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Disaster management slide show

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Disaster management slide show

  1. 1.  Disaster caused by nature`s fury is not uncommon in this planet, earth. In fact, scientist believe that the birth of this planet Earth was the result of explosion that occurred in the solar system. From the immemorial, this planet had witnessed numerous natural disasters. In the past, man used to view these natural disasters as the “acts of god”. Gradually science opened the doors of knowledge and enabled man to understand the mysterious occurrence of natural disaster.
  2. 2.  A disaster is a sudden or great misfortune whereby hospital and/or community facilities are damaged and functions are impaired. Disaster may be caused by fire, weather/climate (e. g,. Earthquake, hurricane, tornado), explosion, terrorist activity, radiation or chemical spills and epidemics. Disaster also can be a result of human error, which includes motor vehicle crashes, plane crashes, collapsed buildings, or similar occurrences. Disaster effect both the young and old.
  3. 3.  D : Destruction  I : Incidents  S : Sufferings  A : Administrative failure  S : Sentiments  T : Tragedies  E : Eruption of communicable diseases  R : Research program and its implementation
  4. 4.  TYPES OF DISASTERS :  Natural disaster:  Natural disasters, e,g. natural calamities or climatic hazards, like earthquake, flood, cyclone, drought, famine, forest fire, dust storms, sandstorms, landslides, avalanche, volcanic eruptions.
  5. 5.  This include technical disasters like dam failure, nuclear accidents, hazardous waste accidents, oil spills and leakages, industrial accidents and due to fire, social disasters like mass-migration, riots etc.  Minor disasters involving approximately 25 victims  Moderate disasters involving approximately 100 victims  Major disasters involving more than 100 victims  Catastrophic disaster when number of injured patients reaches up to 1000 or more
  6. 6.  Water and climate related disaster  Floods  Tornadoes  Cloud burst  Snow avalanches  Sea erosion  Tsunami(Added).
  7. 7.  Landslides and mudflows  Dam failures/ dam burst.  Chemical and industrial disaster  Nuclear disaster
  8. 8.  Forest fires  Mine flooding  Major building collapse  Festival-related disaster  Air, road and rail accidents  Village fire
  9. 9.  Biologically disasters and epidemics  Cattle epidemics.
  10. 10. Earthquake:  An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth`s crust that creates seismic waves. Earthquakes are recorded with a seismometer, also known as a seismograph. The moment magnitude (or the related and mostly imperceptible and magnitude 7 causing serious damage over large areas. Intensity of shaking is measured on the modified Mercalli scale.
  11. 11.  Most injuries are sustained during impart and, thus, there is the greatest need for emergency care occurring in few hours, when quality and severity of injuries is overwhelmed, wealth facilities at different levels must be adopted.
  12. 12.  Before entering a buildings: Observe the construction of the buildings and be careful for possible hazards, which may occur from weak structure.  When entering a damaged buildings: Use a helmet, work in pairs, listen for the possible sounds and keep calling.
  13. 13.  While moving inside a damaged building: Do not ignite fire, keep close to walls and do not pull anything protecting out from the collapsed structures.  People affected need psychological support as they have lost their near and dear ones and property also.
  14. 14.  Cyclone is an area of closed, circular fluid motion rotation in the same direction as the earth. This is usually characterized by inward spiralling winds that rotate counter-clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere of the Earth. Most large- scale cyclonic circulations are centered on the areas of low atmospheric pressure . The largest –pressure systems are cold-core polar cyclones and extratropical cyclones which lie on the synoptic scale
  15. 15.  Warm core cyclones such as tropical cyclones, mesocyclones, and polar lows lie within the smaller mesoscale. Subtropical cyclones are of intermediate size. Upper level cyclones can exist without the presence of a low surface, and can pinch off from the base of the tropical upper tropospheric trough during the summer months in the northern hemisphere. Cyclones have also been seen on other planets outside of the Earth, such as Mars and Neptune.
  16. 16.  Warning should be given through proper media.  Research should be sent to safe areas.  Proper treatment must be done or injuries.
  17. 17.  Water is a forms of all life forms. Without water, no life is sustainable. But when water is in the form of floods, it takes away thousands of human and cattle life. Bangladesh is a riverine country, where recurrent flooding is both common and necessary. Every year large areas are submitted during the monsoon season and fertilized by deposit of fresh aluminium. The soil is deposited by moving water. However, if water remains stagnant for too long, these beneficial floods become a major disaster. Most vulnerable things which are affected due to floods are homes, buildings, and huts made from biomass materials like bamboo leaves.
  18. 18.  In floods, fractures, injuries, bruises, drowning and various infections can occur:  Tinned cans, barrels, tubes, etc. Must be used for floating to prevent people from drowning.  Food, shelter and medical care facilities are provided to the people fro drowning.
  19. 19.  A volcanic is an opening, or rupture, in a planet`s surface or crust, which allows hot magma, ash and gases to escape from below the surface. The word `volcano` is derived from the name of Vulcano island of Silicy, which, in turn, was named after Vulcan, the Roman god of fire.
  20. 20.  A wildfire is any uncontrolled fire that occurs in the countryside or a wilderness area. Other names such as brush fire, bushfire, forest fire, grass fire, hill fire, peat fire, vegetation fire, and wildland fire may be used to describe the same phenomenon depending on the type of vegetation being burned. A wildfire differs from other fires by its extensive size, the speed at which it can spread out from its original source, and its ability to change direction unexpectedly and to jump gasp, such as roads, rivers and fire breaks. Wildfires are characterized in terms of the cause of ignition, their physical properties such as speed of propagation, the combustible material present, and the effect of weather on the fire
  21. 21.  These include wide range of ground movements such as risk falls, deep failure of slopes and shallow debris flows which can occur in offshores, coastal and onshore environment. The main causes are ground water pressure acting to destabilize the slope, loss or absence of vertical vegetative structure, soil nutrients and erosion of toe of a slope by river or ocean waves.
  22. 22.  Avoid landslide prone area  Rescue team should be sent to clear the roads  Protect trapped people
  23. 23.  A drought is an extended period of months of years when a region notes deficiency in its water supply.
  24. 24.  A famine is a wide spread scarcity of food that may apply to any faunal species. This phenomenon is usually accompanied by regional malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality.
  25. 25.  Chemical emergency occurs when a hazardous chemical has been released and the release has potential for harming people`s health
  26. 26.  Emission of radiation from radioactive materials, for example, reactors, radioactive substances (uranium) and medical supplies(radium)
  27. 27.  Bioterrorism is terrorism by international release or dissemination of biological agents(bacteria, viruses or toxins); these may be in a naturally-occurring or in a human- modified form.
  28. 28.  A global disease outbreak.  Influenza virus causes various illnesses.  Spread is from person to person.
  29. 29.  In all wars, the group experiencing the need to dominate other groups are unable and unwilling to accept or permit the possibility of a relationship of fundamental equality to exist between the groups who have opted for group violence( war ). The aspect of domination that is a precipitating factor in all wars, i. e. One group wishing to dominate another, is also often a precipitating factor in individual one-on-one violence outside of the context of war, i.e. one individual wishing to dominate another.
  30. 30.  Terrorism refers to only to those violent acts which are intended to create fear(terror),are perpetrated for an ideological goal (as opposed to a lone attack), and deliberately target or disregard the safety of non- combatants. The word terrorism is politically and emotionally charged and this greatly compounds the difficulty of providing a precise definition.
  31. 31.  By distinguishing terrorists from other types of criminals and terrorism from other forms of crime, we come to appreciate that terrorism is:  Ineluctably political in aims and motives  Violent or, equally important, threatens violence.  Designed to have far-reaching psychological repercussion beyond the immediate victim or target.  Conducted by an organization with an identifiable chain of command or conspiratorial cell structure  Perpetrated by a sub national group or non state entity.
  32. 32.  Prevention of occurrence of the disaster must be done to prevent not only the consequences but also the occurrence of fire, explosion crashes and sudden chemical and radiation exposure.  These include tighter regulation of chemical plants and other hazardous facilities and insistence that the chemicals plants may be built away from the densely populated area.
  33. 33.  Appropriate engineering and technological measures like building codes, dam design containment of toxic materials.  Protection against human errors.  The world has turned towards efforts to stop arms race and prevent nuclear war.
  34. 34.  Falling of buildings  Earthquakes  Floods  Hurricanes  Bomb blasts  Tsunami  Automobile accidents  Epidemic outbreaks of diseases  Draughts, etc.
  35. 35. These include:  Bacteria and viruses that produce contamination or infection after the primary agent has caused injury or destruction.  For example: A hurricane with rising water can cause flooding and high winds. These are primary agents.  The secondary agents would include damaged buildings and bacteria or viruses that thrive as a result of the disaster.
  36. 36.  Age  Immunization schedule  Degree mobility  Emotional stability
  37. 37.  Weather conditions, the availability of the food, time when the disaster occurs, the availability of the water and the functioning of utilities such as electricity and telephone services.
  38. 38.  Influencing disaster outcome includes leakage of stored chemicals into the air, soil, ground water or food supplies.
  39. 39.  These are those that occur or increase as a result of contamination of water, improper waste disposal, insect or rodent proliferation, improper food storage or lack of refrigeration due to interrupted electrical services.  Bioterrorism: Release of viruses, bacteria or other agents caused by illness or death.
  40. 40.  These are those that contribute to the individual social support systems. Loss of family members, changes in roles and the questioning of religious beliefs are social factors to be examined after a disaster
  41. 41.  Psychological factors are closely related to agents, hosts, and environmental conditions. The nature and severity of the disaster affect the psychological distress experienced by the victims.
  42. 42.  Direct:  It is different according to the geographical area as well as type of disaster, e.g. direct impact of flood will be different from the direct impact of earthquake
  43. 43.  All natural disasters have more or less the same indirect impact, i.e. loss of life, loss of shelter, disruption of water and food and communication, epidemics and psychological illness.
  44. 44.  Some disasters give warning of their approach. In this, certain precautionary measures are undertaken to handle the disaster situation efficiently and effectively.
  45. 45.  This is critical decision-making priod when one`s activity is directed towards the survival action.
  46. 46.  When disaster strikes, people may at first be stunned. Then they begin to realize the magnitude of the effects of disaster such as injury, death destruction etc.
  47. 47.  During this phase, one tries to find out what has actually happened to him. Victim may exhibit fear, anger, sorrow, depression, anxiety and other emotions.
  48. 48.  During this period the victim help each other to cope and begin to help with the rescue provide comfort to others and to re-establish shelter and other needs.
  49. 49.  The morale of victim usually picks up during this period as they work together with rescue personnel to get the community back to its feet. This phases is the longest post disaster period when reconstruction takes place.
  50. 50.  In this phase, the individual regain the stability that they enjoyed prior to the disaster. The time required for a community to reach the state of equilibrium depends upon the nature and intensity of disaster and disaster relief available
  51. 51.  The eight principles of disaster management include:  Preventing the occurrence  Minimizing the number of casualties  Preventing further casualties  Rescuing the injured  Providing first-aid  Evacuating the injured  Providing the definitive care  Facilitating reconstruction/recovery
  52. 52.  Disaster response  Disaster preparedness  Disaster mitigation
  53. 53.  These three aspects of disaster management correspond to different phases in the so-called “disaster cycle” as shown in below:  Disaster impact  Mitigation  Preparedness  Reconstruction  Rehabilitation  Response
  54. 54. Ministries responsible for various categories of disasters Disaster Nodal ministry Natural disaster management ( other than drought) Ministry of home affairs Drought relief Ministry of agriculture Air accidents Ministry of civil aviation Railway accidents Ministry of railways Chemical disasters Ministry of environment and forest Biological Disasters Ministry of health Nuclear disasters Department of atomic energy
  55. 55.  The goal of disaster management is the safety and sustainability of human lives.  Safety is related to avoiding death and injuries to human lives during a disaster.  Sustainability is related to livelihood, socioeconomic, cultural, environmental and psychological aspects.
  56. 56.  For preparedness of disaster, a prompt, collective, coordinated relief effort, in which people and materials are proper utilized.  It is important to know the resources, like District collector is responsible for coordinating all disaster relief efforts. It is important for community representatives to seek the assistance from Collector`s office staff.
  57. 57.  Coordination with NGO`s and voluntary agencies is also required  Self help is very important and must be relied upon to maximum level.  The provider should work along with others at all stages of disaster. The provider`s role include :  Acting as an advocate for populations who are particularly vulnerable.   Working as a disseminator of awareness and training, i,e, Improving disaster preparedness through IEC( Information, Education and Communication)  Being a frontline responder, should the disaster strike  Rendering first-aid and providing medical aids as a nurse.
  58. 58.  Disaster mapping  Help village leaders prepare a disaster preparedness plan  Help the community organize IEC effort and train a voluntary village disaster preparedness term  Help in arranging medical and emergency supplies
  59. 59.  The adaptation of professional nursing knowledge, skills and attitude in recognized and meeting the nursing and medical needs of disaster victims.
  60. 60.  D - Disseminate information on the prevention and control of environmental hazards  I - Interpret health laws and regulations  S - Serve your self of self-survival  A - Accept directions and take orders from an organized authority  S - Serve the best of the MOST  T - Teach the meaning of warning signals  E - Exercise leadership  R - Refer to appropriate agencies
  61. 61.  DEALING WITH STRESS  ESTABLISHING, AUTHORITY,COMMUNICATION & TRANSPORTATION  WARNING AND EVACUATING  IMMEDIATE TREATMENT AND SUPPORT  CARE OF BODIES AND NOTIFICATION OF FAMILIES
  62. 62.  Triage means is the process of determining the priority of patient`s treatment based on the severity of their ondition
  63. 63.  A disaster scene is one of the most challenging environments in which the nurses have to practice. There are other challenges such as hazardous environment, miscommunication, lack of medical/ rescue equipment, lack of proper leadership, inappropriate patient care and improved use of personnel. These challenges can be met by establishing the following three goals:  To assure the safety of personnel  To organize an effective disaster system  To deliver appropriate patient care.
  64. 64. The emergency department nurse`s incharge is responsible for the following::  Making sure as many nursing personnel as possible report for duty  Assigning them to specific areas/rooms  Instructing volunteers and ancillary personnel  Providing breaks or periods of rest for triage nurse and those working in resuscitation and minor treatment areas  Communicating the need for additional personnel to whoever concerned  Periodic checking of supplies
  65. 65.  The equipment should be sufficient at least for 50 victims and the things should be replaced after use  When information of disaster is received, trolleys should be arranged at the emergency gate to receive the patients  Extra servants should be posted at the gate to transfer the patients to emergency
  66. 66.  Information should be sent to all concerned personnel for supply of extra equipment  Extra staff should be posted to emergency from other areas  Disaster cupboard should be kept open and needed equipment should be checked  Triage at the entry of the emergency according to the condition of the patient
  67. 67.  The disaster preparedness program must be identify each possible disaster and explain how to recognize it; when it shall actually becomes a threat; and who is to do what, when and how.  Members of the team should come from all ranks of the facility personnel  A team should be formed to handle each and every disaster that comes up as opposed to a separate team for each type of disaster. Since most hospital facilities are open 24 hours a day, three team should be formed—one team for 8 hours shift
  68. 68.  Each should have some related knowledge and/or experience in the various potential emergency situations  The members of the team would be fully trained to handle all emergencies and would receive additional compensation on an hourly basis to be added to their base wages  Education in emergency procedures, as in basic safety, should start with the employee`s handbook  Small and yet easily seen paste-on signs giving the emergency telephone number should be attached to every telephone
  69. 69.  To protect life by shelter program  To save life and protect property  To sustain survivals and repair essential activities ( food, water, sanitation, barial housing and emergency)  To achieve emergency operational capabilities by assessing damage, providing emergency treatment, training and education tests and exercises)
  70. 70.  Short- term bewilderments in decision, fear during impact phase  Non ability of a disaster manual  Insufficient medical/ nonmedical staff  Less time foe clerical work  Compliance with the disaster plan  Communication difficulties  Shortage of supplies and equipments
  71. 71.  Shock and anxiety among staff  Worries about their own family  Mode of arrivals of casualties  Time limitation for documentation and charting  Disruption of normal communication  Influx of staff and unfamiliar situation  Sudden increased demand of supplies and equipment  Lack of identification of victims
  72. 72.  Sensitive to the problem  Understanding in nature  Caring  Emotional stability  Supporting  Strictness in responsibilities  Leadership ability  Teamwork efficiency ( technical skill and judgement skill)

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