• Cosmetic surgery is an optional procedure that is performed on
normal parts of the body with the purpose of improving a person’s
appearance and/or removing signs of aging.
• Cosmetic surgery aims to improve the aesthetic appearance of a
3. • According to the statistics put forward by the International Society
of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery (ISAPS) in 2011, the maximum number
of cosmetic procedures were carried out in USA, followed by China,
Japan, Brazil and Mexico.
• Out of the 15 million people worldwide who resorted to plastic
surgery in 2011 to enhance their looks, there were no fewer than
466,231 Indians, placing India 8th in a league of 25 countries.
6. • Muscle paralysis, such as injections of botulinum toxin (Botox)
• Dermal fillers
• Chemical peels
• Non-surgical laser and intense light treatments
Types of Non - surgical procedures
7. • Abdominoplasty or tummy tuck is a type of cosmetic surgery used to
make the abdomen more firm.
• The surgery involves the removal of excess skin and fat from the middle
and lower abdomen in order to tighten the muscle and fascia of the
• Indications - Patients with loose or sagging tissues after pregnancy and
major weight loss
8. • Types –
o Complete abdominoplasty
o Partial abdominoplasty
o Extended abdominoplasty
o High lateral tension tummy tuck
o Floating abdominoplasty or FAB technique
o Circumferential abdominoplasty
• Recovery depends on the problem to be treated and surgical technique.
Full recovery takes 3–6 months, with further fading of scars thereafter.
9. • Risks include bleeding, fluid accumulation, poor wound healing, skin loss,
anesthesia complications, skin discoloration, asymmetry, recurrent
looseness of skin, nerve damage, suture rupture or visible scar.
10. • Blepharoplasty or eyelid surgery is the plastic surgery for correcting
defects, deformities, and disfigurations of the eyelids and for modifying
the eye region of the face.
• Excision and removal, or the repositioning (or both) of excess tissues,
such as skin and adipocyte fat, and the reinforcement of the
corresponding muscle and tendon tissues.
• Goal - Restoration of the correct functioning to the affected eyelids
12. • Breast augmentation or augmentation mammoplasty are plastic surgery
approaches used to increase the size, change the shape, and alter the
texture of the breasts of a woman.
• Indication –
o Post - mastectomy breast reconstruction
o Repair of the chest wound consequent to the removal of a cancerous
o Correct congenital defects of the breast
13. • For breast reconstruction, there are three types of breast implant
o Saline implants filled with sterile saline solution
o Silicone implants filled with viscous silicone gel
• Breast - implant devices presents the health risks such as adverse
reaction to anesthesia, hematoma or wound infection.
• Complications specific to breast augmentation include breast pain,
impeded breast-feeding function, visible wrinkling, asymmetry, thinning
of the breast tissue.
• The non – implant breast augmentation procedures are carried out by fat
14. • Reduction mammoplasty is the plastic surgery for reducing the size of
• Indications - Restoration of the bust that is proportionate to the woman's
body, of the woman's self-image, and of her mental health.
• Contraindications –
o Lactating women or has recently ceased lactating
o If breasts contain unevaluated tissue masses
o If she is suffering a systemic illness
16. • Mastopexy or breast lift is the procedure for raising sagging breasts upon
the chest of the woman by correcting and modifying the size, contour,
and elevation of the breasts.
• In surgical practice, mastopexy can be performed as a discrete breast-lift
procedure, and as a subordinate surgery within a combined mastopexy -
breast augmentation procedure.
17. • Buttock augmentation or gluteoplasty denotes the plastic surgery for the
correction of the congenital, traumatic, and acquired defects and
deformities of the buttocks and the anatomy of the gluteal region.
• The corrective procedures for buttock augmentation and buttock repair
include the surgical emplacement of a gluteal implant, fat transfer
18. • Rhinoplasty or a nose job is a type of plastic surgery for correcting and
reconstructing the form, restoring the functions of the nose.
• Indications –
o Toresolve nasal trauma
o Congenital defect
o Failed primary rhinoplasty
• The procedure is done by separating the nasal skin and the soft
tissues from the osseo-cartilaginous nasal framework, suturing the
incisions, and applying a pack to immobilize the corrected nose to ensure
the proper healing of the surgical incision.
19. • The non-surgical rhinoplasty procedure modifies slight defects of
the nose by means of subcutaneous injections of biologically inert
20. • Otoplasty denotes the surgical procedure for correcting the deformities
and defects of the pinna.
• Indications - Reconstructing a defective, deformed, or absent external
ear, consequent to congenital conditions and trauma.
• Lip augmentation is a type of cosmetic surgery that aims to improve the
appearance of the lips by increasing their fullness through enlargement.
21. • Liposuction or lipoplasty is a cosmetic surgery that removes fat from
many different sites on the human body. Areas affected can range from
the abdomen, thighs and buttocks, to the neck, backs of the arms and
• Removal of very large volumes of fat is a complex and potentially life-
threatening procedure. The more fat removed, the higher the surgical
• The procedure may be performed under general, regional, or
local anesthesia. The safety of the technique relates not only to the
amount of tissue removed, but to the choice of anesthetic and the
patient's overall health.
• It is ideal for the patient to be as fit as possible before the procedure and
not to have smoked for several months.
22. • Side effects – bruising, swelling, varying sized scars, pain and numbness
• Complications –
o Allergic reaction to medications
o Damage to the skin
o Skin necrosis (rare complication)
o Puncture of an internal organ
o Contour irregularities
23. • Botox is a purified form of botulinum toxin A. They work by blocking the
nerves that contract muscles, softening the appearance of wrinkles.
• Botulinum toxin injections block certain chemical signals from nerves,
mostly signals that cause muscles to contract. The most common use of
these injections is to temporarily relax the facial muscles that underlie and
cause wrinkles, such as frown lines and forehead furrows.
• Other conditions are lazy eye, cervical dystonia, muscle contractures or
24. • Botulinum toxin injections usually begin working a few days after
treatment. Depending on the problem being treated, the effect may last
for three to 12 months. Tomaintain the effect, regular follow-up
injections should be done.
• Side effects includes headaches, bruising, pain at the site of injection,
and, in fewer than 1% of cases, drooping eyelids or eyebrows that return
to their natural position within a few months.
25. • A chemical peel is a technique used to improve and smooth the texture
of the facial skin using a chemical solution that causes the dead skin
to slough off and eventually peel off.
• The regenerated skin is usually smoother and less wrinkled than the old
• Possible complications include photosensitivity, prolonged erythema,
pigmentary changes, skin atrophy, and textural changes.
• Types -
o Alpha hydroxy acid peels
o Beta hydroxy acid peels
o Jessner's peel
o Retinoic acid peel
26. • Laser in cosmetic surgery can reduce facial wrinkles, scars and blemishes.
• Laser treatment can improve minor facial flaws, such as:
o Fine lines or wrinkles around or under your eyes, forehead or mouth
o Scars from acne or chickenpox
o Aged or sun-damaged skin
o Birthmarks such as linear epidermal nevi
o Enlarged oil glands on the nose