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The Endocrine System

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The Endocrine System

  1. 1. Dr. LCB
  2. 2. <ul><li>1. To identify and locate the different endocrine organs of the human body </li></ul><ul><li>2. To differentiate the organs of the endocrine system as to their function and importance </li></ul>
  3. 3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
  4. 4. <ul><li>1. It maintain and regulate functions of the vital organs </li></ul><ul><li>2. For growth and development </li></ul><ul><li>3. For reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>4. Response to injury and stress </li></ul><ul><li>5. Energy metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>6. For fluid, electrolyte and acid-base balance </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>A pea shaped gland that is attached to the midbrain by means of pituitary stalk </li></ul><ul><li>It consists of two lobes </li></ul><ul><li>Anterior Pituitary or Adenohypophysis </li></ul><ul><li>Posterior Pituitary or Neurohypophysis </li></ul>AP PP Stalk Midbrain
  6. 6. <ul><li>It is Located at the base of the skull (interna), wherein it sits at the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone </li></ul><ul><li>Anterior boundary of the sella is tuberculum sella </li></ul><ul><li>Posterior boundary is the dorsum sella </li></ul><ul><li>It is covered by a protective meninx called diaphragma sella </li></ul>
  7. 7. hypophysis
  8. 8. Tuberculum sellae Pituitary Gland Dorsum Sellae Sellae Turcica Sphenoid bone
  9. 9. <ul><li>It releases and inhibit hormones necessary for growth and development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It promotes growth of body tissue, influence H2O absorption in the kidney and lastly it controls sexual development. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It is influenced by the hypothalamus and has a direct effect on the function of other endocrine gland hence it is called the MASTER GLAND </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>1. Superior Hypophyseal Artery, Infundibular Artery, Prechiasmatic Artrey </li></ul><ul><li>2. Inferior hypophyseal artery, Capsular Artery, artery of the inferior cavernous sinus </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>1. Organotropic hormone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Prolactin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. Somatotropin or STH or Growth hormone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Glandotropic hormone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Interstitial cell stimulating hormone or ICSH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. Luteinizing hormone or LH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. Follicle stimulating hormone or FSH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. Melanocyte stimulating hormone or MSH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E. Adenocorticotropic hormone or ACTH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>F. Thyroid stimulating hormone or TSH </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>1. Anti-diuretic Hormone or ADH or Vasopressin </li></ul><ul><li>2. Oxytocin </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>1. Prolactin </li></ul><ul><li>Breast </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Milk production </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ovary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LH/FSH secretion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Testis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Binding of ICSH to Leydig cell </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Hyper-secretion of prolactin </li></ul><ul><li>1. Hypercalcemia syndrome or Forbes-Albright syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>2. Amenorrhea </li></ul><ul><li>3. Galactorrhea </li></ul><ul><li>4. Decrease LH and FSH secretion </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>2. Somatotropin or STH or Growth hormone </li></ul><ul><li>a. Growth </li></ul><ul><li>b. gluconeogenesis </li></ul><ul><li>c. glycolysis </li></ul><ul><li>d. Anti-insulin effect </li></ul><ul><li>e. Increase protein synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>f. Lipid synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>g. Increase lipolysis </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Hyposecretion </li></ul><ul><li>Child </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dwarfism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hypersecretion </li></ul><ul><li>Child </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gigantism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adult </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acromegaly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced glucose intolerance </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>GIGANTISM </li></ul><ul><li>ACROMEGALY </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperfunction of the eosinophil cell occurs before the closure of the of epiphyses </li></ul><ul><li>The height is exceedingly up to 80 inches </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperfunction of eosinophil cell that occurs after the closure of the epiphyses and it also occur insiduously over a number of periods of years </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>3. . Interstitial cell stimulating hormone or ICSH, </li></ul><ul><li>Effects in MEN </li></ul><ul><li>A. spermatogenesis </li></ul><ul><li>B. sperm maturation (epididymis) </li></ul><ul><li>C. Prostate: increase ejaculate viscosity </li></ul><ul><li>In women </li></ul><ul><li>A. induction of growth spurts in puberty </li></ul><ul><li>B. development of clitoris and labia majora </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>4. Luteinizing Hormone or LH </li></ul><ul><li>Effect in Female </li></ul><ul><li>A. Promotes the formation of corpus luteum and ovarian steriod </li></ul><ul><li>Effects in Men </li></ul><ul><li>A. Stimulate testoaterone formation by interstitial cells of testis </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>5. Follicle stimulating hormone or FSH </li></ul><ul><li>Effects in Female </li></ul><ul><li>A. promotes maturation of ovarian follicle and formation of ovarian steroids </li></ul><ul><li>Effects in Men </li></ul><ul><li>A. promotes spermatogenesis </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>6. Melanocyte stimulating hormone or MSH </li></ul><ul><li>Effect skin-darkening </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>7. Adenocorticotrophic hormone or ACTH </li></ul><ul><li>To promotes adenocortical growth and steroidogenesis </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>8. Thyroid stimulating hormone or TSH </li></ul><ul><li>To increases thyroid growth and synthesis of thyroid hormones </li></ul>
  24. 24. Hormone Pituitary Cell Hormone structure Prolactin Eosinophil Peptide Growth hormone Eosinophil Peptide Interstitial cell-stimulating hormone Basophil Glycoprotein Luteinizing hormone Basophil Glycoprotein Follicle stimulating hormone Basophil Glycoprotein Melanocyte stimulating hormone Basophil Peptide Adrenocorticotrophic hormone Basophil Peptide Thyroid stimulating hormone Basophil Glycoprotein
  25. 25. <ul><li>1. ADH or Vasopressin </li></ul><ul><li>to promote water retention at the renal tubules of the kidney </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Deficiency of vasopressin result to DIABETES INSIPIDUS </li></ul><ul><li>Characterize by the excretion of large quantities of urine (poly urea) and increase thirst (poldypsia) </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>2. Oxytocin </li></ul><ul><li>Effect- smooth contraction of the uterus </li></ul><ul><li>(child delivery) and milk ducts for lactation </li></ul>
  28. 28. Lobe of the gland Isthmus of the gland Pyramidal lobe Thyroid Gland
  29. 29. <ul><li>1. It controls the rate of body metabolism and growth. </li></ul><ul><li>The secretion of its hormone is influence/controlled by the TSH </li></ul>Lateral view of the thyroid gland
  30. 30. <ul><li>At the lower anterior part of the neck above the trachea or windpipe, extending from the lower part of the thryroid cartilage (superiorly) and up to 5-6 tracheal ring (inferiorly) </li></ul>
  31. 31. Pyramidal Isthmus lobes It has 2 lobes, an isthmus and pyramidal lobe (sometime present)
  32. 32. <ul><li>Follicular cells </li></ul><ul><li>1. T3 or triiodothyronine </li></ul><ul><li>2. T4 or thyroxine </li></ul><ul><li>Para-follicular cells </li></ul><ul><li>1. Calcitonin </li></ul><ul><li>IODINE is an important component in the synthesis of thyroid hormones </li></ul>
  33. 33. Pyramidal Lobe Isthmus
  34. 34. <ul><li>It controls the calcium level in the blood </li></ul><ul><li>Is secreted in response to HYPERCALCEMIA </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>1. Hyperthyroidism- thyrotoxicosis </li></ul><ul><li>2. Hypothyroidism- cretinism and myxedema </li></ul><ul><li>3. Goiter- endemic and multinodular </li></ul><ul><li>4. Thyroiditis- acute and chronic </li></ul><ul><li>5. Carcinoma </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>1. Thryrotoxicosis - an autoimmune disease </li></ul><ul><li>S/S- increase nervousness, sweating, intolerance to hot weather and diarrhea </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical feature- </li></ul><ul><li>protruded eyes </li></ul><ul><li>Lid lag </li></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>1. Cretinism- occurs in infants and young children result from the deficiency of thyroid hormone during fetal life or early life. </li></ul><ul><li>Thyroid gland may be congenitally absent </li></ul><ul><li>In this case the child is physically and mentally retarded. </li></ul><ul><li>Infant screening test detects the hypo secretion of this hormone. </li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>1. thick skin that becomes dry, wrinkled and sallow </li></ul><ul><li>2. tongue is enlarged lip and thickened </li></ul><ul><li>3. mouth is open and drooling </li></ul><ul><li>4. enlargement of the abdomen </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>2. Myxedema- this condition occur in the adult which result from hyposecretion of the T3 and T4 </li></ul><ul><li>This is due to surgical excision or atrophy of gland. </li></ul><ul><li>S/S – subcutaneous swelling seen in the face and puffiness is seen around the eyes. </li></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>Artery- </li></ul><ul><li>1. Superior thyroid gland (Ext carotid artery) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Inferior thyroid artery (thyrocervical trunk- branch subclavian artery </li></ul><ul><li>Vein </li></ul><ul><li>Superior & middle & infeior thyroid vein </li></ul><ul><li>Nerve </li></ul><ul><li>Middle and inferior cervical ganglion </li></ul>
  41. 41. Upper parathyroid gland Lower parathyroid gland
  42. 42. <ul><li>2 pairs of oval shaped glands </li></ul><ul><li>Located at the back of the thyroid gland </li></ul><ul><li>To regulate calcium level in the blood </li></ul><ul><li>To balance calcium level in the body </li></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>It secretes a hormone called the Parathormone </li></ul><ul><li>This hormone is secreted in response to low serum calcium level in the blood </li></ul><ul><li>The site of action of this hormone are the bone, kidney and the gastrointestinal tract. </li></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>Hypoparathyroidism- hyposecretion of parathormone. </li></ul><ul><li>S/S </li></ul><ul><li>Trousseau sign- spasm of the hand following temporary occlusion of blood supply in the arm </li></ul><ul><li>Chvostek’s sign- spasm of the facial muscle produced by tapping of facial nerve in front of the ear. </li></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><li>s/s </li></ul><ul><li>Numbness and tingling in the face </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle cramps and cramps in the abdomen or in the extremity </li></ul><ul><li>Overt tetany, such as bronchospasm, laryngospasm, carpopedal spasm </li></ul>
  46. 46. Suorarenal Gland or Adrenal Gland A.k.a. as adrenal gland
  47. 47. <ul><li>A small triangular gland located superior to the Kidney </li></ul><ul><li>It is about 4-6 cm, 0.2-0.6 cm thickness and 2-3 cm width </li></ul><ul><li>It has two layers </li></ul><ul><li>Adrenal cortex </li></ul><ul><li>Adrenal medulla </li></ul>
  48. 48. <ul><li>1 . Adrenal cortex- the outer layer of the gland. It secretes hormones that help regulate the mineral balance, energy balance and reproductive function of the body </li></ul><ul><li>2. Adrenal medulla- the second layer of the gland. It secretes hormones that compliment the action of the symphatethic nervous system. </li></ul>
  49. 49. <ul><li>1. Zona Glomerulosa </li></ul><ul><li>2. Zona Faciculata </li></ul><ul><li>3. Zona Reticularis </li></ul>http://kcfac.kilgore.cc.tx.us/kcap1/images/adrenal%2040x%20b%20fireworks.jpg
  50. 50. <ul><li>The first layer of the adrenal cortex, extending from the radiating cords of the zona fasciculata to the overlying capsule </li></ul><ul><li>It produces MINERALOCORTICOID hormone, in the form ALDOSTERONE </li></ul><ul><li>Aldosterone is concern in the reabsorption of sodium in exchange of potassium and hydrogen ions at the distal convoluted kidney </li></ul>
  51. 51. <ul><li>The 2 nd layer of the adrenal cortex, that begins at the outer border of the zona reticularis and extends towards the adrenal capsule. it accounts to a total of 78% of the cortical volume </li></ul><ul><li>It is concern in GLUCOCORTICOID production in the form CORTISOL </li></ul>
  52. 52. <ul><li>It promote the formation of glucose from the breakdown of protein (gluconeogenesis), it also stimulate fat deposition over the abdomen, between the scapulae, increase muscle strength and efficiency, increase renal blood flow and reduce the intensity of the inflammation. </li></ul>
  53. 53. <ul><li>It is the most important glucocorticoid produced by the adrenal cortex. </li></ul><ul><li>Cortisol secretion increases greatly in stressful situation and appears necessary for the preservation of life. </li></ul><ul><li>Secretion of cortisol is influence by ACTH </li></ul>
  54. 54. <ul><li>The innermost layer of the adrenal gland, it forms a narrow band bordering the adrenal medulla. its total volume is about 7% of the cortical volume. </li></ul><ul><li>It is concern in the production of ANDROGEN hormone </li></ul>
  55. 55. <ul><li>It has a masculinization effects, of which includes enlargement larynx, increase body and facial hair, balding in the temporal region, increase muscle mass and + nitrogen balance </li></ul><ul><li>In female, result to amenorrhea, atrophy of the breast and uterus, enlargement of the clitoris </li></ul><ul><li>In male, result to sexual organ enlargement </li></ul>
  56. 56. <ul><li>HYPOSECRETION </li></ul><ul><li>ADDISON’S disease </li></ul><ul><li>HYPERSECRETION </li></ul><ul><li>CUSHING’S disease </li></ul><ul><li>Excess production of aldosterone occurs in CONN’s syndrome </li></ul>
  57. 57. <ul><li>Adrenal insufficiency- </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease in the production of the 3 hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics- </li></ul><ul><li>Weakness and easy fatigability, increase pigmentation of the skin can be seen in buccal surfaces of the oral cavity, weight loss, dehydration low BP, nausea, vomiting hypotension and diarrhea. </li></ul>
  58. 58. <ul><li>Excessive production of the 3 hormones of the adrenal cortex </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Face is plethoric and round (Moon face) </li></ul><ul><li>Obesity of the trunk and inter scapular space (buffalo hump) </li></ul><ul><li>Hypertension, hirsutism, purplish striae over abdomen, edema and osteoporosis </li></ul>
  59. 59. <ul><li>1. Catecholamines </li></ul><ul><li>A. Epinephrine </li></ul><ul><li>B. Nor epinephrine </li></ul>
  60. 60. <ul><li>1. Epinephrine- </li></ul><ul><li>Raises blood glucose level </li></ul><ul><li>Increase blood metabolic rate </li></ul><ul><li>Produces the sensation of excitement and fear </li></ul><ul><li>Increase cardiac output </li></ul><ul><li>Raises the plasma free fatty acids from neutral fat deposit </li></ul>
  61. 61. <ul><li>2. Norepinephrine </li></ul><ul><li>Raises the blood pressure by constricting peripheral vessels </li></ul><ul><li>Raises the plasma free fatty acids by stimulating lipolysis in adipose tissue </li></ul>
  62. 62. <ul><li>PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA- </li></ul><ul><li>A rare tumor of the adrenal medulla the adverse effects of which is related to the continuous or intermittent secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine. </li></ul>
  63. 63. <ul><li>Artery </li></ul><ul><li>Superior, Middle and Inferior suprarenal artery </li></ul><ul><li>Vein </li></ul><ul><li>Suprarenal vein </li></ul><ul><li>Nerve Supply Celiac and renal plexus </li></ul>
  64. 64. Tail Body Wirsung duct or the main duct Santorini duct
  65. 65. <ul><li>It is a compound gland, both exocrine and endocrine gland </li></ul><ul><li>Its length varies from 12.5 to 15 cm and its wieght varies from 60 -100 gm. </li></ul><ul><li>It is located posterior to the stomach, concern in carbohydrate metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>And it produces INSULIN AND GLUCAGON </li></ul>
  66. 66. Body Tail Neck Pancreatic notch Head
  67. 67. <ul><li>1. Head lies within the curve of the duodenum </li></ul><ul><li>2. Uncinate process- part of the head that wraps behind the sup mesenteric artery and vein </li></ul><ul><li>3. Neck- the constricted portion </li></ul>
  68. 68. <ul><li>4. Body- the anterior surface separated from the stomach by the omental bursa </li></ul><ul><li>5. Tial- Extends into lienorenal ligament and abuts the spleen </li></ul>
  69. 69. <ul><li>1. Insulin- secreted by the beta cell of the islet of langerhans, it regulate blood glucose </li></ul><ul><li>It forces the cells of the body to absorb and use glucose thereby decreasing blood sugar level </li></ul>
  70. 70. <ul><li>2. Glucagon </li></ul><ul><li>Secreted by the alpha cells of the islet of langerhans </li></ul><ul><li>Assist insulin in regulating blood glucose level, it forces body cell to release glucose thereby increasing blood sugar level. </li></ul>
  71. 71. <ul><li>1. Diabetes Mellitus- characterize by reduced activity of the insulin with resulting impaired carbohydrate tolerance. </li></ul><ul><li>Type 1- is a nearly absolute deficiency of insulin, if insulin is not given fats are metabolized resulting to ketonemia(acidosis) </li></ul><ul><li>Type 2- relative lack of insulin or resistance to the action of insulin, usually the insulin is sufficient to stabilize the fats and protein </li></ul>
  72. 72. <ul><li>Artery </li></ul><ul><li>Superior and Inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery </li></ul><ul><li>Vein </li></ul><ul><li>Pancreaticoduodenal vein </li></ul><ul><li>Nerve supply Pancreatic plexus, celiac ganglia and Vagus Nerve </li></ul>
  73. 74. <ul><li>The ovaries are the female gonads </li></ul><ul><li>It is a pair almond shaped gland attached to the lateral part of the fundus of the uterus through its proper ligament. </li></ul><ul><li>It produce egg or ova each month and it releases hormones called ESTROGEN and PROGESTERONE </li></ul>
  74. 75. Fallopian tube Ovary Proper ligament of ovary Lateral part of the fundus Broad ligament
  75. 76. <ul><li>The most potent estrogen is the Estradiol-17ß and it is consider as the principal estrogen secreted by the ovary </li></ul><ul><li>Estrone and Estriol are the other form of estrogen. </li></ul><ul><li>Estrogen cause the proliferation of the endometrium during the first half of menstrual cycle </li></ul><ul><li>The principal effects is on the Female genitalia </li></ul>
  76. 77. <ul><li>It promotes secondary sexual characteristics in female such as: </li></ul><ul><li>Growth spurts </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in transverse diameter of female pelvis </li></ul><ul><li>Breast development </li></ul><ul><li>Regulate menstruation </li></ul><ul><li>Vaginal secretion </li></ul>
  77. 78. <ul><li>It is secreted by the corpus luteum. </li></ul><ul><li>During the latter half of the menstrual cycle progesterone is responsible for the secretory changes in the endometrial glands, it also increases uterine motility and produces alveolar enlargement of the breast during pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>It is the principal hormone during pregnancy. </li></ul>
  78. 79. <ul><li>Aretry </li></ul><ul><li>Ovarian artery and uterine artery </li></ul><ul><li>Vein </li></ul><ul><li>Ovarian Vein </li></ul>
  79. 81. Epipidymis Testis
  80. 82. <ul><li>These are two glandular glands that is suspended in the scrotum through spermatic cord. </li></ul><ul><li>Between the seminiferous tubules of the testis in the adult lie a small clumps of Leydig cells which produce the male sex hormones or Androgens </li></ul>
  81. 83. <ul><li>The most important testicular hormone. </li></ul><ul><li>It promotes secondary sexual characteristics in Male such as </li></ul><ul><li>Development of the Penis </li></ul><ul><li>Deepening of voice </li></ul><ul><li>Growth of axillary and beard hair. </li></ul>
  82. 84. <ul><li>Artery </li></ul><ul><li>Superficial and deep external pudic, from femoral Artery </li></ul><ul><li>Superficial perineal branch of the internal pudic </li></ul><ul><li>Cremasteric branch from epigatric </li></ul><ul><li>Vein </li></ul><ul><li>Lymphatic terminate in the inguinal glands </li></ul>