SlideShare ist ein Scribd-Unternehmen logo
1 von 19
Bringing Fit-for-
Purpose Applications
into Fresh Produce
Operations and
Managing Control
Dr Dima Faour-Klingbeil
DFK for Safe Food Environment
Auditing| Consultancy|Training
Hannover, Germany
IAFP 2022 Annual Meeting – May 4-6, Munich, Germany
Integrated water-
climate management
3.6 billion with limited
access to water
Water-related hazards
have increased
55%
Global water
demand
2000-2050
Retrieved from https://www.epa.gov/climate-indicators/climate-change-indicators-glaciers
Agriculture uses 70%
of water worldwide
• 2 - 11 cubic meters per ton of
product
• Ca. 90% of this water
consumption for leafy
vegetable is estimated to be
due to the washing step
(Ölmez, 2017)
WATER USE IN FFV PRODUCTION
Save Water With the Three Rs: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle
Reducing
water use
reusing
waste
water
Using
alternative
water
sources
Water reuse (also commonly known as water recycling or water reclamation) reclaims
water from a variety of sources then treats and reuses it for beneficial purposes such as
agriculture and irrigation, potable water supplies, groundwater replenishment,
industrial processes, and environmental restoration (US EPA)
• Microbiological (bacteria, viruses,
protozoa, and helminths)
• Chemicals (ECs/pharmaceuticals,
heavy metals, Dioxins, etc.)
• Physical (metal microparticles,
metals, glass, etc.)
• High BOD concentrations
• High levels of suspended /
dissolved solids
• Minerals
WATER REUSE: WHAT IS IN THE SOURCE?
Washing Peeling
Polishing fluming
Blanching
Cleaning processing
equipment /utensils
Cutting
Personnel hygiene
Laundering
Adegoke et al., 2018
FIT-FOR-PURPOSE WATER
• While the increased use of reclaimed water typically poses greater financial, technical,
and institutional challenges than traditional sources, a range of treatment options are
available such that any level of water quality can be achieved depending upon the use of
the reclaimed water (US EPA 2014)
• FAO/WHO (2021). Safety and quality of water used with fresh fruits and vegetables.
Microbiological Risk Assessment Series No. 37.
Integrated preventive
management framework
• Approach of risk assessment and risk management linked to health-based targets
that can be established at a level that is realistic under local conditions.
• It defines a globally acceptable level of health protection : ≤10− 6 disability-adjusted life years
(DALYs) per person per year (pppy)
• The scope covers:
• intentional use specifically but they may also be relevant to some unintentional
uses e.g., irrigation or aquaculture with sewage contaminated surface waters
• Municipal or domestic wastes without substantial industrial inputs
WHO’s 2006 guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and graywater
APPROPRIATE MITIGATIONS – PRIMARY PRODUCTION
QMRA MODEL IN DETERMINING SATE WW REUSE
Annual
probability
of illness
Risk
characteri-
zation
Dose-
response
modeling
Exposure
assessment
Hazard
identification
Maximum
acceptable risk
irrigation scheme meet health standards?
APPROPRIATE MITIGATIONS
WHO (2013): Safe Use of Wastewater, Greywater and Excreta
WATER SAFETY PLAN
Y.Y. Omar et al.(2017) from WHO (2004).
Gil and Allende, 2018
FCFV PROCESSING INDUSTRY
WATER REUSE IN FOOD PROCESSING
General principles of food hygiene (FAO)
Only potable water, should be used in food
handling and processing, with the following
exceptions: for steam production, fire
control and other similar purposes not
connected with food .
Regulation (EC) 853/2004, 21CFR Part 117
Water used in food processing must be of a
quality that is safe and suitable for human
consumption.
Regulation (EC) 852/2004 on the hygiene of
foodstuffs: recycled water used in processing
or as an ingredient (does not) present a
risk of contamination. It is to be of the same
standard as potable water, unless the
competent authority is satisfied that the
quality of the water cannot affect the wholes
omeness of the product in its finished.
Draft Guidelines for the Hygienic Reuse of
Processing Water in Food Plants (CAC):
while water should be reconditioned to a
level safe and suitable for its intended use,
reconditioning to the level of potable water
is unnecessary in many cases. water reuse
for incorporation into a food product shall
meet at least the microbiological and,
chemical specifications for potable water.
WATER REUSE IN FOOD PROCESSING
Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)
Treatment
method
Contamination
levels/types
Water quality
legal
requirements
The
subsequent
food
manufacturing
operations.
temperature
and turbidity.
ü Conduct a hazard analysis:
• Hazard analysis and risk assessment should be carried out for each particular reuse
application.
• Define the exact first use case of the water and its quality to aid in the identification of
appropriate hazards and their suitable control points.
ü Determine critical control points (CCPs)
ü Establish critical limits
ü Establish monitoring procedures:
• the reuse / recycling of reconditioned water requires continuous monitoring of the
efficiency of the treatment
• frequency of monitoring and testing are dictated by the source of water or its prior
condition and the intended reuse of water
ü Establish corrective actions
ü Establish verification procedures
ü Establish record-keeping and documentation procedures
Knochel et al. 2002
Evidence and Documentation of System Control for Safe Water Reuse
Mundi et al., 2015
Bringing Fit-for-Purpose Applications into Fresh Produce
Operations and Managing Control – ARE WE READY?
the implicated salad was made with a
salad mix processed by Grasmick
Produce Co. Inc. The company reports it
received a score of 94 out of 100 on its
most recent audit of its Hazard Analysis
and Critical Control Point food safety
plan.
Deadly outbreak of Listeria illnesses
has been linked to Fresh Express
salads, including products from
Walmart, Hannaford, Safeway, Giant
Eagle, and other major grocery
stores. Daily Hornet on December
30, 2021
• Development of effective preventive strategies
• Comprehensive approach for risk management
• Limited data availability
• Health concern of emerging contaminants
• Clear guidelines and criteria under processing conditions
• Significant costs: treatment technologies, infrastructure, skills
• Supportive regulatory framework for water reuse
• Formalizing water reuse
Bringing Fit-for-Purpose Applications into Fresh Produce
Operations and Managing Control – Key issues
Dip-Washing Parsley and Radish
(Faour-Klingbeil et al., 2016)
Direct use of sewage effluent directed from drain to
river canals and fields (Faour-Klingbeil et al., 2016)
UNREGULATED WATER REUSE
Dima Faour-Klingbeil, Ph.D.
Director/Principal Consultant | DFK for Safe Food Environment
DFK for Safe Food Environment Auditing| Consultancy|Training www.dfkfoodsafety.com

Weitere ähnliche Inhalte

Ähnlich wie Bringing Fit-for-Purpose Applications into Fresh Produce Operations and Managing Control.

T2 shaden abdel gawad cs operational drainage water reuse guidelines exec su...
T2 shaden abdel gawad cs operational drainage water reuse guidelines  exec su...T2 shaden abdel gawad cs operational drainage water reuse guidelines  exec su...
T2 shaden abdel gawad cs operational drainage water reuse guidelines exec su...NENAwaterscarcity
 
Water quality standard
Water quality standardWater quality standard
Water quality standardRavi Rohilla
 
A framework for international standard for CA: towards stewardship for sustai...
A framework for international standard for CA: towards stewardship for sustai...A framework for international standard for CA: towards stewardship for sustai...
A framework for international standard for CA: towards stewardship for sustai...Joanna Hicks
 
Sustainable Resource Management Lecture
Sustainable Resource Management LectureSustainable Resource Management Lecture
Sustainable Resource Management LectureADEC Innovations
 
Controls for water quality of irrigation source water
Controls for water quality of irrigation source waterControls for water quality of irrigation source water
Controls for water quality of irrigation source waterKevin D. Rumsey, M.Sc., M.A.
 
Sustainability assignment
Sustainability assignmentSustainability assignment
Sustainability assignmentShivam Batra
 
Water Management Decision support systems, optimization models and tools. ...
Water Management Decision support systems, optimization models and tools.    ...Water Management Decision support systems, optimization models and tools.    ...
Water Management Decision support systems, optimization models and tools. ...Muhammad Hannan
 
environmental project
environmental projectenvironmental project
environmental projectamrit -
 
Tools for Assessing Industrial Water Stewardship-Phenicie, 2012
Tools for Assessing Industrial Water Stewardship-Phenicie, 2012Tools for Assessing Industrial Water Stewardship-Phenicie, 2012
Tools for Assessing Industrial Water Stewardship-Phenicie, 2012Healthy Lakes, Healthy Lives
 
FOOD-SAFETY-ACT-2022-PRESENTATION.pptx
FOOD-SAFETY-ACT-2022-PRESENTATION.pptxFOOD-SAFETY-ACT-2022-PRESENTATION.pptx
FOOD-SAFETY-ACT-2022-PRESENTATION.pptxRayLorenzOrtega
 
Performance assessment of water filtration plants in pakistan - JBES
Performance assessment of water filtration plants in pakistan - JBESPerformance assessment of water filtration plants in pakistan - JBES
Performance assessment of water filtration plants in pakistan - JBESInnspub Net
 

Ähnlich wie Bringing Fit-for-Purpose Applications into Fresh Produce Operations and Managing Control. (20)

T2 shaden abdel gawad cs operational drainage water reuse guidelines exec su...
T2 shaden abdel gawad cs operational drainage water reuse guidelines  exec su...T2 shaden abdel gawad cs operational drainage water reuse guidelines  exec su...
T2 shaden abdel gawad cs operational drainage water reuse guidelines exec su...
 
Water quality standard
Water quality standardWater quality standard
Water quality standard
 
A framework for international standard for CA: towards stewardship for sustai...
A framework for international standard for CA: towards stewardship for sustai...A framework for international standard for CA: towards stewardship for sustai...
A framework for international standard for CA: towards stewardship for sustai...
 
Sustainable Resource Management Lecture
Sustainable Resource Management LectureSustainable Resource Management Lecture
Sustainable Resource Management Lecture
 
Controls for water quality of irrigation source water
Controls for water quality of irrigation source waterControls for water quality of irrigation source water
Controls for water quality of irrigation source water
 
Pharmaceutical Water Instrumentation Guide
Pharmaceutical Water Instrumentation GuidePharmaceutical Water Instrumentation Guide
Pharmaceutical Water Instrumentation Guide
 
Pharmaceutical Water Guide - Instrumentation
Pharmaceutical Water Guide - InstrumentationPharmaceutical Water Guide - Instrumentation
Pharmaceutical Water Guide - Instrumentation
 
Sustainability assignment
Sustainability assignmentSustainability assignment
Sustainability assignment
 
Hygienic design of dairy equipment
Hygienic design of dairy equipmentHygienic design of dairy equipment
Hygienic design of dairy equipment
 
SDGs and Water
SDGs and WaterSDGs and Water
SDGs and Water
 
BIS WHO.pptx
BIS WHO.pptxBIS WHO.pptx
BIS WHO.pptx
 
Sanitation, Wastewater Management and Water Quality: Implementing the SDGs in...
Sanitation, Wastewater Management and Water Quality: Implementing the SDGs in...Sanitation, Wastewater Management and Water Quality: Implementing the SDGs in...
Sanitation, Wastewater Management and Water Quality: Implementing the SDGs in...
 
Water Management Decision support systems, optimization models and tools. ...
Water Management Decision support systems, optimization models and tools.    ...Water Management Decision support systems, optimization models and tools.    ...
Water Management Decision support systems, optimization models and tools. ...
 
environmental project
environmental projectenvironmental project
environmental project
 
Corporate
CorporateCorporate
Corporate
 
Tools for Assessing Industrial Water Stewardship-Phenicie, 2012
Tools for Assessing Industrial Water Stewardship-Phenicie, 2012Tools for Assessing Industrial Water Stewardship-Phenicie, 2012
Tools for Assessing Industrial Water Stewardship-Phenicie, 2012
 
FOOD-SAFETY-ACT-2022-PRESENTATION.pptx
FOOD-SAFETY-ACT-2022-PRESENTATION.pptxFOOD-SAFETY-ACT-2022-PRESENTATION.pptx
FOOD-SAFETY-ACT-2022-PRESENTATION.pptx
 
Performance assessment of water filtration plants in pakistan - JBES
Performance assessment of water filtration plants in pakistan - JBESPerformance assessment of water filtration plants in pakistan - JBES
Performance assessment of water filtration plants in pakistan - JBES
 
Can water productivity improvements save us from global water scarcity?
Can water productivity improvements save us from global water scarcity?Can water productivity improvements save us from global water scarcity?
Can water productivity improvements save us from global water scarcity?
 
Using data and innovative solutions to deliver on the Water SDGs
Using data and innovative solutions to deliver on the Water SDGsUsing data and innovative solutions to deliver on the Water SDGs
Using data and innovative solutions to deliver on the Water SDGs
 

Kürzlich hochgeladen

SaaStr Workshop Wednesday w/ Kyle Norton, Owner.com
SaaStr Workshop Wednesday w/ Kyle Norton, Owner.comSaaStr Workshop Wednesday w/ Kyle Norton, Owner.com
SaaStr Workshop Wednesday w/ Kyle Norton, Owner.comsaastr
 
Dutch Power - 26 maart 2024 - Henk Kras - Circular Plastics
Dutch Power - 26 maart 2024 - Henk Kras - Circular PlasticsDutch Power - 26 maart 2024 - Henk Kras - Circular Plastics
Dutch Power - 26 maart 2024 - Henk Kras - Circular PlasticsDutch Power
 
THE COUNTRY WHO SOLVED THE WORLD_HOW CHINA LAUNCHED THE CIVILIZATION REVOLUTI...
THE COUNTRY WHO SOLVED THE WORLD_HOW CHINA LAUNCHED THE CIVILIZATION REVOLUTI...THE COUNTRY WHO SOLVED THE WORLD_HOW CHINA LAUNCHED THE CIVILIZATION REVOLUTI...
THE COUNTRY WHO SOLVED THE WORLD_HOW CHINA LAUNCHED THE CIVILIZATION REVOLUTI...漢銘 謝
 
RACHEL-ANN M. TENIBRO PRODUCT RESEARCH PRESENTATION
RACHEL-ANN M. TENIBRO PRODUCT RESEARCH PRESENTATIONRACHEL-ANN M. TENIBRO PRODUCT RESEARCH PRESENTATION
RACHEL-ANN M. TENIBRO PRODUCT RESEARCH PRESENTATIONRachelAnnTenibroAmaz
 
Engaging Eid Ul Fitr Presentation for Kindergartners.pptx
Engaging Eid Ul Fitr Presentation for Kindergartners.pptxEngaging Eid Ul Fitr Presentation for Kindergartners.pptx
Engaging Eid Ul Fitr Presentation for Kindergartners.pptxAsifArshad8
 
Mathan flower ppt.pptx slide orchids ✨🌸
Mathan flower ppt.pptx slide orchids ✨🌸Mathan flower ppt.pptx slide orchids ✨🌸
Mathan flower ppt.pptx slide orchids ✨🌸mathanramanathan2005
 
PAG-UNLAD NG EKONOMIYA na dapat isaalang alang sa pag-aaral.
PAG-UNLAD NG EKONOMIYA na dapat isaalang alang sa pag-aaral.PAG-UNLAD NG EKONOMIYA na dapat isaalang alang sa pag-aaral.
PAG-UNLAD NG EKONOMIYA na dapat isaalang alang sa pag-aaral.KathleenAnnCordero2
 
Internship Presentation | PPT | CSE | SE
Internship Presentation | PPT | CSE | SEInternship Presentation | PPT | CSE | SE
Internship Presentation | PPT | CSE | SESaleh Ibne Omar
 
Call Girls In Aerocity 🤳 Call Us +919599264170
Call Girls In Aerocity 🤳 Call Us +919599264170Call Girls In Aerocity 🤳 Call Us +919599264170
Call Girls In Aerocity 🤳 Call Us +919599264170Escort Service
 
Application of GIS in Landslide Disaster Response.pptx
Application of GIS in Landslide Disaster Response.pptxApplication of GIS in Landslide Disaster Response.pptx
Application of GIS in Landslide Disaster Response.pptxRoquia Salam
 
Event 4 Introduction to Open Source.pptx
Event 4 Introduction to Open Source.pptxEvent 4 Introduction to Open Source.pptx
Event 4 Introduction to Open Source.pptxaryanv1753
 
INDIAN GCP GUIDELINE. for Regulatory affair 1st sem CRR
INDIAN GCP GUIDELINE. for Regulatory  affair 1st sem CRRINDIAN GCP GUIDELINE. for Regulatory  affair 1st sem CRR
INDIAN GCP GUIDELINE. for Regulatory affair 1st sem CRRsarwankumar4524
 
proposal kumeneger edited.docx A kumeeger
proposal kumeneger edited.docx A kumeegerproposal kumeneger edited.docx A kumeeger
proposal kumeneger edited.docx A kumeegerkumenegertelayegrama
 
Early Modern Spain. All about this period
Early Modern Spain. All about this periodEarly Modern Spain. All about this period
Early Modern Spain. All about this periodSaraIsabelJimenez
 
Quality by design.. ppt for RA (1ST SEM
Quality by design.. ppt for  RA (1ST SEMQuality by design.. ppt for  RA (1ST SEM
Quality by design.. ppt for RA (1ST SEMCharmi13
 
The Ten Facts About People With Autism Presentation
The Ten Facts About People With Autism PresentationThe Ten Facts About People With Autism Presentation
The Ten Facts About People With Autism PresentationNathan Young
 
DGT @ CTAC 2024 Valencia: Most crucial invest to digitalisation_Sven Zoelle_v...
DGT @ CTAC 2024 Valencia: Most crucial invest to digitalisation_Sven Zoelle_v...DGT @ CTAC 2024 Valencia: Most crucial invest to digitalisation_Sven Zoelle_v...
DGT @ CTAC 2024 Valencia: Most crucial invest to digitalisation_Sven Zoelle_v...Henrik Hanke
 
CHROMATOGRAPHY and its types with procedure,diagrams,flow charts,advantages a...
CHROMATOGRAPHY and its types with procedure,diagrams,flow charts,advantages a...CHROMATOGRAPHY and its types with procedure,diagrams,flow charts,advantages a...
CHROMATOGRAPHY and its types with procedure,diagrams,flow charts,advantages a...university
 
Chizaram's Women Tech Makers Deck. .pptx
Chizaram's Women Tech Makers Deck.  .pptxChizaram's Women Tech Makers Deck.  .pptx
Chizaram's Women Tech Makers Deck. .pptxogubuikealex
 

Kürzlich hochgeladen (19)

SaaStr Workshop Wednesday w/ Kyle Norton, Owner.com
SaaStr Workshop Wednesday w/ Kyle Norton, Owner.comSaaStr Workshop Wednesday w/ Kyle Norton, Owner.com
SaaStr Workshop Wednesday w/ Kyle Norton, Owner.com
 
Dutch Power - 26 maart 2024 - Henk Kras - Circular Plastics
Dutch Power - 26 maart 2024 - Henk Kras - Circular PlasticsDutch Power - 26 maart 2024 - Henk Kras - Circular Plastics
Dutch Power - 26 maart 2024 - Henk Kras - Circular Plastics
 
THE COUNTRY WHO SOLVED THE WORLD_HOW CHINA LAUNCHED THE CIVILIZATION REVOLUTI...
THE COUNTRY WHO SOLVED THE WORLD_HOW CHINA LAUNCHED THE CIVILIZATION REVOLUTI...THE COUNTRY WHO SOLVED THE WORLD_HOW CHINA LAUNCHED THE CIVILIZATION REVOLUTI...
THE COUNTRY WHO SOLVED THE WORLD_HOW CHINA LAUNCHED THE CIVILIZATION REVOLUTI...
 
RACHEL-ANN M. TENIBRO PRODUCT RESEARCH PRESENTATION
RACHEL-ANN M. TENIBRO PRODUCT RESEARCH PRESENTATIONRACHEL-ANN M. TENIBRO PRODUCT RESEARCH PRESENTATION
RACHEL-ANN M. TENIBRO PRODUCT RESEARCH PRESENTATION
 
Engaging Eid Ul Fitr Presentation for Kindergartners.pptx
Engaging Eid Ul Fitr Presentation for Kindergartners.pptxEngaging Eid Ul Fitr Presentation for Kindergartners.pptx
Engaging Eid Ul Fitr Presentation for Kindergartners.pptx
 
Mathan flower ppt.pptx slide orchids ✨🌸
Mathan flower ppt.pptx slide orchids ✨🌸Mathan flower ppt.pptx slide orchids ✨🌸
Mathan flower ppt.pptx slide orchids ✨🌸
 
PAG-UNLAD NG EKONOMIYA na dapat isaalang alang sa pag-aaral.
PAG-UNLAD NG EKONOMIYA na dapat isaalang alang sa pag-aaral.PAG-UNLAD NG EKONOMIYA na dapat isaalang alang sa pag-aaral.
PAG-UNLAD NG EKONOMIYA na dapat isaalang alang sa pag-aaral.
 
Internship Presentation | PPT | CSE | SE
Internship Presentation | PPT | CSE | SEInternship Presentation | PPT | CSE | SE
Internship Presentation | PPT | CSE | SE
 
Call Girls In Aerocity 🤳 Call Us +919599264170
Call Girls In Aerocity 🤳 Call Us +919599264170Call Girls In Aerocity 🤳 Call Us +919599264170
Call Girls In Aerocity 🤳 Call Us +919599264170
 
Application of GIS in Landslide Disaster Response.pptx
Application of GIS in Landslide Disaster Response.pptxApplication of GIS in Landslide Disaster Response.pptx
Application of GIS in Landslide Disaster Response.pptx
 
Event 4 Introduction to Open Source.pptx
Event 4 Introduction to Open Source.pptxEvent 4 Introduction to Open Source.pptx
Event 4 Introduction to Open Source.pptx
 
INDIAN GCP GUIDELINE. for Regulatory affair 1st sem CRR
INDIAN GCP GUIDELINE. for Regulatory  affair 1st sem CRRINDIAN GCP GUIDELINE. for Regulatory  affair 1st sem CRR
INDIAN GCP GUIDELINE. for Regulatory affair 1st sem CRR
 
proposal kumeneger edited.docx A kumeeger
proposal kumeneger edited.docx A kumeegerproposal kumeneger edited.docx A kumeeger
proposal kumeneger edited.docx A kumeeger
 
Early Modern Spain. All about this period
Early Modern Spain. All about this periodEarly Modern Spain. All about this period
Early Modern Spain. All about this period
 
Quality by design.. ppt for RA (1ST SEM
Quality by design.. ppt for  RA (1ST SEMQuality by design.. ppt for  RA (1ST SEM
Quality by design.. ppt for RA (1ST SEM
 
The Ten Facts About People With Autism Presentation
The Ten Facts About People With Autism PresentationThe Ten Facts About People With Autism Presentation
The Ten Facts About People With Autism Presentation
 
DGT @ CTAC 2024 Valencia: Most crucial invest to digitalisation_Sven Zoelle_v...
DGT @ CTAC 2024 Valencia: Most crucial invest to digitalisation_Sven Zoelle_v...DGT @ CTAC 2024 Valencia: Most crucial invest to digitalisation_Sven Zoelle_v...
DGT @ CTAC 2024 Valencia: Most crucial invest to digitalisation_Sven Zoelle_v...
 
CHROMATOGRAPHY and its types with procedure,diagrams,flow charts,advantages a...
CHROMATOGRAPHY and its types with procedure,diagrams,flow charts,advantages a...CHROMATOGRAPHY and its types with procedure,diagrams,flow charts,advantages a...
CHROMATOGRAPHY and its types with procedure,diagrams,flow charts,advantages a...
 
Chizaram's Women Tech Makers Deck. .pptx
Chizaram's Women Tech Makers Deck.  .pptxChizaram's Women Tech Makers Deck.  .pptx
Chizaram's Women Tech Makers Deck. .pptx
 

Bringing Fit-for-Purpose Applications into Fresh Produce Operations and Managing Control.

  • 1. Bringing Fit-for- Purpose Applications into Fresh Produce Operations and Managing Control Dr Dima Faour-Klingbeil DFK for Safe Food Environment Auditing| Consultancy|Training Hannover, Germany IAFP 2022 Annual Meeting – May 4-6, Munich, Germany
  • 2. Integrated water- climate management 3.6 billion with limited access to water Water-related hazards have increased
  • 3. 55% Global water demand 2000-2050 Retrieved from https://www.epa.gov/climate-indicators/climate-change-indicators-glaciers
  • 4. Agriculture uses 70% of water worldwide • 2 - 11 cubic meters per ton of product • Ca. 90% of this water consumption for leafy vegetable is estimated to be due to the washing step (Ölmez, 2017) WATER USE IN FFV PRODUCTION
  • 5. Save Water With the Three Rs: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Reducing water use reusing waste water Using alternative water sources Water reuse (also commonly known as water recycling or water reclamation) reclaims water from a variety of sources then treats and reuses it for beneficial purposes such as agriculture and irrigation, potable water supplies, groundwater replenishment, industrial processes, and environmental restoration (US EPA)
  • 6. • Microbiological (bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and helminths) • Chemicals (ECs/pharmaceuticals, heavy metals, Dioxins, etc.) • Physical (metal microparticles, metals, glass, etc.) • High BOD concentrations • High levels of suspended / dissolved solids • Minerals WATER REUSE: WHAT IS IN THE SOURCE? Washing Peeling Polishing fluming Blanching Cleaning processing equipment /utensils Cutting Personnel hygiene Laundering Adegoke et al., 2018
  • 7. FIT-FOR-PURPOSE WATER • While the increased use of reclaimed water typically poses greater financial, technical, and institutional challenges than traditional sources, a range of treatment options are available such that any level of water quality can be achieved depending upon the use of the reclaimed water (US EPA 2014) • FAO/WHO (2021). Safety and quality of water used with fresh fruits and vegetables. Microbiological Risk Assessment Series No. 37.
  • 8. Integrated preventive management framework • Approach of risk assessment and risk management linked to health-based targets that can be established at a level that is realistic under local conditions. • It defines a globally acceptable level of health protection : ≤10− 6 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) per person per year (pppy) • The scope covers: • intentional use specifically but they may also be relevant to some unintentional uses e.g., irrigation or aquaculture with sewage contaminated surface waters • Municipal or domestic wastes without substantial industrial inputs WHO’s 2006 guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and graywater APPROPRIATE MITIGATIONS – PRIMARY PRODUCTION
  • 9. QMRA MODEL IN DETERMINING SATE WW REUSE Annual probability of illness Risk characteri- zation Dose- response modeling Exposure assessment Hazard identification Maximum acceptable risk irrigation scheme meet health standards?
  • 10. APPROPRIATE MITIGATIONS WHO (2013): Safe Use of Wastewater, Greywater and Excreta
  • 11. WATER SAFETY PLAN Y.Y. Omar et al.(2017) from WHO (2004).
  • 12. Gil and Allende, 2018 FCFV PROCESSING INDUSTRY
  • 13. WATER REUSE IN FOOD PROCESSING General principles of food hygiene (FAO) Only potable water, should be used in food handling and processing, with the following exceptions: for steam production, fire control and other similar purposes not connected with food . Regulation (EC) 853/2004, 21CFR Part 117 Water used in food processing must be of a quality that is safe and suitable for human consumption. Regulation (EC) 852/2004 on the hygiene of foodstuffs: recycled water used in processing or as an ingredient (does not) present a risk of contamination. It is to be of the same standard as potable water, unless the competent authority is satisfied that the quality of the water cannot affect the wholes omeness of the product in its finished. Draft Guidelines for the Hygienic Reuse of Processing Water in Food Plants (CAC): while water should be reconditioned to a level safe and suitable for its intended use, reconditioning to the level of potable water is unnecessary in many cases. water reuse for incorporation into a food product shall meet at least the microbiological and, chemical specifications for potable water.
  • 14. WATER REUSE IN FOOD PROCESSING Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) Treatment method Contamination levels/types Water quality legal requirements The subsequent food manufacturing operations. temperature and turbidity. ü Conduct a hazard analysis: • Hazard analysis and risk assessment should be carried out for each particular reuse application. • Define the exact first use case of the water and its quality to aid in the identification of appropriate hazards and their suitable control points. ü Determine critical control points (CCPs) ü Establish critical limits ü Establish monitoring procedures: • the reuse / recycling of reconditioned water requires continuous monitoring of the efficiency of the treatment • frequency of monitoring and testing are dictated by the source of water or its prior condition and the intended reuse of water ü Establish corrective actions ü Establish verification procedures ü Establish record-keeping and documentation procedures Knochel et al. 2002 Evidence and Documentation of System Control for Safe Water Reuse
  • 16. Bringing Fit-for-Purpose Applications into Fresh Produce Operations and Managing Control – ARE WE READY? the implicated salad was made with a salad mix processed by Grasmick Produce Co. Inc. The company reports it received a score of 94 out of 100 on its most recent audit of its Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point food safety plan. Deadly outbreak of Listeria illnesses has been linked to Fresh Express salads, including products from Walmart, Hannaford, Safeway, Giant Eagle, and other major grocery stores. Daily Hornet on December 30, 2021
  • 17. • Development of effective preventive strategies • Comprehensive approach for risk management • Limited data availability • Health concern of emerging contaminants • Clear guidelines and criteria under processing conditions • Significant costs: treatment technologies, infrastructure, skills • Supportive regulatory framework for water reuse • Formalizing water reuse Bringing Fit-for-Purpose Applications into Fresh Produce Operations and Managing Control – Key issues
  • 18. Dip-Washing Parsley and Radish (Faour-Klingbeil et al., 2016) Direct use of sewage effluent directed from drain to river canals and fields (Faour-Klingbeil et al., 2016) UNREGULATED WATER REUSE
  • 19. Dima Faour-Klingbeil, Ph.D. Director/Principal Consultant | DFK for Safe Food Environment DFK for Safe Food Environment Auditing| Consultancy|Training www.dfkfoodsafety.com