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Understanding Culture, Society and Politics

  1. BECOMING A MEMBER OF A SOCIETY 1.Enculturation/Socialization a. Identification formation (identities, disciplines) b. Norms and Values c. Statuses and Roles 2.Conformity and deviance a. Social control (gossip, social ostracism,law and punishments b. Forms of deviance (ritualism,retreatism,rebellion and innovation 3. Human dignity, rights and common GOOD
  2. Enculturation/Socialization a. Identity Formation (Identities, Disciplines, Aspirations) b. Norms and Values c. Statuses and roles
  4. Socialization -Socialization is important in the process of personality formation. While much of human personality is the result of our genes, the socialization process can mold it in particular directions by encouraging specific beliefs and attitudes as well as selectively providing experiences. Successful socialization can result in uniformity within a society. If all children receive the same socialization, it is likely that they will share the same beliefs and expectations. This fact has been a strong motivation for national governments around the world to standardize education and make it compulsory for all children. Deciding what things will be taught and how they are taught is a powerful political tool for controlling people. Those who internalize the norms of society are less likely to break the law or to want radical social changes. In all societies, however, there are individuals who do not conform to culturally defined standards of normalcy because they were "abnormally" socialized, which is to say that they have not internalized the norms of society. These people are usually labeled by their society as deviant or even mentally ill.
  5. Socialization is known as the process of inducting the individual into the social world. The term socialization refers to the process of interaction through which the growing individual learns the attitudes, values and beliefs of the social group into which he has been born
  6. Enculturation Process where all individuals undergo throughout his life, it is both a conscious and unconscious procedure starting from birth until to death. In connection to that, it happens not only when a person goes to school for formal education, but, Enculturation happens through family, peers and other individuals that socializes with the person throughout his lifetime. Through enculturation, a person would be able to learn and understand social norms, values and languages behavior and other important things about the person’s culture.
  7. A person would be conscious of his rights, obligations and privileges.
  8. Theories on How the Self, as a Product of Socialization 1. Freud’s model of personality- Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) combine basic needs and the influence of society into a model of personality with three parts: id, ego, and superego.
  9. Theories on How the Self, as a Product of Socialization Jean Piaget's theory-Cognitive Development. Through a series of stages, Piaget proposed four stages of cognitive development: the sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational and formal operational period. 2. Piaget’s theory of cognitive development- studies human recognition, or how people think and understand. Identified four stages of Cognitive Development STAGE 1- Sensorimotor Stage (first two years of life)-development at which individuals know the world only through FIVE SENSES STAGE 2- PREOPERATIONAL STAGE (about age two-seven) Individual first use language and other symbols
  10. Theories on How the Self, as a Product of Socialization 3. STAGE 3 –CONCRETE OPERATIONAL STAGE (between the age of 7-11) individuals first see causal connections in their surroundings. A child is capable of performing a variety of mental operations and thoughts using concrete concepts. 4.STAGE 4- FORMAL OPERATIONAL STAGE (about age 12) individual thinks abstractly and critically
  11. Theories on How the Self, as a Product of Socialization 3. Mead’s Theory of the Social self George Herbert Mead “Self” is a part of our personality and includes self-awareness and self- image Mead believed that people develop self-images through interactions with other people. He argued that the self, which is the part of a person's personality consisting of self-awareness and self-image, is a product of social experience.
  12. George Herbert Mead described the early childhood self- development in three stages: Preparatory stage (birth – 3 years old) In this stage, the children engaged in social interaction with others by imitation. Play stage ( 3 years old – 5 years old) . Game stage (6 years old – 9 years old)
  13. Theories on How the Self, as a Product of Socialization 4. Cooley’s Looking-glass self The looking-glass self is a social psychological concept, created by Charles Horton Cooley in 1902, stating that a person's self grows out of society's interpersonal interactions and the perceptions of others Cooley believed that it is through these interactions that one begins to develop an idea of who they are; therefore, the self is a product of our social interactions. There are three phases to the development of self, according to the looking glass self theory: We imagine how we present ourselves to others.
  15. As being part of the SOCIETY, people are taught about how an individual should act in a given situation. People are always expected to act in one way or another. There are certain NORMS and VALUES that affect how people behave. NORMS and VALUES play an important role in the SOCIETY as they both create an EXCELLENT MODEL OF BEHAVIOR
  16.  VALUES – abstract and intangible  NORMS-more specific NORMS means KAUGALIAN  Social norms are generally derived from Values since VALUES are the beliefs or qualities that a society uphold or idealize. Values are set as to what the society wants to become. That is why societies have different norms, rules or laws that embody the values which aim to make people conform and exhibit desirable behaviors.
  17. However once these laws are not followed, non-conformity or deviance is committed which violates the social norms. Because of that norms and values greatly influence how people make decisions.
  18. STATUS AND ROLES In addition, each individual in the SOCIETY has its own STATUS and ROLES. STATUS- generally defined as POSITION or RANK. The relative social, professional, or other standing of someone or something. Social Stratification- hierarchy of social worth
  19. 2 types of STATUS 1. Achieved Status- obtaining through ones own achievement and merit. Achieved through their efforts (teacher, doctor,parent,high school graduate) 2Ascribed Status- obtained not through achievement but rather through birth. It is something that an individual is born into. Example (gender, eye color, race, and ethnicity, height, weight)
  20. ROLE- what individual is expected to do, given status Everyone has the capacity to play various roles in a society.
  22. CONFORMITY and DEVIANCE SOCIAL CONTROL- process of creating and maintaining stability, the power of society over individuals. It is important to have social control because it elicits social certain behavior which empowers individuals to conforms to the norms. Given this, society is known to be a collection of harmonious relationship between individuals. WITHOUT HARMONY, there would be no existing relationship and there would be NO SOCIETY. IDEA OF SOCIAL CONTROL: INVOLVED REWARD AND PUNISHMENTS
  23. Deviant behavior is defined as behavior that elicits a strong negative reaction from others. Conformity is the act of matching attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors to group norms. Norms are implicit, specific rules, shared by a group of individuals, that guide their interactions
  24. REWARDS- given to individuals who exemplified the values and norms, usually those who conform IN CONTRAST PUNISHMENTS- are given to those individuals who deviate from social norms
  25. THINK Is Gossiping (tsismis) and ostracism (magtakwil) is positive or negative or both?
  26. Study by Robb Willer and Matthew Feinberg Gossiping and Social Ostracism = elicit positive effects According to Feinberg, gossiping and ostracism in their groups were able to reform bullies, encourage cooperation
  27. Gossip- casual conversation or reports about other people, typically involving details which are not conformed as true Social ostracism- being ignored by other’s who are in ones presence Personality-the combination of characteristics or qualities that form an individuals distinctive character
  28. To further understand deviance and society ROBERT MERTON, a famous sociologist conceptualized theory which is called “STRUCTURAL STRAIN THEORY”. It explains behaviors that don’t satisfy the norms of society The theory states that social structures may pressure citizens to commit crimes. Strain may be structural, which refers to the processes at the societal level that filter down and affect how the individual perceives his or her needs.
  29. 5 DIFFERENT GROUPS OF PEOPLE 1.Conformist- Accepted Goal. Accepted Means. Group of people that follow the norms, and also trust the system which would help them achieve their goals. 2.Ritualists- Reject Goal. Accept Means. 3.Innovators.Accept Goal, Reject Means 4.Retrealists- Reject Goals.Reject Means 5.Rebels- Reject Goal. Reject Mean
  30. Ritualists- These are the people that reject or do not believe in the goals of the society. However, they still accept means by doing the same things as what conformist do.Not necessarily mean as lawbreaker. Innovators- opposite of ritualists, people that accept the society’s goal, however they reject on how to get the society’s goal. Lawbreaker Retreatists-These are people who avoid the established goals and avoid the means of what they should do. Rebels- These people are those who are not satisfied with the current system, they are the ones who want to create a change in the system
  31. HUMAN DIGNITY,RIGHTS AND THE COMMON GOOD In the conclusion of WORLD WAR II, people recognized the needs of people to have rights in order to prevent mass killings and holocaust to ever happen again. People back then realized the importance of human equality and dignity as the majority of the Jews were tortured and killed. That realization has become the basis for creating universal rights for humans, it was also that the protection of human dignity is a principal driver towards the establishment of the human rights.
  32. HUMAN DIGNITY “ALL HUMAN BEINGS ARE BORN FREE AND EQUAL IN DIGNITY AND RIGHTS” Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). Therefore, all humans are entitled to having rights regardless of skin, colorm age,self-esteem,and self-regard. Human dignity is an intangible idea of one’s self-respect, self-esteem and self-regard. Commission on Human Rights- established to oversee the implementation of human rights The dignity of a person is something immeasurable,it cannot be expounded or defined.It is personal and invaluable.
  33. HUMAN RIGHTS It is a concept which guarantees equality, freedom from degrading behavior, discrimination and prejudice views. It is a set of privileges as simple because of being human. As to being part of the Modern world, respecting others and their rights is an important factor for the common good. WE SHOULD REALIZE THAT WHENEVER OUR HUMAN RIGHTS ARE PROTECTED, SO IS OUR HUMAN DIGNITY.
  34. Prepared by: DONNA MAY L.SAJISE UCSP Teacher