• The conditionals are used to talk about real or
unreal situations, sometimes called… if-clauses.
• Used to show an action is reliant on
• Real Conditional describes real-life situations.
• Unreal Conditional describes unreal, imaginary
3. Conditional Sentences
A conditional sentence is composed of 2 parts :
If-clause + Main Clause
If it rains tomorrow, we will put on rain coats.
If-clause Main Clause
4. Conditional Sentences
The order of the two clauses is flexible.
When the if-clause comes first, it must be
If it rains, I’ll stay at home
I’ll stay at home if it rains.
5. CONDITIONAL SENTENCES
There are 4 types of conditional sentences.
They are classified according to the degree of
probability that they express.
Each type of conditional sentences uses different
tenses to show the difference in the degree of
6. • Zero Conditional: (Factual)
If /when + present tense ….. / present tense
• Water boils if it reaches 100º
• First Conditional: (Likely to happen)
If/unless + present,….. Future
• If I study, I’ll pass
• Second Conditional: (Hypothetical situations)
If + past, ……would +inf.
• If we won the lottery, we would travel the world.
• Third Conditional: (Impossible) Unreal Conditionals
If + past perfect ….. would have + pp
• If I had studied, I would have passed
Conditional Sentences types
7. ZERO Conditional
• It is used to talk about things that
are always true or factual (Scientific
Facts, General or Universal Truths).
(present simple + present simple)
If you expose phosphorous to air, it burns.
8. More Examples
1. If people eat too much, they get fat.
2. If you touch a fire, you get burned.
3. People die if they don't eat.
4. You get water if you mix hydrogen and
5. Snakes bite if they are scared
6. If babies are hungry, they cry
1. (I / wake up late / I / be late for work)
2. (my husband / cook / he / burn the food)
3.(Julie / not wear a hat / she / get
4.(children / not eat well / they / not be
5. (you / mix water and electricity / you /
get a shock)
1. If I wake up late, I’m late for work.
2. If my husband cooks, he burns the food.
3.If Julie doesn’t wear a hat, she gets
4. If children don’t eat well, they aren’t
5.If you mix water and electricity, you get a
11. First Conditional
(VERY LIKELY SITUATIONS)
It is used to:
1. Talk about situations which are very likely to
2. Giving advice and instructions
3. Suggest something which is unlikely to happen
4. Talk about the result of a situation which is just a
5. Talk about present decisions based on future
12. a) If + Simple present + will
Both condition and result are very likely to happen
If Javaid gets a good result, he will study medicine.
If he fails his exams, he will not go abroad.
b) If + Simple present + Imperative
This is a way of giving advice or instructions
If you feel tired, drink a cup of coffee.
If you can't wake up, buy an alarm clock.
If you see my wife, tell her I'll be late for dinner.
Possible sentence structures
13. c) If + should + imperative
In this way we can suggest that something is unlikely
to happen, or is not particularly probable.
Ex. If you should run into Peter, tell him he owes me a letter.
d) If + Simple present + may
The result of the condition is just a possibility.
Ex. 1. If we go to Writing workshop, we may not get time to shop.
2. If we don't give them directions, they may get lost.
14. e. If + Simple present + can/ would
We use this form when we make present
about future ability. Otherwise we use will
be able to.
1. If I haven't enough time today, I can wash
your car tomorrow.
15. Sentence structures in First
1 If+ Simple present + will Both conditions or results are
very likely to happen
2 If + Simple present + Imperative Giving Advice or Instructions
3 If + should+ imperative To suggest that something is
unlikely to happen
4 If + simple present + may The result of the condition is just
5 If + Simple present + can To talk about present decisions
based on future ability
17. Write conditional sentences, using the given facts in your conditional clause,
and adding a suitable completion.
e.g. He is thinking of going to England.
If he goes to England, he will have to learn English.
1.- It looks as if those shoes in the window are my size.
2.- Do not drop that vase.
3.- It looks like being fine tomorrow.
4.- My father has suggested that I change my job.
5.- It seems that we will be late for the class.
6.- Do not lose my library book!
7.- You may meet some friends of mine in Karachi.
8.- He expects to pass his exams.
18. Second Conditional
• It is used to talk about unreal or impossible
situation in present or Future. These
structures are used to imagine what would it
be like if things were different.
If I were rich, I would travel around the world.
If I had a car, I could drive you home.
19. a) If + Simple past + would
If I were the president, I would end
If I won the lottery, I would buy a Ferrari
If I were you, I'd start packing now.
b) If + Simple past + might
The result of the condition would be just a
If you drove with drowsy head, you might have
If you were not so selfish, you might be happier
20. c) If + Simple past + could (the meaning of could
here is would be able to).
1) If I had another 1000 Rs, I could by the latest
edition of this book.
2) I could have passed my CSS Exam if I had another
month for preparation.
d) If + were to + would
This makes a future possibility sound less probable
Ex. If world war were to break out, I would emigrate
21. Possible sentence
structure for 2nd
1 If+ simple past+ would To imagine what would it be like if things
2 If + simple past +might The result of a condition (in past) would be
just a possibility
3 If + simple past + could To talk about a past ability with a
4 If were to + would To talk about a less probable future
23. Complete these 2nd conditional
1. If you (leave) your job,
you (travel) around
2. If you (be) nicer to him,
he (lend) you the
3. It (be) nice if the rain
Answer the following sentences with 2nd
1. What cities or other places of interest would
you visit if you went to America?
2. What would you do (or not do) if you could
live your life over again?
3. What famous person would you like to meet
if you had the chance?
25. THIRD Conditional
• It is used to talk about conditions which
didn’t happen in the past, and so the result
did not happen either. It is used for
speculating about past events.
1. If you hadn’t been lazy, you would have
been on time for the audition.
2. If he had come earlier, he could have had a
26. a) If + Past perfect + Perfect conditional
Ex. If he had studied, he would have passed.
b) If + Past perfect + might have
Ex. If someone had heard the S.O.S., their lives
might have been saved
c) If + Past perfect + could have (Could have been
means here able to)
Ex. If my parents had not been poor, I could have
gone to university
27. Possible sentence
1 If + Past perfect + perfect
conditional (would have)
1.These structures are used to
talk about the conditions which
did not happen in past
2.These structures are used to
talk about past regrets and to
criticize past actions
2 If + Past perfect + might have
3 If + Past perfect + could have
29. Complete these sentences
1. He crashed his car, because he fell asleep while driving.
If he asleep while driving, he his car.
2. We couldn't go to the concert, because we didn't have
If we enough money, we to the
3. I lost my job because I was late for work.
I my job if I late for work.
4. The wind was so strong that the bridge collapsed.
If the wind so strong, the bridge
5. I couldn't call Sally because I had lost her number.
I Sally if I her
30. sentences based on
information provided in given
1. Nobody told me about your birthday,
and so I asked you to have an official
tour out of city.
2. There was no chance of rescuing
survivors, and so they called off the
3. Ali was suddenly taken ill, and so he and
his family did not go on holiday to Muree
31. Other words to used for showing
provided, providing, supposing, as long as, on condition
1.Supposing you fell into a water pool on a winter morning,
what would you do?
2.You can borrow my bike provided/providing you bring
3.I'll give you the day off on condition that you work on
4.You are welcome to stay with us, as long as you share
32. Conditional Probability Example Time
zero Certain If you heat water to 100 degrees
Celsius, it boils
first Likely If it rains, I will stay in. future
second Unlikely If I won the lottery, I would retire. future
If I had the money, I would lend it to
If I had seen him, I would have
given him the message.