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Enterocutaneous fistulas

Enterocutaneous fistula

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Enterocutaneous fistulas

  1. 1. Entero-cutaneous Fistulas By : Dr. Anurag
  2. 2. INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION Fistula is defined as an abnormal communication between two epithelialized surfaces. Enterocutaneous fistula is an abnormal communication between the skin with various parts of the gut, such as duodenum, jejunum etc. The word fistula means a “pipe” or “flute” in Latin.  The ileum is the most common site of origin of Enterocutaneous fistula.
  3. 3. CLASSIFICATION
  4. 4. ETIOLOGYETIOLOGY Webster and Carey proposed five mechanisms of fistula formation : 1> Congenital : - Rare - Failure of obliterate of Vitello-intestinal duct. - Post natal slough of the stump. 2> Trauma : - Major penetrating trauma. - Damage control laparotomy techniques
  5. 5. 3> Infection : - intra abdominal Abscess and invasive intestinal infections like amoebiasis, coccidiomycosis, tuberculosis etc. - Intestinal perforation in ileum from tuberculosis or enteric fever - Actinomyces infection post appendectomy. 4> Iatrogenic : - Intra-abdominal abscess - 75-85% are iatrogenic - after surgery for bowel obstruction, cancer, or IBD
  6. 6. 5> Inflammation, Irradiation or Tumour : - Crohn’s disease may cause ECF – post op more common than spontaneous. - ECF after anastomosis/appendicectomy/simple exploration in Crohn’s disease. - Irradiation for pelvic malignancies etc may lead to a chronic non-healing ECF.
  7. 7. PREVENTION OF FISTULAPREVENTION OF FISTULA - Acute intra-operative perforations- early identification and closure. - Serosal tears should be repaired immediately. - Aggressive adhesiolysis should be avoided to prevent serosal tears.
  8. 8. Post operatively anastomotic leak Fever Abdominal pain Continuous drain containing intestinal content General condition not improving DIAGNOSIS OF PERFORATION AND FISTULADIAGNOSIS OF PERFORATION AND FISTULA
  9. 9. STAGING AND CLASSIFICATIONSTAGING AND CLASSIFICATION
  10. 10. • Stabilization • Sepsis control • Skin care • Nutrition • Anatomy identification • Plan to deal with the fistula MANAGEMENTMANAGEMENT S-S-N-A-PS-S-N-A-P
  11. 11. STABILIZATIONSTABILIZATION  In 24 to 48 hours.  First step - resuscitation and stabilization of the patient.  Initial efforts – intravenous fluid resuscitation control of infection protection of surrounding skin measuring and replacing ongoing losses. > Intra-abdominal/subcutaneous abscesses should be drained
  12. 12. A. RESUSCITATIONA. RESUSCITATION  Restoration of normal circulating blood volume  correction of electrolyte and acid-base imbalance  Initial management- RL and NS  Strict input and output measurements  CVP monitoring  urinary catheterization.  Ongoing fluid losses should be fully replaced  Associated with hypokalemia and metabolic acidosis- correction.  Output of fistula should be monitored  Urine output should be restored to greater than 0.5mL/kg/hr.  If needed transfuse blood.
  13. 13. B. NUTRITIONB. NUTRITION  73% of enteric fistulae closes spontaneously in adequately nourished patients, as against 19% in malnourished patients. > Nutritional support needs to begin as soon as the patient is stabilized. > Nutrition can be parenteral or enteral route, based on the anatomy of the fistula. > Its advisable to provide at least a part of the daily nutritional requirement through enteral route.(adequate is 25%). > Nutrition via the enteral route helps in maintaining the intestinal mucosal barrier, more efficacious delivery of nutrients, stimulating hepatic protein synthesis. > ORS should be given when oral intake is possible. > In proximal fistulae, the enteral feeding tube may be entered beyond the fistula to provide enteral nutrition. > It is advisable to enter feeding tube beyond ligament of Treitz for a gastric or duodenal fistula. TPN is also given in patients who do not tolerate enteral feeds or have long standing ileus or before fistulous tract is well established.
  14. 14. NUTRITION CONTD..NUTRITION CONTD.. vitamins, trace elements, zinc and up to 10 times the daily requirement of Vitamin C should be provided. > Mortality rate of 42% with albumin <2.5 mg/dl v/s 0% if >3.5 mg/dl. TYPE OF FISTULA CALORIE REQ PROTEIN REQ Low Output 30-35 kcal/kg/day 1-2 gm/kg/day High Output 45-50 kcal/kg/day 1.5-2.5 gm/kg/day
  15. 15. C. CONTROL OF SEPSIS AND FISTULA EFFLUENTC. CONTROL OF SEPSIS AND FISTULA EFFLUENT
  16. 16. D. PHARMACOLOGICAL SUPPORTD. PHARMACOLOGICAL SUPPORT > Somatostatin analogue Octreotide-100 – 250 mcg TDS reduces fistula output by 40 – 60% by the end of 24 hrs. > Should be discontinued if ineffective for 48 hrs (side effects- hyperglycemia, elevated cholesterol and reduced bowel motility). > Octreotide and TPN seem to have a synergistic effect on reduction of effluent volume and improvement in fistula closure rates. > Proton-pump inhibitors and H2 receptor antagonists also help reduce fistula output especially in proximal fistulas. > Complications include URTI, headache, fatigue etc.
  17. 17. INVESTIGATIONSINVESTIGATIONS To locate Fistula X-ray- show any foreign body Oral dye / Charcoal – shows presence or absence, but not its location, cause or anatomy. USG - locating intra-abdominal abscesses, guided aspiration Fistulography- length & width of the fistula, anatomical location, the presence of any distal obstructions CT Scan- oral and IV- highly recommended for duodenal & pancreatic fistula. Endoscopy -principal use is in internal fistulas.
  18. 18. DECISIONDECISION Factor Favorable Unfavorable Organ of origin Esophageal, Duodenal stump, Pancreatic, Biliary, Jejunal, Colonic Gastric, Lateral duodenal, Ligament of Treitz, Ileal Etiology Postop (anast leak), Appendicitis, Diverticulitis Malignancy, IBD Output Low (<200-500cc/day) High (>500cc/day) Nutritional status Well nourished Malnourished Sepsis Absent Present State of bowel Intestinal continuity, absence of obstruction Distal obstruction, Abscess, Discontinuity, Irradiation Fistula characteristics Tract >2 cm, Defect <1cm Tract <1cm, Defect >1cm Miscellaneous Original operation at same institution Referred from outside institution
  19. 19.  90% of small intestinal fistula which closed spontaneously within a month.  10 % fistulas closes spontaneously after 2 months and none after 3 months  Factors possibly responsible for failure of spontaneous closure are:  Foreign Body  Radiation  Inflammation/ infection  Epithelialization [F-R-I-E-N-D-S]  Neoplasm  Distal intestinal obstruction  Steroids.
  20. 20. DEFINITIVE THERAPY
  21. 21. DEFINITIVE THERAPYDEFINITIVE THERAPY > 80-90% will close within 6 weeks with conservative management. > Surgery between 10 days and 6 weeks post-op will encounter the worst adhesions. > Preferably wait up to 6 weeks before open exploration and repair of defect, but in case of fecal fistula, due to intense inflammation, it is prudent to wait up to 10-12 weeks. > The patient should by then, be nutritionally optimized, patient should not be septic and patient should be vitally stable.
  22. 22. > Definitive operative correction remains the final step in the treatment of non-healing small intestinal fistulas. > In majority of the cases, preferred operation is resection of the involved segment with primary end-to-end anastomosis. > However if primary anastomosis is not possible, then both the proximal and distal ends of intestine are exteriorized. > In case the fistula is deemed inappropriate for resection, such as when it develops after a deep pelvic procedure, staged approach involving bypass should be considered.
  23. 23. Basic principles of surgical treatment • resection of the intestinal segment, fistula tract, and the adjacent part of the involved structure • absence of extensive infection or inflammation - primary anastomosis of the divided intestinal segments and reestablish GI continuity • presence of extensive infection - the divided intestinal segments are exteriorized. • staged procedure is performed after the infection and inflammation subsides to re-establish GI continuity and reconstruction of the affected structure after 10 weeks.
  24. 24. Entero-cutaneous fistula :- Resection of the involved segment with primary end-to-end anastomosis Exteriorization of both ends in the presence of extensive intra-abdominal sepsis Bypass procedure when dense adhesions are encountered within the pelvis. Choice of procedure for specific fistula types
  25. 25. Enteroenteric fistula • In the absence of associated infection:- Primary anastomosis of healthy bowel ends. • In the presence of associated infection:- Proximal diversion procedure with drainage of the abscess cavity. • Resection of the involved intestine and fistula after 4-6 weeks. • Resection should be limited to the area of intestine involved in fistula formation. • Extensive resection is not advantageous and only increases the risks of subsequent short-bowel syndrome and malabsorption.
  26. 26. Entero-vesical fistula • Surgical resection of the diseased intestine and the involved area of bladder wall. • A primary anastomosis of the bowel is performed, • The bladder wall is closed in layers. • In presence of inflammation- transection of the intestinal segment proximal and distal to the fistula, leaving the fistula tract in place. Both ends of the intestine are exteriorized.
  27. 27. Nephroenteric fistula • surgical procedure of choice is either total or partial nephrectomy, with en-bloc resection of the fistula tract and the involved intestinal segment. The ends of the intestines are anastomosed primarily.
  28. 28. Enterovaginal fistula • Surgery is reserved for patients who do not respond to conservative treatment with antibiotics and drainage of associated abscesses. • An en-bloc resection of the involved intestinal segment with fistula and affected vaginal wall is performed. • The intestinal ends are anastomosed primarily and the vaginal defect may be closed primarily.
  29. 29. Aortoenteric fistula • Emergency surgical intervention • The aortic prosthetic graft is removed • The intestinal defect is debrided and closed primarily. The presence of extensive inflammatory or devitalized tissue may necessitate intestinal resection and an end-to-end anastomosis.
  30. 30. ENTEROATMOSPHERIC FISTULAENTEROATMOSPHERIC FISTULA
  31. 31. > In 1995, Ho HS and Frey CF used primary closure of gastric fistula with delayed external drainage as treatment for gastric fistulas. > If the gastric fistula defect is too large to allow primary closure,then a Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy may be done. > Duodenal fistulas are usually treated with tube duodenostomy or Roux-en-Y duodenojejunostomy. > A feeding jejunostomy distal to the enteroenterostomy should always be considered.
  32. 32. Roux-en-Y DuodenojejunostomyRoux-en-Y Duodenojejunostomy
  33. 33. CONCLUSIONCONCLUSION > Enterocutaneous fistulas are abnormal communication between the gut and skin. > Majority of the ECF are due to iatrogenic causes (70-85%). Others include trauma, congenital causes. Spontaneous ECF may arise due to Crohn’s disease. > Malnutrition, Electrolyte imbalances, acid-base imbalances and sepsis are the major causes of mortality in ECF. > After initial stabilization of the patient by resuscitation( fluid, electrolytes, blood transfusions etc), the patient is subjected to various investigations to determine the location& anatomy of fistula, presence of distal obstruction etc.
  34. 34. > Enteral nutrition is always preferable to parenteral nutrition provided the patient tolerates enteral feeds. > Local wound care by application of ostomy bag and pastes are essential. > Drainage of intra-abdominal abscesses, treatment of sepsis is of utmost importance. > After proper optimization, patient undergoes definitive therapy which includes resection of the fistulous segment of the gut. > ECF with large abdominal defects may require VAC devices/ biologic mesh SSG to help close the defect.
  35. 35. THANK YOUTHANK YOU

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