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Application of CFD for Turbomachinery Flow Analysis

The presentation gives glances of the importance of CFD analysis of Turbomachines with an illustration/ case study. For more details, follow the webinar-02 "Application of CFD for Rotating Machinery Flow Analysis" For more such information follow: https://www.linkedin.com/in/ganeshvisavale/

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Application of CFD for Turbomachinery Flow Analysis

  1. 1. Introduction Classification CFD Modeling Test Case Results Application of CFD for Turbomachinery Flow Analysis Dr. Ganesh Visavale Cofounder & General Manager LearnCAx (Centre for Computational Technologies Pvt. Ltd) Pune: 411007. India May 24, 2014 www.learncax.com Application of CFD for Turbomachinery Flow Analysis May 24, 2014 1 / 22
  2. 2. Introduction Classification CFD Modeling Test Case Results Turbomachines 1 Compressors : transport of gas at increased pressure 2 Turbines : rotary device which extracts work from working fluid 3 Fans : transport gas at high volume flow rate and low pressure 4 Pumps : transport fluid (liquids) at increased pressure 5 Blowers : similar to pumps but deal with gases 6 Mixing tanks : impeller rotation causes stirring action for chemical reaction processing www.learncax.com Application of CFD for Turbomachinery Flow Analysis May 24, 2014 2 / 22
  3. 3. Introduction Classification CFD Modeling Test Case Results Flows with rotating systems 1 Turbomachinery or Rotating machinery add or extract work from a fluid 2 Other use of rotating machinery is in mixing fluids for chemical processing 3 The process consists of moving fluids and rotating blades. 4 Devices which extract energy come under the category of turbines 5 Devices which add energy come under categories like pump, fans, compressors, blowers, fans etc. 6 All these devices come under a generalized term called rotating machines or turbomachinery www.learncax.com Application of CFD for Turbomachinery Flow Analysis May 24, 2014 3 / 22
  4. 4. Introduction Classification CFD Modeling Test Case Results Classification of Turbomachinery Turbomachines Fluid Physics Compress- ible fluids Aircraft Gas turbines Steam power plants Incompre- ssible fluids Pumps Hydraulic turbines Direction of flow Axial flow devices Centrifugal flow devices Mixed flow devices www.learncax.com Application of CFD for Turbomachinery Flow Analysis May 24, 2014 4 / 22
  5. 5. Introduction Classification CFD Modeling Test Case Results How does CFD help ? Conventional design process based on application of empirical design methods Design of turbomachinery involves large number of variables & different design configuration are possible which meet system requirement CFD has been increasingly used to successfully design turbomachinery as well as carry out analysis and validation requirements for existing design www.learncax.com Application of CFD for Turbomachinery Flow Analysis May 24, 2014 5 / 22
  6. 6. Introduction Classification CFD Modeling Test Case Results CFD for Turbomachinery Performance prediction Internal flow visualization in the form of pressure distribution, flow distribution, flow path through the impeller, diffusor and other components Qualitative and quantitative validation of performance using simulations Investigation of existing design www.learncax.com Application of CFD for Turbomachinery Flow Analysis May 24, 2014 6 / 22
  7. 7. Introduction Classification CFD Modeling Test Case Results CFD Design Cycle Initial design Geometry generation Mesh gen- eration Inputs for CFD problem Solver Post processing Result ex- traction Optimum design www.learncax.com Application of CFD for Turbomachinery Flow Analysis May 24, 2014 7 / 22
  8. 8. Introduction Classification CFD Modeling Test Case Results CFD Design Cycle Initial design Geometry generation Mesh gen- eration Inputs for CFD problem Solver Post processing Result ex- traction Optimum design www.learncax.com Application of CFD for Turbomachinery Flow Analysis May 24, 2014 7 / 22
  9. 9. Introduction Classification CFD Modeling Test Case Results CFD Design Cycle Initial design Geometry generation Mesh gen- eration Inputs for CFD problem Solver Post processing Result ex- traction Optimum design www.learncax.com Application of CFD for Turbomachinery Flow Analysis May 24, 2014 7 / 22
  10. 10. Introduction Classification CFD Modeling Test Case Results CFD Design Cycle Initial design Geometry generation Mesh gen- eration Inputs for CFD problem Solver Post processing Result ex- traction Optimum design www.learncax.com Application of CFD for Turbomachinery Flow Analysis May 24, 2014 7 / 22
  11. 11. Introduction Classification CFD Modeling Test Case Results CFD Design Cycle Initial design Geometry generation Mesh gen- eration Inputs for CFD problem Solver Post processing Result ex- traction Optimum design www.learncax.com Application of CFD for Turbomachinery Flow Analysis May 24, 2014 7 / 22
  12. 12. Introduction Classification CFD Modeling Test Case Results CFD Design Cycle Initial design Geometry generation Mesh gen- eration Inputs for CFD problem Solver Post processing Result ex- traction Optimum design www.learncax.com Application of CFD for Turbomachinery Flow Analysis May 24, 2014 7 / 22
  13. 13. Introduction Classification CFD Modeling Test Case Results CFD Design Cycle Initial design Geometry generation Mesh gen- eration Inputs for CFD problem Solver Post processing Result ex- traction Optimum design www.learncax.com Application of CFD for Turbomachinery Flow Analysis May 24, 2014 7 / 22
  14. 14. Introduction Classification CFD Modeling Test Case Results CFD Design Cycle Initial design Geometry generation Mesh gen- eration Inputs for CFD problem Solver Post processing Result ex- traction Optimum design www.learncax.com Application of CFD for Turbomachinery Flow Analysis May 24, 2014 7 / 22
  15. 15. Introduction Classification CFD Modeling Test Case Results CFD Design Cycle Initial design Geometry generation Mesh gen- eration Inputs for CFD problem Solver Post processing Result ex- traction Optimum design www.learncax.com Application of CFD for Turbomachinery Flow Analysis May 24, 2014 7 / 22
  16. 16. Introduction Classification CFD Modeling Test Case Results CFD Modeling Approach Concept called Moving Reference Frame is used Reference frame has motion defined relative to stationary coordinate system This approach transforms an unsteady flow field with respect to stationary frame into a steady flow field with respect to the moving reference frame This approach makes it easier to specify appropriate boundary conditions, define a simpler CFD problem and also takes less time and computational effort www.learncax.com Application of CFD for Turbomachinery Flow Analysis May 24, 2014 8 / 22
  17. 17. Introduction Classification CFD Modeling Test Case Results CFD Modeling Approach Mass, momentum, energy and other equations are solved in stationary frame Acceleration of fluid in moving frames is defined using relative velocity of rotating frame and stationary frame The convection terms and source terms in the momentum equations are modified using the acceleration terms due to he moving reference frame www.learncax.com Application of CFD for Turbomachinery Flow Analysis May 24, 2014 9 / 22
  18. 18. Introduction Classification CFD Modeling Test Case Results CFD Modeling Approach Single Reference Frame (SRF) A moving reference frame is defined within the model of a single fluid domain This domain moves with the frame speed around axis of rotation Stationary boundaries form a surfaces of revolution This moving frame takes care of the rotation effect of the blades www.learncax.com Application of CFD for Turbomachinery Flow Analysis May 24, 2014 10 / 22
  19. 19. Introduction Classification CFD Modeling Test Case Results CFD Modeling Approach Sliding mesh approach Domain is divided in to rotating and non-rotating zones The interface is modeled as non-conformal surface of revolutions In this approach there is relative motion between the zones and thus the approach becomes transient in nature The mesh is moved during each time step and fluxes are modeled at sliding/moving interfaces www.learncax.com Application of CFD for Turbomachinery Flow Analysis May 24, 2014 11 / 22
  20. 20. Introduction Classification CFD Modeling Test Case Results CFD Modeling Approach Multiple Reference Frame (MRF) or Frozen Rotor-Stator approach Used when there is a stationary component that cannot be modeled as surfaces of revolution Two distinct domain are considered one in moving frame and one stationary An interface is defined between stationary and rotating fluid zones Velocity vector and velocity gradients are then transformed at this interface Flux, momentum, energy, and other scalars exchange at interface No relative motion between the domains Interface is modeled as surface of revolution www.learncax.com Application of CFD for Turbomachinery Flow Analysis May 24, 2014 12 / 22
  21. 21. Introduction Classification CFD Modeling Test Case Results Importance of Mesh Quality Mesh generation is very critical and complex in case of turbomachinery applications Impeller and blades and diffusor/volute region are critical during meshing Casing, Impeller diffuser require separate meshing strategy and then different meshes are merged to generate entire pump mesh Hybrid mesh with tetrahedral and hex mesh elements and prism layer to capture turbulent flow phenomenon www.learncax.com Application of CFD for Turbomachinery Flow Analysis May 24, 2014 13 / 22
  22. 22. Introduction Classification CFD Modeling Test Case Results Finer mesh between the blades to capture the exact flow regions Varied size mesh elements near the blades to capture flow details Mesh orientation should be along the fluid flow direction www.learncax.com Application of CFD for Turbomachinery Flow Analysis May 24, 2014 14 / 22
  23. 23. Introduction Classification CFD Modeling Test Case Results CFD Modeling Approach Example: Centrifugal blower 2D model of a standard shaped centrifugal blower 36 blade impeller Inlet total pressure : 180 Pa Outlet: at ambient conditions. Flow : turbulent in nature. Blades rotation: angular velocity of 300rad/s in clockwise direction. www.learncax.com Application of CFD for Turbomachinery Flow Analysis May 24, 2014 15 / 22
  24. 24. Introduction Classification CFD Modeling Test Case Results CFD Modeling Approach: Centrifugal Blower MRF approach Need to define a moving reference frame around the blades Blades are not rotating Mesh is not rotating Motion is incorporated by using Moving Reference Frame i.e. the reference frame is moving w.r.t stationary zone with the rotational speed of blades (300rad/s) SRF approach The blades are rotating Mesh is rotating at the rotational speed of blades Need to define a region around the blades called as the moving zone Interface between the stationary domain & rotating mesh is the sliding interface www.learncax.com Application of CFD for Turbomachinery Flow Analysis May 24, 2014 16 / 22
  25. 25. Introduction Classification CFD Modeling Test Case Results Grid: Centrifugal Blower www.learncax.com Application of CFD for Turbomachinery Flow Analysis May 24, 2014 17 / 22
  26. 26. Introduction Classification CFD Modeling Test Case Results Pressure distribution www.learncax.com Application of CFD for Turbomachinery Flow Analysis May 24, 2014 18 / 22
  27. 27. Introduction Classification CFD Modeling Test Case Results Velocity distribution www.learncax.com Application of CFD for Turbomachinery Flow Analysis May 24, 2014 19 / 22
  28. 28. Introduction Classification CFD Modeling Test Case Results Summary From the results of the pressure and velocity profiles we see that both the approaches are almost identical. SRF approach captures more details and gives better insights as compared to MRF approach. SRF is the unsteady simulation approach that is high on computational time and cost. MRF approach can be used as the quick first hand qualitative analysis that incorporates the rotation effect using the steady state simulation. www.learncax.com Application of CFD for Turbomachinery Flow Analysis May 24, 2014 20 / 22
  29. 29. Introduction Classification CFD Modeling Test Case Results References FLUENT user guide- modeling flows with rotating reference frames. esi CFD FAQ Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia adapco ONLINE FLUENT tutorial: Using Sliding Mesh www.learncax.com Application of CFD for Turbomachinery Flow Analysis May 24, 2014 21 / 22
  30. 30. Introduction Classification CFD Modeling Test Case Results Thanks...! LearnCAx Inspire | Educate | Mentor CCTech - Pune 1 Akshay Residency, 50 Anand Park, Aundh, Pune-411007. India. ganesh@learncax.com, www.learncax.com www.learncax.com Application of CFD for Turbomachinery Flow Analysis May 24, 2014 22 / 22
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The presentation gives glances of the importance of CFD analysis of Turbomachines with an illustration/ case study. For more details, follow the webinar-02 "Application of CFD for Rotating Machinery Flow Analysis" For more such information follow: https://www.linkedin.com/in/ganeshvisavale/

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