Más contenido relacionado




Training evaluation

  1. EVALUATION OF TRAINING PROGRAMME Dr. Mohamed Kutty Kakkakunnan Associate Professor P G Dept. of Commerce N A M College Kallikkandy Kannur – Kerala – India
  2. Effectiveness of Training Programme  What is the purpose of training?  What are the benefits of training to the employer? Training effectiveness is the degree to which trainees are able to learn and apply the knowledge, skills and attitude acquired during the training programme i.e. transfer of training / learning Training effectiveness is influenced by attitude, interest, values and expectations of the trainees and the training environment
  3. Training effectiveness will be more when the trainees want to learn and are involved in jobs and have career plans Contents of training programme and the ability of trainers also determine the effectiveness of training Training effectiveness can be evaluated through the reactions of trainees, their extent of leaning, attitudinal and behavioral changes and the results in job environment
  4. Evaluation of Training Programme • Organization spends a large amount and employees spend their precious time and effort on training programme • Need to assess/ judge / determine the effectiveness of the programme • For judgment there need a base – for evaluation and determination there must be a measuring rode – a criterion • What is the base for judgment? Measuring rode for evaluation and determination of the effectiveness of training programme? • What is training? What are the inputs? • Inputs are fed for the purpose of getting output • The outputs of training are the outcomes • The outcomes of training programmes are the behavioral changes or attitudinal changes additional KSA emerged due to training-
  5. Outcomes of Training Programme Can be classified into six 1. Reactions 2. Cognitive outcomes 3. Skill-based outcomes 4. Affective outcomes 5. Results, and 6. Return on investment -
  6. Reaction is concerned with how the trainee reacts to the training programme, contents, trainers etc. - Cognitive outcome is related with verbal comprehension (ability to understand, use written and spoken languages), quantitative ability and reasoning (differentiate) ability. All these affect performance - Both reactions and cognitive ability can be evaluated at the end, before leaving the training place through conducting a test or work samples. - However, it is not sure that employees make use of the KSA acquired through training programme in their actual work / job situation (transfer training) (effective)
  7. Outcomes What is measured? How is measured? Cognitive Knowledge acquired Test / work samples Skill based Skill / behavior Observation / work samples Affective (emotional /sentimental) Motivation / reaction / attitude Interview / observation / attitudinal survey Result (on the company) Productivity / absenteeism /accidents / labor turnover Observation / data collection ROI Economic impact Comparing cost and revenue Which outcomes to be based? Which method to use? Which is the best base? Depends upon the objective of training Evaluation should be based on objective Whether the objective is achieved or not?
  8. Need or Purpose of Evaluation 1. Spends a large amount, time and effort – ascertain whether these scarce resources have been fruitfully used 2. To identify the strengths and weaknesses of the programme:- a. In meeting the objectives of the programme b. Whether transfer learning has taken place or not 3. To assess whether the training content, organization, and administration of the programme contribute to learning and the use of the training content on the job 4. To identify which trainees benefit the most and the least 5. To gather marketing data by asking the participants whether they would recommend the programme to others, why did they attend? and their level of satisfaction 6. To justify the through cost and benefit analysis and ROI
  9. Need or Purpose of Evaluation (contd.) 7. To justify the role of training considering the budget constraints 8. To improve the quality of the training programme, from the view point of the trainees, the trainers and the organization Principles of Evaluation  Evaluator must have clear idea about the purpose and goals of evaluation  Must be continuous  Must be specific  Must provide the means and focus for trainers to enable to appraise themselves, their practices and their products  Must be based on objective methods and standards  Must be conducted within a reasonable time
  10. Process of Training Evaluation • Evaluation is a process involving different stages • Training evaluation process involves – collection of data regarding the training needs identification – selection of training methodology – adoption of training aids – modification of workplace learning activities – ascertaining the impact of training programme upon the individual worker, group of workers and organization as a whole
  11. Process contd. • Training evaluation begins with determining the criterion for evaluation which depends upon the training objectives • These criteria can be the reaction of trainees, their learning, behavioral changes, and impacts on organizational changes. • Training and development programmes are conducted with the objective of improving the quality of performance, attitudinal changes among the employees • In evaluation process, the evaluator, based on the criteria assesses whether, the objectives of training have been achieved or not • Feed back of evaluation process is very important. It enables the concerned to make good of any shortcomings
  12. Evaluation Design 1. Pre-test/post-test with comparison or control groups – compares a group of employees who received training with a group of employees who have not received training before and after undergoing the training programme 2. Pre-test/post-test – no control groups 3. Post-test only with control group 4. Longitudinal or time series – data regarding the outcomes are collected at periodic intervals before and after the training programme. If necessary control group can also be created. Can be effectively used for evaluating training programs meant for improving readily observable outcome (accidents / production / turn over etc)
  13. EVALUATION DESIGNS Design 1 Design 2 Post -test /pre-test with control groups Post -test / pre-test without control groups Trained personnel Before training Trained personnel after training Personnel before training Personnel after training Personnel without training Personnel without training Considers the impact of factors other than training Do not consider the impact factors other than training Design 3 Trained personnel Untrained personnel
  14. Evaluation Methods and Techniques Tools and techniques like  Observation  Interview  Questionnaire  Survey etc  Detailed studies based on the opinion of trainers, trainees, superiors, peers and subordinates  Human /resources factors like, employee satisfaction, attitudes, reduction in labor turnover, accidents, grievances, disciplinary actions etc.  Cost benefit analysis  Feed back
  15. Which is the Appropriate or Best one? Answer depends upon several factors like  Size of the training programme  Objectives of training  Evaluation policy followed by the management  Cost and benefit of conducting evaluation programme
  16. Cost Benefit Analysis Or Determining the Impact on ROI  Is the process of determining the economic benefits of training through accounting methods by determining the cost and benefits  Training involves different costs  These costs are compared with the benefits accrued from training Eg. Training to reduce accidents. Total cost Rs. 10,00,000 Training reduces the incidence of accidents to 10 from 50 before training, which results in the reduction of compensation to 15,00,000. Then the cost is Rs. 10,00,000< benefits Rs. 15,00,000. It can be rightly said that the training program is economical and enhance ROI Cost benefit analysis helps to- a). Determine the total costs, (b) compare training costs with alternative training methods and (c). Control costs
  17. Training Evaluation Models Different approaches to evaluate the effectiveness of training programme 1. Kirkpatrick's Framework of Four Levels 2. Jack Philips ROI Method 3. CIPP by Stufflebeam 4. CIRRO Model by Warr. 5. Virmani and Premila Model
  18. How to Make Training Effective?  Training is effective, when?  When there is transfer training – the more transfer, the more effective The following factors can be considered to make the training and development programmes effective 1. Learning principles 2. Pedagogy and andragogy 3. Characteristics of trainees 4. Characteristics of trainers
  19. Pedagogy and Andragogy  These are the two groups of theories of learning based on two models of man  Pedagogy is based on mechanistic model of man in which man is considered as passive and reactive organism.  Activity in him is viewed as the result of external forces  According to this model, the basic purpose of education and training is the transmission of knowledge and skills and shaping the individual to a pre-determined mould.  Thus, pedagogy emphasizes on designing the training content in advance