2. Plant Kingdom – Plantae
• Kingdom Plantae includes all the plants on the earth.
• They are multicellular, eukaryotes and consist of a
rigid structure that surrounds the cell membrane
called the cell wall.
• Plants also have a green coloured pigment called
chlorophyll that is quite important for photosynthesis.
3. Characteristics of Kingdom Plantae
• The plant kingdom has the following characteristic
• They are non-motile.
• They usually reproduce sexually.
• They follow the autotrophic mode of nutrition.
• These are multicellular eukaryotes with cell wall and
• These contain photosynthetic pigments called chlorophyll
in the plastids.
• They ave different organelles for anchorage, reproduction,
support and photosynthesis.
4. Classification of Kingdom Plantae
A plant kingdom is a vast group; therefore, the kingdom
is further classified into subgroups. Levels of
classification are based on the following three criteria:
• Plant body:
whether the body has well-differentiated structures or
• Vascular system:
Whether the plant has a vascular system for the
transportation of substances or not
• Seed formation:
whether the plant bears flowers and seeds or not; if it
does, then whether it is enclosed within fruits or not.
6. the plant kingdom has been classified into
five subgroups. They are as follows:
• Cryptogams are plants that do not have well-developed
or conspicuous reproductive organs.
• The thallophytes, the bryophytes and the pteridophytes
• Reproduction in all three groups occurs through spore
• Plants with spores are called cryptogam. They
contains only naked embryo and are generally
8. Plants that have conspicuous reproductive organs and
produce seeds are called phanerogams.
Gymnosperms and Angiosperms belong to the group
phanerogams. These are multicellular, eukaryotic and
chlorophyll containing plants.
9. • Thallophytes- Thallopytes commonly include
members with primitive and simple body designs
such as green algae and brown algae. The majority of
them are aquatic. Common examples are Spirogyra,
Chara, Ulothrix, etc.
• Bryophytes - Bryophytes have differentiated plant
body like stem, leaf structures. But they lack a
vascular system for the transportation of substances
across the plant body. Bryophytes are found in both
land and aquatic habitats, hence are known as
amphibians of the plant kingdom. Mosses and
Marchantia belong to this subgroup.
• Pteridophytes- Pteridophytes have well
differentiated structures such as stem, root, leaves as
well as a vascular system.
10. • Body of the organisms is not differentiated into organs.
• Mainly aquatic found in marine and fresh water.
• Tissue for conduction of material and for mechanical strength is
• They are covered by mucilage.
• Reproduce by vegetative, asexual and sexual reproduction.
• Algae are example of this
• The plant body is not differentiated
into stem, root andleaves but is in the
form of an undivided thallus.
• Vascular tissues are absent.
• The reproductive organs are single-
celled and there is no embryo
formation after fertilization.
• This division includes three sub-
divisions: algae, fungi and lichens
12. Economic Importance Of Fungi
Fungi are an important organism in human life. They play an
important role in medicine yielding antibiotics, in agriculture by
maintaining soil fertility, are an important means of food, and
forms the basis of many industries. Let us have a look at some of
the fields where fungi are really important.
Importance in Human Life -Fungi are very important to humans at
many levels. They are an important part of the nutrient cycle in the
ecosystem. They also act as pesticides.
Biological Insecticides- Fungi are animal pathogens. Thus they
help in controlling the population of pests. These fungi do not
infect plants and animals. They attack specifically to some
insects. The fungus Beauveria bassiana is a pesticide that is
being tested to control the spread of emerald ash borer.
Reusing-These microbes along with bacteria bring about
recycling of matter by decomposing dead matter of plants and
excreta of animals in the soil, hence the reuse enriches the soil to
make it fertile. The absence of activities of fungi can have an
adverse effect on this on-going process by continuous assembly
and piling of debris.
13. Importance in Medicine
• Metabolites of fungi are of great commercial importance.
• Antibiotics are the substances produced by fungi, useful
for the treatment of diseases caused by pathogens.
Antibiotics produced by actinomycetes and moulds
inhibits the growth of other microbes.
• Apart from curing diseases, antibiotics are also used fed
to animals for speedy growth and to improve meat
quality. Antibiotics are used to preserve freshly
produced meat for longer durations.
Importance in Agriculture
• The fungi plant dynamic is essential in productivity of
crops. Fungal activity in farmlands contributes to the
growth of plants by about 70%.
• Fungi are important in the process of humus formation
as it brings about the degeneration of the plant and
14. Importance in Food industry
Some fungi are used in food processing while
some are directly consumed. For example –
Mushrooms, which are rich in proteins and
minerals and low in fat.
Fungi constitute the basis in the baking and
brewing industry. They bring
about fermentation of sugar by an enzyme
called zymase producing alcohol which is used
to make wine.
Carbon dioxide- a byproduct in the process, is
used as dry ice and also in the baking industry
to make the dough (rising and lightening of
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an important
ingredient in bread, a staple food of humans for
several years. It is also known as the baker’s
15. Mode of nutrition
On the basis of nutrition, kingdom fungi can be classified
into 3 groups.
The fungi obtain their nutrition by feeding on dead organic
substances. Examples: Rhizopus, Penicillium, and Aspergillus.
The fungi obtain their nutrition by living on other living
organisms (plants or animals) and absorb nutrients from
their host. Examples: Taphrina, and Puccinia.
These fungi live by having an interdependent relationship
association with other species in which both are mutually
benefited. Examples: Lichens and mycorrhiza.
Lichens are the symbiotic association between algae and
fungi. Here both algae and fungi are mutually benefited as
fungi provide shelter for algae and in reverse algae synthesis
carbohydrates for fungi.
• Plant body is differentiated into leaf, root and stem like
• Special conducting tissues are not present.
• These are known as amphibians of plant kingdoms.
• Reproduce by vegetative, asexual and sexual
• Funaria, Riccia and Marchantia are few examples.
20. • Bryophyte is a traditional name used to refers to
all embryo phytes (land plants) that do not have
true vascular tissue and are therefore called 'non-
• Some bryophytes do have specialized tissues
for the transport of water; however since these do
not contain lignin, they are not considered to be
true vascular tissue.
• Currently bryophytes are thought not to be a
naturalor monophyletic group; however the name
is convenient and remains in use as a collective
term for mosses,hornworts, and liverworts.
21. •Moss and Liverwort belong to this variety of plants. There
are the simplest form of land plants. The plant body is flat
and lack true leaves and roots. The upper surface of the
plant body produces a stalk which bears a capsule. The
capsule contains spores
22. Before the flowering plants, the landscape was
dominated with plants that looked like ferns for
hundreds of millions of years. Unlike most
other members of the Plant Kingdom,
pteridophytes don’t reproduce through seeds;
they reproduce through spores instead.
Life Cycle of Pteridophyta is almost the same
as seed-bearing plants, where alternation of
generations is observed.
23. Pteridophyta Characteristics
• It is speculated that life began in the oceans, and
through millions of years of evolution, life slowly adapted
on to dry land. And among the first of the plants to truly
live on land were the Pteridophytes .
• The sporophyte generation and the gametophyte
generation are observed in Pteridophytes
• Pteridophytes are seedless, and they procreate
through spores. They don’t have conducting tissues for
transportation of water and minerals. Instead, the water
and minerals flow from the surface of the plant- cell to
cell in the plant’s body. This is also one of the reasons
why these plants need a constantly moist environment
to survive .
• They contain vascular tissues
24. •The tip of the leaves tends to curl inwards protect the
vulnerable growing parts.
• The male sex organs are called antheridia, while
the female sex organs are called archegonia
• The sporangium is the structure in which spores
• They are usually homosporous (meaning: one
type of spore is produced) and are also
heterosporous, (meaning: two kinds of spores are
• Leaves that bear the sporangia are termed as
Angiosperms are also seed-bearing plants with
well-differentiated plant body. The word is derived
from Greek words: angio: covered and sperma:
seed. Unlike gymnosperms, seeds of
angiosperms are enclosed inside the fruits.
Angiosperms are commonly known as flowering
Examples include the Mango tree, pomegranate
plant, etc. Seeds germinate from
embryonic leaves called
27. Characteristics of Angiosperms
• All plants have flers at some stage in their life. The flowers are
the reproductive organs for the plant, providing them with a
means of exchanging genetic information.
• The sporophyte is differentiated into stems, roots, and leaves.
• The vascular system has true vessels in the xylem and
companion cells in the phloem.
• The stamens and the carpels are organized into a structure
called the flower.
• The seeds enclose embryo, the miniature of plant body.
• The embryo has plumule , radicle and cotyledons
• On the basis of number of cotyledons in the embryo ,the
angiosperms are distinguished into two groups :
Dicotyledons and Monocotyledons.
29. The seeds have a single cotyledon.
The leaves are simple and the veins are parallel.
This group contains adventitious roots.
e.g., banana, sugarcane, lilies, etc.
e.g., grapes, sunflower, tomatoes, etc
The seeds of these plants have two cotyledons.
They contain tap roots, instead of adventitious roots.
The leaves depict a reticulate venation.
Gymnosperms are plants that have well-differentiated plant
body, vascular system and they bear seeds. The term is
derived from Greek words, gymno: naked and sperma: seed.
The seeds of gymnosperms are naked which means they are
not enclosed within a fruit. The perennial, evergreen woody
trees belong to this group. Pines, deodar, redwood, etc. are a
Characteristics of Gymnosperms
They are found in colder regions where
They develop needle-like leaves.
They are perennial or woody, forming trees
33. • They are not differentiated into ovary, style and stigma.
• Since stigma is absent, they are pollinated directly by
• They form cones with reproductive structures.
• The seeds contain endosperm that stores food for the
growth and development of the plant.
• These plants have vascular tissues which help in
transportation of nutrients and water.
• Xylem does not have vessels, and the phloem has no
companion cells and sieve tubes