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Solanaceae.pptx

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Solanaceae family is also known as the potato family.
Around 2000 species of dicotyledonous plants belong to this family.
Solanaceae is a family of angiosperms.
It is widely distributed all over the world in tropical, subtropical and temperate zones.
It includes a number of spices, medicinal plants, agricultural crops, etc.
Vegetables like potatoes, tomatoes, bell peppers, eggplant are included in the Solanaceae family.
Many plants are of medicinal importance. The main medicinal plants are Atropa belladonna, Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha), Datura, etc.
Some alkaloids are toxic too. Some of the important alkaloids are tropanes, nicotine, capsaicin, solanine, hyoscyamine, etc.
Many ornamental plants also belong to this family. E.g. Petunia, Lycianthes, Cestrum, etc.
These are important sources of spices. E.g. chilly
The leaves of Nicotiana tabacum are a major source of tobacco. Tobacco is a commercially very important plant.

Solanaceae family is also known as the potato family.
Around 2000 species of dicotyledonous plants belong to this family.
Solanaceae is a family of angiosperms.
It is widely distributed all over the world in tropical, subtropical and temperate zones.
It includes a number of spices, medicinal plants, agricultural crops, etc.
Vegetables like potatoes, tomatoes, bell peppers, eggplant are included in the Solanaceae family.
Many plants are of medicinal importance. The main medicinal plants are Atropa belladonna, Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha), Datura, etc.
Some alkaloids are toxic too. Some of the important alkaloids are tropanes, nicotine, capsaicin, solanine, hyoscyamine, etc.
Many ornamental plants also belong to this family. E.g. Petunia, Lycianthes, Cestrum, etc.
These are important sources of spices. E.g. chilly
The leaves of Nicotiana tabacum are a major source of tobacco. Tobacco is a commercially very important plant.

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Solanaceae.pptx

  1. 1. SOLANACEAE FAMILY Dr. Madhubala P Gopinath Dept. of Dravyaguna GAVC, Trivandrum
  2. 2. INDEX 1 INTRODUCTION 2 SYSTEMATIC POSITION OF SOLANACE – TAXONOMICAL ORDER 3 COMMON PLANTS IN SOLANACEAE 4 IMPORTANT GENERA IN SOLANACEAE 5 LISTING OF IMPORTANT MEDICINAL PLANTS IN SOLANACEAE 6 DESCRIPTION OF THE FAMILY 7 CHARACTERSTICS OF SOLANACEAE – VEGETATIVE AND FLORAL CHARACTERS, FLORAL FORMULA 8 ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF SOLANACEAE FAMILY 9 DESCRIPTION ON MEDICINAL PLANTS OF SOLANACEAE – 9 SOLANACEAE MEMBERS
  3. 3. Solanaceae • Solanaceae family is also known as the potato family. • Around 2000 species of dicotyledonous plants belong to this family. • Solanaceae is a family of angiosperms. • It is widely distributed all over the world in tropical, subtropical and temperate zones. • It includes a number of spices, medicinal plants, agricultural crops, etc. Vegetables like potatoes, tomatoes, bell peppers, eggplant are included in the Solanaceae family.
  4. 4. Systematic Position Of Solanaceae • Kingdom: Plantae • Subkingdom: Tracheobionta • Super Division: Spermatophyta • Division: Magnoliophyta • Class: Magnoliopsida • Subclass: Asteridae • Order: Solanales • Family: Solanaceae
  5. 5. Some Common Plants Common name Scientific name Potato Solanum tuberosum Eggplant S. melongena Tomato S. lycopersicum Bell pepper Capsicum annuum Tobacco Nicotiana tabacum Belladonna Atropa belladonna Ashwagandha Withania somnifera Datura Datura stramonium Black nightshade S. nigrum Petunia Petunia hybrida Solanaceae is a big family of flowering plants having ~102 genera accounting for ~2500 species. Some common examples are:
  6. 6. Some important genera in Solanaceae family ~102 genera accounting for ~2500 species. Solanum, Capsicum, Nicotiana, Petunia, Physalis, Withania, Datura, Brugmansia are some of the genera included in Solanaceae
  7. 7. Some important medicinal plants of Solanaceae 1. Aswagandha Withania somnifera 2. Bruhati Solanum indicum 3. Dattura Datura metel 4. Kantakari Solanum xanthocarpum 5. Kakamachi Solanum nigrum 6. Parasika yavani Hyoscyamus niger 7. Soochi Atropa belladona 8. Katuveera Capsicum annum 9. Tambaku Nicotiana Tabacum
  8. 8. Description Of The Family (1) • Habit: Solanaceae family contains herbs, shrubs and also some small trees. • Root: Typically they possess a tap root system with branching.
  9. 9. Description Of The Family(2) • Stem: Aerial, branched, erect, mostly herbaceous, cylindrical, hairy or glabrous. Potato is an example of an underground stem. • Leaf: Leaves are simple, alternate and sometimes pinnately compound. Venation is reticulate. Leaves are exstipulate or sessile. Sometimes transformed into spines. • Stem of Solanaceae plant Leaves of S. tuberosum
  10. 10. Description Of The Family(3) • Inflorescence: Flowers are solitary or grouped having axillary or cymose inflorescence. • Flower: Bracteate or ebracteolate, actinomorphic and generally hermaphrodite. The flower is pentamerous and hypogynous.
  11. 11. Description Of The Family(4) • Calyx: Sepals green or colored, typically 5 sepals, gamosepalous, persistent and show valvate aestivation. • Corolla: Petals 5, gamopetalous and valvate or imbricate aestivation. Flowers of potato Flowers of Datura sps. Flowers of Datura sps.
  12. 12. Description Of The Family(5) • Androecium: Stamens 5, polyandrous and epipetalous. • Gynoecium: Bicarpellary, syncarpous with the superior and bilocular ovary. Each locule contains many ovules (1-50). The placenta is swollen and axile placentation. The ovary is placed obliquely. It contains one style and one simple or bilobate stigma. • Fruit: It can be berry, e.g. tomatoes or capsule as in datura. • Seeds: Contains many seeds that are endospermic. Seeds are mostly round and flat. The embryo is curved or straight with two cotyledons. Mostly plants contain 2n = 24 (2 x 12) chromosomes but polyploidy is also seen with chromosomes in multiples of 12. • Pollination: Members of this family mainly exhibit entomophilous pollination, i.e. pollinated by insects.
  13. 13. tals
  14. 14. Characteristics of Solanaceae Family
  15. 15. Vegetative Characters •Root System: Taproot system. •Stem: Erect or climber; Solanaceae includes herbs, shrubs, small trees, and climbers. •Leaves: Alternate, simple or pinnately compound (rarely); exstipulate; reticulate venation.
  16. 16. Floral characters • Inflorescence: Racemose- terminal or axillary raceme; Cymose- solitary in Solanum. • Flower: Complete, bisexual, actinomorphic, hypogynous. • Calyx: Five sepals, gamosepalous; valvate aestivation. • Corolla: Five petals, gamopetalous, valvate aestivation. • Androecium: Five stamens, epipetalous; anthers basifixed. • Gynoecium: Syncarpous, bicarpellary, bilocular, superior ovary, axile placentation. • Fruit: Berry/ capsule. • Seed: Numerous, endospermous
  17. 17. Floral formula ⊕ Actinomorphic (radial symmetry) ⚥ Bisexual K(5) Calyx – 5 sepals, gamosepalous (united) C(5) Corolla – 5 petals, gamopetalous A5 Androecium – 5 stamens, polyandrous (free), epipetalous (attached to petals) G(2) Gynoecium – bicarpellary, syncarpous (united), superior ovary A floral formula is a symbolic representation of different floral parts, their numbers, arrangement pattern and how they are related. The general floral formula of Solanaceae family is as follows:
  18. 18. Flower of Datura metel Floral diagram Floral formula -
  19. 19. Economic Importance • These are an important source of vegetables. E.g. tomato, brinjal and potato, bell peppers, capsicum etc. • Many plants are of medicinal importance. The main medicinal plants are Atropa belladonna, Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha), Datura, etc. • Some alkaloids are toxic too. Some of the important alkaloids are tropanes, nicotine, capsaicin, solanine, hyoscyamine, etc. • Many ornamental plants also belong to this family. E.g. Petunia, Lycianthes, Cestrum, etc. • These are important sources of spices. E.g. chilly • The leaves of Nicotiana tabacum are a major source of tobacco. Tobacco is a commercially very important plant.
  20. 20. Index 1. Aswagandha 2. Bruhati 3. Datura 4. Kantakari 5. Kakamachi 6. Parasika yavani 7. Soochi 8. Katuveera 9. Tambaku
  21. 21. Aswagandha Withania somnifera CHARACTERS HABIT Much branched perennial herb. STEM Aerial, erect, herbaceous above, woody below, densely covered with fine stellate hair LEAVES Cauline and ramal, alternate, ovate-oblong, entire, with thick and long petioles, covered with glandular hair INFLORESCENCE Sub-sessile, axillary umbellate, 5 flowered cyme FLOWER Greenish yellow subsessile, pedicellate, complete, bisexual CALYX Pentamerous, gamosepalous, tomentose COROLLA Pentamerous, campanulate, greenish yellow in color ANDROECIUM 5 free stamen GYNOECIUM Bicarpellary, syncarpous, bilocular, axile placentation FRUIT Small berry, globose, yellow or red when ripe SEED Endospermic USED PART Root
  22. 22. Bruhati Solanum indicum CHARACTERS HABIT Armed shrub STEM Herbaceous, branched, green, prickly LEAVES Simple, exstipulate, densely stellate-pubescent, sinuate leaves INFLORESCENCE Extra – axillary corymbose cyme FLOWER Ebracteate, bisexual, zygomorphic, hypogynous CALYX Cupular, pubescent lobes which are enlarged in fruit COROLLA Stellate, pubescent, acute, white, plicate ANDROECIUM 5 stamens GYNOECIUM Superior ovary, bilocular FRUIT Green or yellowish-orange berry, globose, pulpy SEED Circular, smooth USED PART Root/ Fruit/ Leaves
  23. 23. Datura Datura metel CHARACTERS HABIT Large herb giving bushy look. ~3 feet height. STEM Stout, erect, branching repeatedly LEAVES Large, angular, 10-15 cm long, wavy and toothed margin, strong veins, dark green upper surface, paler undersurface INFLORESCENCE Solitary FLOWER Large attractive, ~ 8cm long, mostly white CALYX Tubular calyx COROLLA Funnel shaped corolla, white or varied in color ANDROECIUM 5 stamens, epipetalous, basifixed, dithecous with long filament GYNOECIUM Superior ovary, syncarpous, bicarpellary FRUIT Large capsule with numerous sharp spines, splits open when ripe SEED Brownish seeds USED PART Seed/ Leaves/ Root
  24. 24. Kantakari Solanum xanthocarpum HABIT STEM LEAVES INFLORESCENCE FLOWER CALYX COROLLA ANDROECIUM GYNOECIUM FRUIT SEED USED PART CHARACTERS HABIT Perennial herb, prickly, prostrate –with yellow straight spines all over the plant STEM Erect, solid, branched, dark green and glabrous LEAVES Exstipulate, petiolate, alternate, simple reticulate unicostate venation with thorns INFLORESCENCE Extra axillary short peduncled cyme, sometimes solitary flowers FLOWER Complete, actinomorphic, bisexual, bluish purple or violet colored CALYX 5 sepals COROLLA 5 petals ANDROECIUM 5 stamens which are free GYNOECIUM Bicarpellary, syncarpous with bilocular ovary, axile placentation FRUIT Berry with endospermic seeds SEED Yellowish brown, glabrous, circular
  25. 25. Kakamachi Solanum nigrum HABIT STEM LEAVES INFLORESCENCE FLOWER CALYX COROLLA ANDROECIUM GYNOECIUM FRUIT SEED USED PART CHARACTERS HABIT Annual herb STEM Erect, more or less pubescent LEAVES Simple, alternate leaves, 2.5-9 cm long, 2-5cm wide, ovate- lanceolate, sub-acute or acuminate tip, sinuately toothed tapering into a petiole which is ~2cm long INFLORESCENCE Lax, 3-8 flowered cyme FLOWER Small, solitary white flowers, actinomorphic CALYX 5 sepals, fused, campanulate COROLLA 5 petals, fused, white, wheel shaped ANDROECIUM 5 stamens, anthers in a conical group GYNOECIUM 2 fused carpels FRUIT Green or black fruits arranged in an umbelliform fashion SEED Yellowish brown, flat, circular
  26. 26. Parasika yavani Hyoscyamus niger HABIT STEM LEAVES INFLORESCENCE FLOWER CALYX COROLLA ANDROECIUM GYNOECIUM FRUIT SEED USED PART CHARACTERS HABIT Biennial or annual herb STEM Erect, coarse, hairy, robust, grows up to ~80cm in height LEAVES Basal leaves are spreading petiolate, oblong, ovate, 15-20cm, coarsely sinuate toothed. Cauline leaves are smaller, sessile, triangular and lanceolate. INFLORESCENCE Terminal scorpioid cymes which are dense FLOWER Zygomorphic, widely funnel shaped CALYX 5 lobed, campanulate (bell shaped) COROLLA Dirty yellow petals veined with violet, throat is purplish black ANDROECIUM 5 stamens, epipetalous GYNOECIUM 2 fused carpels FRUIT Long circumscissile capsule protected by urceolate (pitcher- shaped) calyx, ‘urn’ shaped fruit SEED Black or brownish grey seeds, small and compressed, nearly ovoid, 10,000 – 50,000 seeds per plant on fruiting USED PART Seed
  27. 27. SOOCHI Atropa belledonna HABIT STEM LEAVES INFLORESCENCE FLOWER CALYX COROLLA ANDROECIUM GYNOECIUM FRUIT SEED USED PART HABIT Perennial herb, sometimes subshrub STEM Erect, LEAVES Dark green, simple, alternate INFLORESCENCE Solitary FLOWER Purple bell shaped flowers, drooping, tubular CALYX 5 lobed, fused COROLLA 5 lobed, fused, purple in color, campanulate ANDROECIUM -- GYNOECIUM Bilocular FRUIT Purple- black berry SEED Yellow to brown seeds USED PART Roots/Leaves/ Fruits/ Tops
  28. 28. KATUVEERA Capsicum annum HABIT STEM LEAVES INFLORESCENCE FLOWER CALYX COROLLA ANDROECIUM GYNOECIUM FRUIT SEED USED PART CHARACTERS HABIT In the absence of winter frosts, survive for many years. Otherwise annual, shrub STEM Erect, densely branched, tomentose stem, up to 60cm tall LEAVES Alternate, simple, ovate, acuminate at apex, light to dark green, subglabrous INFLORESCENCE Singly terminal flowers FLOWER White and solitary CALYX Cup shaped, 5 teeth COROLLA Companulate, 5-7 lobes, usually white ANDROECIUM 5-7 stamen, pale blue anthers GYNOECIUM Filiform white or purplish style FRUIT Non pulp berry, variable in size, shape and color – green / yellow when immature, orange/red/ yellow when ripe SEED Orbicular, flattened seeds, pale yellow USED PART Fruit is used as a spice
  29. 29. TAMBAKU Nicotiana tabaccum HABIT STEM LEAVES INFLORESCENCE FLOWER CALYX COROLLA ANDROECIUM GYNOECIUM FRUIT SEED USED PART HABIT Annual herbaceous plant, hairy on all parts STEM Thick, not very branched, erect LEAVES Over 50cm long with blades ovate to elliptical, sessile INFLORESCENCE Multi branched panicles/ cymes, 5-15mm long FLOWER Greenish cream with pink or red at the tip CALYX Narrow pointed calyx lobes shorter than calyx tube COROLLA Funnel shaped flower, lobed coronet ANDROECIUM 5 stamens, uneven, hairy at the base GYNOECIUM Syncarpous, single style, bicarpellary, axile placentation FRUIT Long capsule, egg shaped SEED Spherical seeds up to 0.5mm with wavy networked surface USED PART Leaf / Stem
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  • Cauline leaf – leaves attached to an upper part of the stem/ above ground stem on the nodes.

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