence… … to synergy, and beyond!
  6. 6. The answers to the existential question… … from the different actors (scientists, restorers, art historians, conservators,…)
  7. 7. working within a single discipline people from different disciplines working together, each drawing on their disciplinary knowledge viewing one discipline from the perspective of another integrating knowledge and methods from different disciplines, using a real synthesis of approaches creating a unity of intellectual frameworks beyond the disciplinary perspectives From transdisciplinarity to Heritage Science Intradisciplinary Multidisciplinary Crossdisciplinary Interdisciplinary Transdisciplinary Heritage Science
  8. 8. heritage science is… …a transdisciplinary scientific domain founded on the combination of knowledge from arts, humanities, science and technology  providing a holistic approach to cultural and natural heritage preservation, documentation, interpretation and management  has great socio-economic impact www.e-rihs.eu
  9. 9. … connotes a research strategy that crosses many disciplinary boundaries to create a holistic approach. Transdisciplinary research goes beyond academia and involves stakeholders. Transdisciplinarity…
  10. 10. WHAT research? Development of new instruments for the non-invasive diagnostics of artworks Research & innovation @ CNR-OPD lab SCANNER FOR IR REFLECTOGRAPHY OCT device MICRO-PROFILOMETER
  11. 11. IR reflectography: a little history Since 1950 IR photography is routinly applied during restoration and examination of artworks. 1930s: first application of IR photography to the analysis of artworks (F. Rawlings - National Gallery of London and Fogg Art Museum - Harvard University)
  12. 12. IR reflectography: a little history 1960s: Van Asperen de Boer laid the theoretical and experimental bases of IR reflectography. First reflectograms with PbS Vidicon detector (up to 2 μm). 1980s solid state CCD devices (up to 1.1 μm) make their appearance.
  13. 13. IR reflectography: a little history 1990s: InGaAs or PtSi arrays sensible up to 1.7 μm or 5 μm improve the underdrawing visibility. 1990s: the first scanning system based on a single sensor is developed at the National Institute of Optics INO (up to 1.7μm).
  14. 14. «Philosophy» of INO scanner Single point detection: • negligible geometric aberration • uniform illumination Lighting system moving together with the optical lens • painting heating is minimized High precision scanning system • metrically correct images
  15. 15. SCANNER @INO IN TIME 1988: first scanner for IR reflectography based on single-point detection by Cetica, Bertani and Poggi @INO (Florence). 2001: scanner for RGB-IR reflectography + industrial version (RIS+ project) 2005: scanner for multispectral VIS reflectography based on a 32-channels photomultiplier array (380-800 nm, S.I.D.ART. project) 2007: scanner for multispectral IR reflectography (800-2300 nm, EU- ARTECH project) 2011: the autofocus is added. 2013: scanner for multispectral VIS-IR reflectography, 16 VIS (380‒750 nm) + 16 IR (750‒2500 nm) channels. time
  16. 16. IRR Scanner evolution
  17. 17. IRR Scanner 0.25 mm (101.6 dpi, 4 dpm) Spectral sensitivity: 0.8 - 1.7 micron Spatial sampling: 4 pix/mm Intensity resolution: 4096 grey levels Max scanned area: 1 m2 Stand-off distance: 150 mm Acquisition rate: 500 Hz
  18. 18. The first scanner prototype VS traditionally used techniques: VIDICON and CCD cameras Scanner for IR reflectography
  19. 19. IR reflectography with a VIDICON camera
  20. 20. IR reflectography with VIDICON: an example
  21. 21. IRR with VIDICON – an example http://www.artmuseums.harvard.edu/renaissance/ The single tile appears brighter on the centre and darker on the border and the reflectogram shows the typical mosaic aspect. The reflectogram looks better if post-processing is applied, and the images in the mosaic are equalized. The processing is time-consuming.
  22. 22. Performance comparison: VIDICON vs INO scanner Maddalena, flemish painter, XIV centuryVidicon wide band INO scanner
  23. 23. Performance comparison: VIDICON vs INO scanner
  24. 24. Performance comparison: CCD vs INO scanner Pontormo, Virgin with Child and S. Giovannino CCD wide band INO scanner
  25. 25. Study of perspective courtesy of R. Bellucci – Opificio delle Pietre Dure, Florence
  26. 26. The physicist’s point of view…
  27. 27. Metrically-correct images: study of the reuse of cardboard Madonna della Consolazione Pala Tezi Perugino
  28. 28. The Child Madonna della Consolazione Pala Tezi
  29. 29. 12% scaling Superimposition of Pala Tezi & Madonna della Consolazione CourtesyofR.Bellucci-OPD
  30. 30. Piero della Francesca, Pala di Brera (Pala Montefeltro), Pinacoteca di Brera, Milano Metrically-correct images: study of the reuse of cardboard Piero della Francesca, Doppio ritratto dei duchi di Urbino, Galleria degli Uffizi, Firenze
  31. 31. Federico da Montefeltro Dittico degli Uffizi Pala di Brera Metrically-correct images: study of the reuse of cardboard
  32. 32. 14% scaling Courtesy of R. Bellucci - OPD Superimposition of Federico da Montefeltro
  33. 33. The importance of having self-registered colour image and IR reflectogram Scanner for IR reflectography + colour image
  34. 34. Scanner for IR reflectography + colour image B G R IR
  35. 35. Unknownflamishpainter,Maddalena(detail)
  36. 36. Matteo di Giovanni, Madonna con Bambino e Santi
  37. 37. Venere e amore, Bronzino
  38. 38. Virgin of the Yarnwinder, attributed to Leonardo da Vinci
  39. 39. Virgin of the Yarnwinder, attributed to Leonardo da Vinci
  40. 40. Playing with images: false colour image B G R IR
  41. 41. RaffaelloSanzio,Madonnadelcardellino VIS image false colour image
  42. 42. VIS image false colour image MaestroGuglielmo,“CrocediSarzana”
  43. 43. La Muta, Raffaello Sanzio
  44. 44. Splitting the spectral band to enhance different details Scanner for multispectral IR reflectography
  45. 45. Scanner for multispectral IR reflectography Fibre bundle • fiber core 200 µm • fiber pitch 250 µm Scanner characteristics • Spectral range: 400-2300 nm • 16 spectral bands • Spectral res: 50-100 nm
  46. 46. Uffizi Gallery, Florence Bronzino, Ritratto di giovane uomo con liuto
  47. 47. 1.1 micron 1.6 micron 2.3 micron CHI CERCA TROVA! WHO EVER SEEKS WILL FIND! Difference2.3 – 1.6 micron Bronzino, Ritratto di giovane uomo con liuto
  48. 48. Nel Ritratto di giovane con liuto Bronzino ritrae Giovanni Battista Strozzi, un madrigalista famoso soprattutto per il ruolo che svolse nella maturazione di questo genere poetico e musicale d’ispirazione petrarchesca. A quel tempo la storia della musica occidentale si scriveva a Firenze, dove Giovanni e il figlio omonimo, anch’egli musicista, vissero e lavorarono: nella città gigliata si riuniva la Camerata de’ Bardi, che con l’elaborazione del recitar cantando segnò la nascita del teatro in musica, ovvero dell’opera. Se a Firenze dobbiamo la nascita di questo straordinario genere musicale, è grazie a Venezia che si diffuse nel mondo. E’ nella città lagunare, infatti, che l’editore Ottaviano Petrucci inventò l’intavolatura, forma scritta della musica per strumenti a corde pizzicate, utilizzata da allora e fino ai giorni nostri per le edizioni di opere di compositori come lo stesso Giovanni Battista Strozzi: un vero e proprio atto di nascita dell’editoria di opere musicali. QuestoBronzinoèunfalso Il «Ritratto di giovane con liuto», celebre dipinto esposto a Firenze, è una copia dipinta dopo la morte del maestro. Un incredibile inganno durato secoli. E rivelato dall’indagine condotta da un gruppo di ricercatori dell’Istituto Nazionale di Ottica del CNR. di Tommaso Cerno This Bronzino is false The «Portrait of young man with lute», famous painting at the Uffizi Gallery in Florence, is a copy painted after the master’s death. An incredible trick lasting centuries. Unveiled by the investigation carried out by a group of researcher of the National Institute of Optics of the CNR.
  49. 49. wide 900-1700 nm 850 nm 1300 nm 1700 nm 2265 nm color Interband comparison
  50. 50. Standard false color image (wide, R, G) 1400 nm, 850 nm, 2265 nm CH@2265 nm – CH@850 nm Maths operations
  51. 51. Beato Angelico, Adorazione dei pastori, Tabernacolo dei Linaioli, Museo di San Marco, Firenze 850 nm 1112 nm 1500 nm 1820 nm 2265 nm Entering IR to disclose hidden details
  52. 52. Riflettografia IR multispettrale Caravaggio, Cena in Emmaus Milano, Brera difference image 1300 nm - 952 nm Caravaggio, «Last supper»
  53. 53. @850 nm@952 nm@1030 nm@1112 nm@1200 nm@1300 nm@1400 nm@1500 nm@1600 nm@1700 nm@1820 nm@1930 nm@2265 nm Raffaello Sanzio, Madonna del Granduca Increasing , black becomes transparent … Black is black? (Los Bravos)
  54. 54. Reaching the maturity: the final scanner version Multispectral Vis-NIR scanner
  55. 55. Multispectral Vis-NIR scanner 1 mm Fibre bundle • fiber core 200 µm • fiber pitch 250 µm Scanner characteristics • Spectral range: 400-2500 nm • 16 Vis + 16 NIR spectral bands • Spectral res: 20 nm (Vis) 50-100 nm (NIR) • Sampling step: 4 dot/mm
  56. 56. The two-fold face of the dataset 16 VIS channels 16 NIR channels 
  57. 57. Alchemy by Pollock
  58. 58. Monitoring the cleaning process Before After -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 GIALLO campione 12 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 NERO campione 14Yellow Black L* before/after cleaning a* before/after cleaning b* before/after cleaning
  59. 59. Mapping the blue pigments on AlchemyUltramarinevsphtalocyanineblue
  60. 60. NIR reflectance spectrum of azurite Wavelength (nm) Mean R over an area Ø = 7.5 mm Vis image NIR false colour image False colour evolution
  61. 61. • developed in frame of European Project Eu-ARTECH • part of a mobile laboratory (MOLAB) in frame of EU Charisma in past 5 years • accessible through H2020 IPERION-CH project • free-of-charge for the winning projects following peer- reviewed national and trans-national applications http://www.iperionch.eu
  62. 62. The importance of the measure of varnish removal Surface cleaning is one of the most important and sometimes controversial stages of the conservation process: decisions have to be made regarding selective or complete removal of varnish. Towards non-invasive stratigraphy: Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)
  63. 63. The very first OCT prototype
  64. 64. The very first measurement Superimposition of microscope and OCT image Interferometric signal Microscope cross sectional image
  65. 65. UV fluorescence image step1step2step3 “Ritratto di Ignoto” by Antonello da Messina, 1476 Cleaning in numbers
  66. 66. 3mm 3mm 2mm z x 3 mm (5 μm sampling step) 240μm step1step2step3 Cleaning in numbers
  67. 67. Double check
  68. 68. Time-domain confocal OCT device = 1550 nm = 100 nm Axial res (air) = 10 nm Lateral res = 2.5 nm Working distance: 3 mm Max scanning length: 25 mm
  69. 69. Virgin of the Yarnwinder, attributed to Leonardo da Vinci 10 x 10 mm RGB IR @ 1705 nm
  70. 70. Virgin of the Yarnwinder, attributed to Leonardo da Vinci X = 10 mm Y= 10 mm Z= 3,5 mm
  71. 71. Measuring the surface shape by means of micro-profilometry. Axial res.: 1 micron Lateral res.: 20 micron Dynamic range: 8 mm Working distance: 4 cm Max scanning area: 30 x 30 cm From the inside to the upper surface
  72. 72. Madonna del cardellino, Raffaello Sanzio
  73. 73. Canaa wedding (predella of the St. Augustine polyptych) Monteripido altarpiece (back) Marks of toothed tools on Perugino’s paintings
  74. 74. photographic image simulated grazing ligth image photo + simulated grazing light image simulated grazing ligth image Step  1 mm Step  0.8 mm Step  0.6 mm Step 0.5 mm Monteripido Altarpiece
  75. 75. Canaa wedding - St. Augustine polyptych predella Investigated areas: 20 cm x 12 cm 12 cm x 8 cm Analysis area: 12 cm x 8 cmAnalysis area: 6 cm x 4 cmAnalysis area: 3 cm x 2 cmAnalysis area: 1.5 cm x 1 cm 1 mm 30 mm
  76. 76. painting dimensions: 263 × 660 cm «Ultima cena» by Giorgio Vasari (1546)
  77. 77. The panel under analysis Photo (1956) Front Raking light image Back
  78. 78. Experimental setup
  79. 79. The profiles Each red line represents one of the 25 measured profiles Profiles
  80. 80. The 25 paint layer profiles The 25 support profiles The profiles The profiles difference Results
  81. 81. Raking light image Measured profiles (paint layer) Profiles after filtering (support) Difference paint layer - support Surface reconstruction
  82. 82. 1st Plank 2nd Plank 3rd Plank 4th Plank Total Support 1 2 3 4 Length difference (paint layer – support)
  83. 83. raffaella.fontana@ino.it

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