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Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
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  1. 1. Photosynthesis
  2. 2. Contents What is photosynthesis? Overview Where does photosynthesis occur?(Leaf) Structure of leaf Why do plants need photosynthesis? Requirements Photosynthesis: the chemical process Benefits of photosynthesis
  3. 3. What is photosynthesis? The biochemical process in which sun light fixes carbon dioxide into glucose in the presence of water is called photosynthesis.
  4. 4. Photosynthesis in Overview • Process by which plants and other autotrophs store the energy of sunlight into sugars. • Requires sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide. • Overall equation: 6 CO2 + 6 H20 + sunlight  C6H12O6 + 6 O2 • Occurs in the leaves of plants in organelles called chloroplasts.
  5. 5. Where does photosynthesis occur? • Photosynthesis occurs in the leaves of a plant.
  6. 6. Leaf Structure • Most photosynthesis occurs in the palisade layer. • Gas exchange of CO2 and O2 occurs at openings called stomata surrounded by guard cells on the lower leaf surface. Palisade Spongy
  7. 7. Chloroplast Structure • Inner membrane called the thylakoid membrane. • Thickened regions called thylakoids. A stack of thylakoids is called a granum. (Plural – grana) • Stroma is a liquid surrounding the thylakoids.
  8. 8. Pigments • Chlorophyll A is the most important photosynthetic pigment. • Other pigments called antenna or accessory pigments are also present in the leaf. – Chlorophyll B – Carotenoids (orange / red) – Xanthophylls (yellow / brown) • These pigments are embedded in the membranes of the chloroplast in groups called photosystems.
  9. 9. Why do plants need photosynthesis? • Glucose is the food for the plant. It gives the plant energy to grow. • They do photosynthesis to gain energy.
  10. 10. Requirements for photosynthesis to occur. • Light • Carbon Dioxide • Water • But the most important among these is sunlight
  11. 11. Photosynthesis: The Chemical Process • Photosynthesis is a chemical process. • It occurs in two main phases. – Light reactions – Dark reactions (the Calvin Cycle)
  12. 12. Light Reactions • Light-dependent reactions occur on the thylakoid membranes. – Light and water are required for this process. – Light reactions are the “photo” part of photosynthesis. – Light is absorbed by pigments and is transformed into ATP and NADPH molecules
  13. 13. Dark Reactions • Dark reactions (light-independent) occur in the stroma. – Dark reactions are the synthesis parts of photosynthesis – Trapped energy by pigments is converted into chemical ennergy – Carbon dioxide is “fixed” into glucose – ATP and NADPH molecules created during the reaction is responsible for production of this glucose
  14. 14. EQUATION FOR PHOTOSYNTHESIS WATER OXYGEN 6CO2 + 6H2O + ENERGY C6H12O6 + 6O2 GLUCOSE CARBON DIOXIDE
  15. 15. How much glucose does a plant make? • Plants make enough glucose to be used during the night and on cloudy days when they don’t get sunlight • The extra glucose is stored in the plant’s leaves and other parts.
  16. 16. Advantages Basic source of energy for all livings Production of oxygen Healthy environment Lessen global warming
  17. 17. PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND LIFE • During the process of photosynthesis, oxygen is produced. We use this oxygen to breathe.
  18. 18. photosynthesis and respiration SUN RADIANT ENERGY PHOTOSYNTHESIS RESPIRATION CELL ACTIVITIES GLUCOSE ATP(ENERGY)
  19. 19. Photosynthesis and Respiration CARBON GLUCOSE DIOXIDE ATP C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + ENERGY OXYGEN WATER

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