GREENTOURISMTRENDS, SENSE OF
PLACE AND COMMUNITY
SUSTAINABILITY: GUIDELINES FOR
A PRESENTATIONATTHE GREENTOURISM SUMMITAND
11TH AND 12TH JUNE 2015
CROWNE PLAZA HOTEL
BY PROF. R. O. B. MAKOPONDO PhD
DIRECTOR, SCHOOL OF HOSPITALITYANDTOURISM STUDIES
Definition: “Tourism that takes full account
of its current & future economic, social &
environmental impacts, addressing needs of
visitors, Industry, environment and host
Make optimal use of environmental resources
Respect socio-cultural authenticity of host
Ensure viable, long-term economic operation
Sustainable tourism development requires
the informed participation of all relevant
stakeholders & strong political will to ensure
wide participation and consensus building
Should maintain high level of tourist
Achieving sustainable tourism is a continuous
process and requires constant monitoring of
impacts, introducing necessary preventive
and/or corrective measures whenever
Balancing the use of Balancing the use of
environmental resources & environmental resources &
the economic benefits changes to the
of those environmental
Balancing economic growth and
development and the Impacts of development
on community/social values
i) Economic Facet
Tourism is considered an export industry
It directly and indirectly impacts global economy
Tourism contributes more than 9% of global GDP
and almost same % of jobs globally
Tourism has a value of 1trilion a year
Many services linked to tourism are classified
under sectors such as business, financial and
Regulatory commitment under General
Agreement onTrade in Services (GATS) play
significant role in promoting tourism
International travel has become one of the
fastest growing economic activity worldwide
ii) Environmental Facet
Balances the use of environmental resources and
economic benefits of tourism
The local natural environment is a major attraction
for many destinations.
The local as well as tourism industry must ensure
that any tourism development minimizes harm to
iii) Social Facet of sustainable development
Involves balancing economic growth and
development and the impacts of development on
Increasing use of renewable energy
Consuming less water
Using biodegradable products for guests
Conserving bio-diversity, cultural heritage and
Supporting intercultural understanding and
Generating local income
Integrating local communities
Enabling tourism business to make long term
(i) ECO-TOURISM: This is tourism with
All nature based forms of tourism
Contains educations and interpretation
Is generally but not exclusively organized
Minimizes negative impacts upon the natural
and socio-cultural Environment
Supports the maintenance of natural areas
▪ Generating economic benefits for ho st communities,
▪ Provide alternative employment and income
opportunities for local community and increase
awareness to conservation of natural and cultural assets.
(ii)Marine & CoastalTourism
▪ M&C areas can be used for sustainable tourism and
Marine Protected Areas: these regions can
develop sustainable industry i.e catering for
activities like recreation fishing etc.
Primary appeal is towards cultural and
traditionally managed landscapes. Involves
growing, harvesting and processing locally
WHAT IS GREENTOURISM?
Green tourism is tourism that respects the environment
and the local community as well as making good
A green tourism business is as interested in a healthy
profit margin as any good business, but it does this in a
way that helps - or at the very least doesn’t harm – local
people and the local environment.
It is responsible.
Changing consumer patterns
Tourists have become more conscious of the
environment hence look for responsible
alternative to traditional travel options
Various standards of the ISO have been used
in the tourism sector to improve overall
quality of service e.g ISO 9000 quality mgt,
ISO 14000 environmental mgt, blue flag label
Certification informs tourists of
environmental and social impact of tourism
This is a reduction in emissions of carbon
dioxide or green house gases made in order
to compensate for/or to offset an emission
Tourism businesses and destinations can
"offset" travelers' carbon emissions by :
▪ calculating their travel-related emissions i.e
air travel, local transportation,
▪ Making financial contributions to projects
that address climate impact mitigation e.g.
tree planting, reforestation, subsidizing
renewable energy, or increasing energy
What is the sense of place?
It is a combination of characteristics that makes a
place special and unique.
Sense of place involves the human experience in a
landscape, the local knowledge and folklore.
Sense of place also grows from identifying oneself
in relation to a particular piece of land on the
surface of planet earth.
Place attachment is the symbolic relationship
formed by people giving culturally shared
emotional/affective meanings to a particular
space of piece of land that provides the basis for
the individual’s and group’s understanding of and
relation to the environment.
Sense of place: particular experience of a person
in a particular setting (feeling stimulated, excited,
joyous, expansive, and so forth)
Spirit of place: the combination of characteristics
that gives some locations a special feel or
personality (such as a spirit of mystery or identity
with a person or group)
Setting: a person’s immediate surroundings,
including both physical and social elements.
Topophilia is the affective bond between people and place
or setting. Such ties vary in intensity, subtlety, and mode
of expression. Responses to the environment may be
aesthetic, tactile, or emotional.
Landscape architecture / history:
a sense of place is something that we ourselves create in
the course of time. It is the result of habit or custom.
A sense of place is reinforced by what might be called a
sense of recurring events.
Tourism planners and developers, business
enterprises must recognize that sense of place is
about how people relate with and interpret their
environment and circumstances
Sense of place is a combination of the values and
meanings communities make of their environment
and its resources as well as the values, meanings, and
experiences sought by visitors
As opposed to sustainable tourism development,
visitors and residents play a greater role in green
SAYING IT,WRITING IT AND DOING IT.
TWO SIMPLE STEPS
▪ WRITE AN ENVIRONMENTAL POLICYTO CLEARLY
STATE WHATYOUWANTTO CHANGE
▪ INVOLVEYOUR STAFF ANDVISITORS
IT HELPSYOUTO STAY CLEAR ABOUTWHATYOU
ARE DOING AND HOWYOU ARE GOINGTO DO IT.
EG. ….XYZ HOTEL IS COMMITEDTO PROTECTING
THE ENVIRONMENTAND SUPPORTINGTHE LOCAL
IDENTIFY SPECIFICWAYSTO ACHIEVETHE ABOVE
MINIMISING ENERGY USE
SENDING LESSWASTETO LANDFILL
PURCHASING SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTS
Insulate by about 10 inches!
Up to 35% heat is lost through the roof and
Invest in low energy light bulbs.
The upfront cost is greater, but these last up to 10
times longer and use a third of the energy.
Install a water efficient showerhead.
This could save you substantially on water heating.
Switch devices off at the wall instead of
leaving them on standby.
Conduct waste audit to better understand where
your waste is coming from and how to reduce it.
Rethink your portion size.
If 40% of wasted food is carbohydrates, are you
serving too much?
Offer “doggy bags” to customers.
Keep your fridge at 5 degrees or cooler to
maximize food lifetimes.
Compost your kitchen waste and create
clearly labelled recycling stations at
PURCHASE AND/OR UTILISE LOCAL RESOURCES
Purchasing from external sources causes leakage of money
out of the local community
Local food stuffs and materials support local families and
build strong vibrant communities
Serve up local, seasonal produce
Use local farmers markets and farm shops
Actively support other local businesses and initiatives
Provide guests opportunities to sample local stuff with
information on where they can buy more
Use local art and crafts
Use of bicycles.
Encourage your customers to leave
the car at home by offering pickups,
discounts for those who arrive
without the car and providing up to
date public transport information.
Encourage walking and hiking.
Know your local area.
Take time out to enjoy your own area so that you
can give your customers first hand knowledge.
Support wildlife by installing nesting boxes, bird
Get involved in (or organise) a cleanup effort in your
Sponsor a local environmental charity or make
a visitor payback scheme available.
Display the ‘Leave NoTrace’ principles to
customers to respect local wildlife.
Install a cistern displacement device - such as a
Reduce water usage by up to 70% by fitting
aerators on taps and showerheads.
Check regularly for leaks from pipes (especially in
cold weather) and monitor meter readings and bills
regularly to identify unusual patterns.
Communicate the importance of water efficiency
to your employees and customers.
Where possible, use water butts to harvest rain
The way you spend your money demonstrates your
commitment to the environment
Evaluate the ethical and environmental credentials
of suppliers and service providers
Wherever possible, source local services and
Cut down on packaging – avoid small plastic
packages and containers.
Choose environmentally friendly paper
Choose ethical and organic products.
Choose natural cleaning products that are free
from toxic chemicals.
Plan your building to maximise on solar insolation/
During the design phase, prioritize good insulation
Make use of rain water by installing a rainwater
Include solar water heaters, photovoltaic panels
and geothermal features or design in a way that
allows for future installation of renewable energy
Install windmills where appropriate
Consider incorporating solar-tube lighting to allow
natural light into interior rooms.
Membership of a sustainable tourism certification
programme such as ‘GreenTourism’ makes it easy
for your customers to know that you are
committed to the environment.
It also provides a supported approach to going
green from the beginning.
‘GreenTourism’ is one of the world’s most highly
rated green certification schemes.
A green award can also help you to tap into of a
growing market of consumers who are seeking
out businesses which are environmentally and
Green Economy andTrade, UN., 2013
UNWTO(2013a), International tourism to continue
robust growth in 2013, PR No.; 13006. worldTourism
UNCTAD. (2010).The contribution of tourism to trade
and development. Trade and Development Board,
second session, Geneva.
Cross, J. E. (2001)L:What is Sense of Place? 12th
Headwaters Conference,Western State College, USA