• Features of leadership
• Difference between leader
• Qualities of good
• 7C’s of leadership
• Leadership Styles
• Theories of leadership
Leadership is the process of
influencing the behaviors of the
people at work towards the
achievement of specific goal.
The term leader has been derived from the verb “to
lead”. This also implies "to advance”, “to excel” and “to
standard” and “to guide and govern” the
action of others.
A leader is a person who leads a group of followers..
A leader handle conflicts effectively and does not allow adverse
effects resulting from the conflicts.
Leader provides training to their subordinate and a good leader
always builds-up his successor and help in smooth succession
Leader persuades, clarifies and inspires people to accept changes
Difference b/w Manager and Leader
o A manager is always leader. o A leader may not be a manager.
o Formal authority to
o Informal authority to leading
o They can use assertiveness and
o Authority of trust & faith
With group members.
o Low level of satisfaction o High level of satisfaction
o Exists only in formal organization. o Exists in both.
o Mostly one way communication o Two way communication
o Performs all functions, i.e.,
planning organizing, staffing,
o Only one function,
Leader plays a key role in introducing required
change in organisation.
Good leader always produce good results
through their followers.
Maintain personal relations and help followers in
fulfilling their needs.
Confidence, support and encouragement and
creates congenial work environment.
The leader makes decisions alone as power is centralized
in one person.
He alone determines policies of group and major plans.
He is only interested in the obedience of his orders even
at the expense of individual or group harmony.
Generates fear among subordinates.
It is also called as ‘bossing people around.’
Allows quick decision
Better supervision and
Confidential matters can be
It lacks flexibility
Increases the workload of
Less room for employee
Increased efficiency Lack of Creativity
Helps in crisis management
& suitable for small firms
Less job satisfaction leads
to less commitment to
goals of organization
The leader include one or more employees in the decision
Leader works through people not by domination but by
Communication flow freely; suggestions are made in both
Also known as Participative style of leadership.
Further divided into :
Consultative : Process of consultation before decisions are
Persuasive : Leader takes decision and seeks to persuade
others that the decision is correct
Better utilization of
employees talent and skill
Better communication in
Increased productivity and
Slow decision making
Not suitable for unskilled
and incompetent workers
Difficult to maintain
Assigning blame for
failures may be seen
It builds strong teams Lack of secrecy
It is opposite extreme from autocratic leadership.
‘Let it be’ – the leadership responsibilities are
shared by all.
The laissez-faire style is to minimize the leader's
involvement in decision-making.
The leader sets objectives and employees are free to
do whatever is appropriate to accomplish those
Used when employees are able to analyze the
Group members are free to set their own goals.
Encourages innovation and
Utilization of employees
development and growth
Lack of secrecy
Not useful for unskilled
Weakens the role of
Complete freedom to make
May create conflict and
Bureaucratic manager manages “by the book”.
Everything must be done according to procedure or policy.
This style can be effective when employees are:
performing routine tasks over and over.
working with dangerous or delicate equipment.
performing tasks that require handling cash.
It is a managerial approach that involves a dominant, male father
figure who takes complete charge of the employees in an
In return, employees show their trust, loyalty and obedience.
This style of leadership is fairly similar to autocratic leadership, the
only difference being the lack of a fatherly leader in the latter style.
This type describes the interaction between leader and
follower as a transaction.
Focuses on the accomplishment of tasks & good worker
relationships in exchange for desirable rewards.
Motivation by “what’s in it for me”.
Promoting compliance by either offering rewards or
It’s a push leadership style.
It’s about building the commitment of followers (i.e. staff)
through motivation and inspiration.
It’s about winning the hearts and minds of your people
. Motivation by “what’s best for the company”.
It’s a pull leadership style.
Charisma or idealized influence
It is a process of encouraging certain behaviour in
others via force of personality.
It involves creating a self-image so powerful that
people are naturally drawn to you.
Charisma is a positive and compelling quality of a
person that makes many others want to be led by that
Some prominent qualities are:
• Leadership theories attempt to understand how some
of the individuals rise to positions of power i.e.
• Some of these aims to describe the traits that individual
may imitate while others concentrate on the qualities of
The Great Man Theory
• Proposed by Thomas Carlyle in 1840s
• “Born to lead?”
• Great leaders are simply born with the
necessary internal characteristics such as-
charisma, confidence, physical features,
social skills etc.
• No scientific validation
• Neglected the environmental & situational
The Trait Theory
• Focuses on individual characteristics of
• Leaders possess a set of some traits by
birth & some are acquired with time (to
limited extent)which make them distinct
• Ralph stogdil –
– A strong desire for accomplishment
– Persistent pursuit of goals
– High tolerance
• Great leaders are made, not born.
• Main focus is behaviour of actual
leader, what a leader actually does &
how he does
• Action & behaviour of leader affect the
performance & satisfaction of
• It proposed how this specific behaviour
differentiate leaders from non leaders.
• To study the behaviour of leaders, two
major research programs were started-
1.Ohio state university
Identified two leadership dimensions
that can be exist simultaneously
Initiating structure: organising &
assigning task to employees &
supervising their activities
Consideration: for the people &
supportive manner towards
It also identified two types of
Employee centered leader
Production centered leader
• According to this theory, no leadership style is best in
• Effective leadership comprises of all three factors, i.e.
traits, behaviour and situation.
• Behaviour of leader depends upon characteristic of
situation leader is in.
• Good leaders can assess the needs of their followers,
understand the situation, and then adjust their
• To support this theory Fred Fiedler’s model was
• According to it there must be proper balance
between leader’s style and situational dimension
• Leader’s job is to use structure,
support and reward to create a work
environment that help employees
reach the organization’s goals.
• Effective leadership require the combination
right behaviour, skills & attitude.
• To be effective, a leader must be able to adapt
his/her own style according to the
• There is no right or wrong leadership style to use
& right leadership does not guarantee success,
but lack of leadership will definitely guarantee a