1. GROUP 9
Y DIVYA REDDY.
3. THE GLOBAL CITY:
- Also called world city or sometimes alpha
city or world center, is a city which is a
primary node in the global economic
Cities in the globalizing world although
globalization certainly affects rural and urban
areas, global forces are centered in cities.
4. GLOBALIZATION is in the cities that
global operations are centralized and
where we can see most clearly that
phenomena associated with their
activities, whether it be changes in the
structure of employment, the
formation of powerful partnerships,
the development of monumental real
estate, the emergence of new forms of
local governance, the effects of
organized crime, the expansion of
corruption, the fragmentation of
informal networks or the spatial
isolation and social exclusion of
certain population groups.
5. WHY STUDY GLOBAL CITIES?
“GLOBALIZATION IS SPATIAL”
This statement means two things.
1. Globalization is spatial because it occurs in
the physical spaces.
2. Globalization is spatial because what makes
it move is the fact that it is based in places.
6. In the years to come, more and more
people will experience globalization
In 1950, only 30% of the world lived in
By 2014, the number increased to 54%.
And by 2050, it is expected to reach
GLOBALISATION is the reason for the
increase in the number of people living in
9. DEFINING THE GLOBAL CITY.
A Global City is a city generally considered to be a
important node in the global economic system. The
concept comes from geography and urban studies and
rest that globalization can be understood as largely
created, facilitated, and enacted in strategic geographic
locales according to a hierarchy of importance to the
operation of the global system of finance and trade. The
most complex of these entities is the "global city",
whereby the linkages binding a city have a direct and
tangible effect on global affairs through socio-economic
10. The use of "global city", as opposed to "megacity", was popularized by sociologist Saskia Sassan
in her 1991 work, The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo though the term "world city" to
describe cities that control a disproportionate amount of global business dates to at least the
May 1886 description of Liverpool by The Illustrated London News. Patrick Geddes also used
the term "world city" later in 1915. Cities can also fall from such categorization, as in the case of
cities that have become less cosmopolitan and less ,internationally renowned in the current era.
Limiting the discussion of global cities to these three metropolises ,however , is proving more and
more restrictive. The global economy has changed significantly since Sassan wrote her book
and any account of the economic power of the cities today must take note of the latest
11. Attributes of global cities.
Economic opportunities: Make it attractive to talents across
Economic competitiveness. Criteria in market size,
purchasing power of citizens, size of the middle class and
Center of authority.
Political influence: Powerful political hubs exert influence
on their own countries as well on international affairs
Center of higher learning and culture.
Economic power: Determines which cities are global
12. • The foremost characteristic is economic power. Sassen
remains correct in saying that economic power largely
determines which cities are global.
• Economic opportunities in a global city make it attractive to
talents from across the world.
• Since the 1970s, many of the top IT programmers and
engineers from Asia have moved to the San Francisco Bay
area to become some of the key figures in silicon valley’s
• London remains a preferred destination for many Filipinos
with nursing degrees.
• To measure the economic competitiveness of a city, the
economist intelligence unit has added other criteria like
market size, purchasing power of citizens, and potential for
• Global cities are also centers of authority.
• Global cities are centers of higher learning and culture.
13. Today, Global cities become culturally diverse. In a
global city, one can try cuisines from different parts
of the world. Because of their large Turkish
populations, for example, berlin and Tokyo offer
some of the best Turkish food one can find outside
of turkey .
Manila is not very global because of the dearth of
foreign residents, but Singapore is, because it has a
foreign population of 38%
15. THE CHALLENGES OF GLOBAL
o Global cities conjure up images of fast placed,
exciting, cosmopolitan lifestyles.
o They can be sites of great inequality and poverty
as well as tremendous violence.
o Global cities create winners and losers.
o As Richard Florida notes:
“Ecologists have found that by concentrating their
populations in smaller areas, cities and metros
decrease human encroachment on natural habitats.
Denser settlement patterns yield energy savings,
apartment buildings, for example, are more efficient
to heat and cool than detached suburban houses.”
o Moreover, in cities with extensive public
transportation systems, people tend to drive less
and thereby cut carbon emissions. 2/7/20XX 15
16. More importantly, because of the massiveness of city populations
across the world, it is not surprising that urban areas consume most
of the world’s energy.
Cities only cover 2% of the world’s landmass, but they consume 78%
of global energy.
Therefore, if carbon emissions must be cut to prevent global
warming, this massive energy consumption in cities must be curbed.
This action will require a lot of creativity.
The major terror attacks of recent years have also targeted cities.
Cities, especially those with global influence, are obvious targets for
terrorists due to their high populations and their role as symbols of
globalization that many terrorists despise.
The same attributes that make them attractive to workers and
migrants make them sites of potential terrorist violence
17. Sample Footer Text
THE GLOBAL CITY AND THE
We have consistently noted that
economic globalization has
paved the way for massive
inequality. This phenomenon is
thus very pronounced in cities.
18. Sample Footer Text
• As the city attracts more capital and richer
residents are forced to relocate to far away but
cheaper areas. This phenomenon of driving out
the poor in favor of newer, wealthier residents
is called GENTRIFICATION.
• Once living in the public urban housing, they
were forced to move farther away from city
centers that offer more jobs, more government
services, and better transportation due to
gentrification. In France, poor Muslim migrants
are forced out of Paris and have clustered
around ethnic enclaves known as banlieue.
19. In most of the world’s global cities, the middle class is also
Globalization creates high income jobs that are concentrated in
These high earners, in turn, generate demand for an unskilled
labor force that will attend to their increasing needs.
Meanwhile, many middle-income jobs in manufacturing and
business process outsourcing are moving to other countries.
This hallowing out of the middle class in global cities has
heightened the inequality within them.
A large global city may thus be a paradise for some, but a
suffering for others.
Global cities, as noted in this lesson, are sites
and mediums of globalization. They are,
therefore, material representations of the
phenomenon. Through them, we see the
best of globalization; they are places that
create exciting fusions of culture and ideas.
They are also places that generate
tremendous wealth. However, they remain
sites of great inequality, where global
servants serve global entrepreneurs. The
question of how globalization can be made
more just is partly a question of how people
make their cities more just.