Divya Singh Rajput
• International marketing (IM) or global marketing refers
to marketing carried out by companies overseas or across national
borderlines. This strategy uses an extension of the techniques used in the
home country of a firm.
• It refers to the firm-level marketing practices across the border including
market identification and targeting, entry mode selection, marketing mix,
and strategic decisions to compete in international markets.
• According to the American Marketing Association
(AMA) "international marketing is the multinational process of
planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion and
distribution of ideas, goods, and services to create exchanges that satisfy
individual and organizational objectives.”
• In contrast to the definition of marketing only the word multinational has
• In simple words International Marketing is the application of
marketing principles to across national boundaries.
• However, there is a crossover between what is commonly expressed
as international marketing and global marketing, which is a similar
term. The intersection is the result of the process
• Many American and European authors see international marketing as
a simple extension of exporting, whereby the marketing mix 4P's is
simply adapted in some way to take into account differences in
consumers and segments.
• It then follows that global marketing takes a more standardized
approach to world markets and focuses upon sameness, in other
words the similarities in consumers and segments.
Organizational and Consumer Behavior
• Organizational buying behavior
• International negotiations
• Consumer behavior
• Country of origin
Marketing Entry Decisions
• Initial mode of entry
• Specific modes of entry
• Joint Ventures
Local Market Expansion: Marketing Mix Decisions
• Global Standardisation vs. Local Responsiveness
• Product policy;
• Conceptual development;
• Competitive advantage vs. competitive positioning;
• Sources of competitive advantage and performance implications.
• Learning and trust;
• Recipes for alliance success;
• Performance of different types of alliance.
• Global sourcing in a service context;
• Benefits of global sourcing;
• Country of origin issues in global sourcing.
• Determinants of performance;
• A different interpretation of performance.
Analytical Techniques in Cross-
• Measurement Issues;
• Reliability and Validity Issues.
There are two main approaches to global segmentation:
• Countries can be seen as segments. For example, there will only be a
large market for expensive pharmaceuticals in countries with certain
income levels, and entry opportunities into infant clothing will be
significantly greater in countries with large and growing birthrates.
• There are, however, significant differences within countries. For
example, although it was thought that the Italian market would
demand "no frills" inexpensive washing machines while German
consumers would insist on high quality, very reliable ones, it was
found that more units of the inexpensive kind were sold in Germany
than in Italy—although many German consumers fit the predicted
profile, there were large segment differences within that country.
Micro Approach: This approach caters to segments within countries.
This can be approached in two ways :
Intra-market Segmentation: This involves segmenting each
country’s markets. Here the company entering a new market segments that
market to attain greater understanding of it.
• For example, an American firm going into the Indian market would
research to segment Indian consumers without incorporating knowledge of
• Here the idea is that every country's market is different from the others and
that it hence demands to be approached differently.
• This approach is a long term strategy and involves a lot of research and
Inter-market Segmentation: This involves the detection of segments that exist
across borders. It may be noted that that not all segments that exist in one
country will exist in another and that the sizes of the segments may differ
• For example, there is a huge small car segment in India, while it is
considerably smaller in the U.S. Inter-market segmentation entails several
• The fact that products and promotional campaigns may be used across
markets; introduces economies of scale, and learning that has been acquired
in one market may be used in another.
• e.g., a firm that caters to a segment of premium quality cell phone buyers in
one country can put its experience to use in another country that features that
same segment. (Even though segments may be similar across the cultures, it
should be noted that it is still necessary to learn about the local market.
• For example, for a product, although a segment common across two
countries may seek the same benefits, the cultures of each country may cause
people to respond differently to it..
International Marketing Vs. Domestic
• Marketing objectives are achieved in a way of molding the
controllable elements of marketing decisions (product, price,
promotion and distribution) within the framework of the
uncontrollable elements of marketplace (competition, politics,
laws, consumer behavior, level of technology, and
• Uncertainty is created by the uncontrollable elements of all
business environments, but each foreign country in which a
company operates adds its own unique set of uncontrollable.
• Competition, legal restraints, government controls, weather,
fickle consumers, and any number of other uncontrollable
elements can, and frequently do, affect the profitable outcome
of good, sound marketing plans.
• Marketer can not control or influence these uncontrollable
elements, but instead must adjust or adapt to them in a manner
consistent with a successful outcome.
• The main difference between them is that the marketing
activities take place in more than one country. more
complicated, at least two levels of uncontrollable uncertainty
instead of one.
International Marketing Environment
country market A
International environmental forces
• Marketing controllables: The successful manager
constructs a marketing program designed for optimal
adjustment to the uncertainty of the business climate.
• Domestic uncontrollables: This includes home-country
elements that can have a direct effect on the success of a
foreign venture: political forces, legal structure, and
• Foreign uncontrollable: The problem of uncertainty is
further complicated by a frequently imposed “alien
status” that increases the difficulty of properly assessing
and forecasting the dynamic international business
International environmental forces
• Thus a strategy successful in one country can be rendered
ineffective in another by differences in political climate, staged
of economic development, level of technology, or other
• Due to a language barrier, it is more difficult to obtain and
interpret research data in international marketing.
• Promotional messages needs to consider numerous cultural
differences between different countries.This includes the
differences in languages, expressions, habits, gestures,
ideologies and more.
• United States - "okay"
• Mediterranean - "zero" or "the worst“
• Tunisia - "I'll kill you"
• Japan - "money".
• International marketing is often not as simple as marketing
your product to more than one nation. Companies must
• language barriers, ideals, and customs in the market they
Mode of Engagement in Foreign
After the decision to invest has been made, the exact mode of
operation has to be determined. The risks concerning operating
in foreign markets is often dependent on the level of control a
firm has, coupled with the level of capital expenditure
outlayed. The principal modes of engagement are listed below:
• Exporting (which is further divided into direct and indirect
• Joint ventures
• Direct investment (split into assembly and manufacturing)
• Direct exporting involves a firm shipping goods directly to a
foreign market. A firm employing indirect exporting would
utilize a channel/intermediary, who in turn would disseminate
the product in the foreign market.
• From a company's standpoint, exporting consists of the least
risk. This is so since no capital expenditure, or outlay of
company finances on new non-current assets, has necessarily
• Thus, the likelihood of sunk costs, or general barriers to exit, is
slim. Conversely, a company may possess less control when
exporting into a foreign market, due to not control the supply
of the good within the foreign market.
• A joint venture is a combined effort between two or more
business entities, with the aim of mutual benefit from a given
• Some countries often mandate that all foreign investment
within it should be via joint ventures (such as India and
the People's Republic of China).
• By comparison with exporting, more control is exerted,
however the level of risk is also increased.
• In this mode of engagement, a company would directly construct a
fixed/non-current asset within a foreign country, with the aim of
manufacturing a product within the overseas market.
• Assembly denotes the literal assembly of completed parts, to build a
completed product. An example of this is the Dell Corporation. Dell
possesses plants in countries external to the United States of America,
however it assembles personal computers and does not manufacture them
• In other words, it obtains parts from other firms, and assembles a
personal computer's constituent parts (such as a motherboard, monitor,
CPU, RAM, wireless card, modem, sound card, etc.) within its factories.
• Manufacturing concerns the actual forging of a product from scratch. Car
manufacturers often construct all parts within their plants.
• Direct investment has the most control and the most risk attached. As
with any capital expenditure, the return on investment (defined by
the payback period, Net Present Value, Internal Rate of Return, etc.) has
to be ascertained, in addition to appreciating any related sunk costs with
the capital expenditure.
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