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# Hypothesis

Useful for Research Scholars, Students of Master in Education and MA Education, Useful for UGC-NET, SET examination and practical guide to how to write a research hypothesis.

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### Hypothesis

1. 1. Hypothesis Dr.Viral Bharat Bhai Jadav Associate Professor IITE,Gandhinagar
2. 2. Hypothesis is a suggested answer to the problem under investigation JOHN T. TOWNSEND A hypothesis is a tentative generalization, the validity of which remains to be tested JOHN W. BEST A hypothesis is a proposition which can be put to test to determine its validity. It may be proved correct or incorrect GOOD AND HATT A hypothesis is a conjectural statement of the relation between two or more variables F. N. KERLINGER A B C D DEFINITIONS OF HYPOTHESIS
3. 3. Assumptions are made on the basis of previous experience or primary evidence or by thinking logically Construction Testing Solution Whether the assumptions are true or false is decided by testing them Testing assumptions lead to the solution of the problem Three important points regarding hypothesis
4. 4. 01 STEP 02 STEP 03 STEP 04 STEP Solution of the Problem Collection of evidence and analyse logically Check all the possible reasons Thinking of the possible reasons Watching TV-TV gets off suddenly
5. 5. It is assured that data will be available Written in present tense Can be rejected or not rejected One assumptio n in one hypothesis Simple and Easy Language It never oppose the universal truth and natural law
6. 6. Formulate d on the basis of available primary evidences Formulate d by thinking logically Formed before collection of data Promotes deductive reasoning It shows relationship between two or more variables Gives clear idea about area of research, variable and data analysis techniques
7. 7. CULTURE BELIEFS PREVALING IN THE FIELD PRE- EXPERIENCE RELATED LITERATURE RESERCH REVIEW INTELLECTUAL DISCUSSION CREATIVE THINKING INSIGHT OF THE RESEARCHER
8. 8. TYPES DECLARATIVE DIRECTIONAL NON DIRECTIONAL QUESTION FORM NULL Classical Operational
9. 9. DECLARATIVE HYPOTHESIS ALSO KNOWN AS - ALTERNATE HYPOTHESIS - RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
10. 10. 01 02 TITLE Study of teaching aptitude of student- teacher in the context of their gender The teaching aptitude of the male student-teacher is better than that of female student teachers The teaching aptitude of the female student-teacher is better than that of male student teachers DIRECTIONAL HYPOTHESIS • This hypothesis shows the expected direction of the result. • Such hypothesis assumes a particular result in favor of some factor/ variable • It indicates clearly the difference or relationship between variable characteristics under the study in context of independent variable
11. 11. • There is a positive correlation between emotional maturity level and adjustment level of the female teachers of secondary schools • OR • The adjustment level of female teachers of secondary schools having high emotional level is high. • There is a negative correlation between emotional maturity level and adjustment level of the female teachers of secondary schools • OR • The adjustment level of female teachers of secondary schools having low emotional level is high.
12. 12. 02 01 TITLE Study of teaching competency of higher secondary teachers in the context of their gender There is a difference between teaching competency of male and female teachers of higher secondary schools There is a correlation between emotional maturity and mental health of secondary school teachers NON DIRECTIONAL HYPOTHESIS • This hypothesis does not shows the expected direction of the result. • In such hypothesis result is not expected in favour of certain variable
13. 13. HYPOTHESIS IN QUESTION FORM • Instead of expecting a certain result, a question is formed STUDY OF EXAM ANXIETY • Is there difference between exam anxiety or arts, commerce and science students of higher secondary schools? • Is exam anxiety of arts students of higher secondary schools more than that of science students? • Do the government employees having high intelligence level have less mental stress? • Is there correlation between intelligence and mental stress of government employees?
14. 14. NULL HYPOTHESIS • IF, IN CONTEXT OF DEPENDENT VARIABLE, THE HYPOTHESIS INDICSATES ‘NO DIFFERENCE’ BETWEEN TWO OR MORE LEVELS OF INDEPENDENT VARIABLE, IT IS CALLED NULL HYPOTHESIS • IT INDICATES NO RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TWO VARIABLE, IF CORRELATIONAL STUDY IS THERE. • SYMBOLE: HO. • ALSO KNOWN AS NO DIFFERENCE OR NO RELATONSHIP TYPE HYPOTHESIS
15. 15. STUDY OF THE IMPACT OF THE INSTRUCTIONAL METHOD ON ACHIEVEMENT OF THE STUDENTS OF GRADE 9 IN ENGLISH • There is no significant effect of instructional method o the achievement of the students of grade 9 in English • There is no significant difference between achievement of the students in English, who have learned through CAI and PLM • There is no significant effect of the instructional method on the mean achievement score of the students of grade 9 in English
16. 16. • There is no significant relationship between the mental health and reasoning ability of the students of secondary schools • There is no significant correlation between the scores of the students of secondary schools in mental health scale and reasoning ability test
17. 17. • If measurement is not mentioned in the null hypothesis, it is called classical hypothesis • Eg. • There is no significant difference between the achievement of the students of grade 9 in English, who have learnt through PIM and CAI • There is no significant relationship between mental health and reasoning ability of the students of primary schools.
18. 18. Operational hypothesis • When measurement of the variable characteristics is indicated in null hypothesis, it is called operational hypothesis • Eg. • There is no significant difference between the mean scores of the students of grade nine in achievement test in English who have learnt through PIM and CAI • There is no significant correlation between the scores of the students of secondary schools in reasoning ability test and mental health scale.
19. 19. Tested clearly Statistical techniques are mentioned Objective work No bias No subjectivity Special features of Null hypothesis
20. 20. • IT ASSUMES THE RESULT OF THE RESEARCH AND RESERCHER COLLECTS DATA TO TEST THIS ASSUMPTION • SPECIFIC DATA COLLECTED- PREVENT UNNECESSORY DATA COLLECTION • HELP TO WORK IN CERTAIN DIRECTION • HELP IN DRIVING CLEAR FINDINGS • GIVES IDEA ABOUT THE AREA AND VARIABLES OF THE STUDY AND STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES TO BE APPLIED • GIVES IDEA ABOUT STRUCTURE OF WRITING THE FINDINGS IN REPORT • IT INSPIRES THE RESEARCHER FOR DEDUCTIVE REASONING