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Common health problems in women and risk factors

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Common health problems in women and risk factors

  1. 1. Common health problems and risk factors in women MISS DHAMMADINA PATHARDE M.SC. NURSING
  2. 2. Women's lives have changed over the centuries. life was particularly difficult for most women. Aside from the numerous dangers and diseases, women became wives and mothers often when they were just emerging from their own childhood. Many women had a large number of pregnancies which may or may not have been wanted.
  3. 3. In the past, childbirth itself was risky and not infrequently, led to the death of the mother. Most women in the past did not live long enough. It is important that every woman has access to knowledge related to the spectrum of women's health issues, not only about her reproductive system, but about all aspects of her body.
  4. 4. A woman's reproductive system includes her uterus, Fallopian tubes, ovaries, cervix, and external genitalia. The breasts can also be included, even though, technically speaking, they are not part of the reproductive system. The breasts do play a major role in pregnancy and
  5. 5. primary function of the reproductive system is to conceive and bear children, a female's reproductive system makes a major contribution to her being a woman. Due to the complexity of her reproductive system, she can experience a number of problems ranging from yeast infections of the vagina to fibroids of the uterus or cysts of the ovary.
  6. 6. 1. Heart disease 2. Polycystic ovarian syndrome ( pcos) 3. osteoporosis 4. Depression 5. Cancer
  7. 7. this condition is responsible for about 29 percent of deaths in women That's largely because signs and symptoms of the disease go misdiagnosed in female patients What puts a woman at risk? Obesity, stress, diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and inactivity. Left untreated, the disease can lead to
  8. 8. Affecting 10 percent of women of reproductive age, this condition causes small cysts to form on the ovaries during ovulation. These cysts may be causing side pains possibly damaging a woman's uterus and, thereby, her fertility. Women with PCOS are also more prone to weight gain, abnormal periods, acne, and excess hair growth.
  9. 9. While this disease can affect both men and women, it disproportionately threatens the health of females. Largely preventable, it affects the strength and resiliency of the bones, which can lead to fractures and bone breaks later on in life. Other risk factors include age, eating a diet that's low in calcium or vitamin D, smoking, and excessive alcohol use.
  10. 10. This disease affects women about 50 percent more than men, largely because of hormonal changes (for example, postpartum depression that develops post-pregnancy), or lifestyle factors (feeling disconnected from loved ones, a family history of the disease, or substance abuse). It also can be triggered by a stressful life event, a history of childhood abuse, or neglect.
  11. 11. WHAT IS CANCER?  Uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in any part of the body.  Generally due to 1. chemicals (e.g. From smoking ) 2. radiation 3. micro-organisms (e.g. Bacteria, viruses)
  12. 12. INTRODUCTION  Breast cancer, the second-leading cause of cancer deaths in women, is the disease women fear most.  Breast cancer can also occur in men, but it's far less common.  In the last 30 years, doctors have made great strides in early diagnosis and treatment of the disease and in reducing breast cancer deaths.
  13. 13.  80% of breast cancers occur in women older than age 50. In 30s, have a one in 233 chance of developing breast cancer. By age 85, chance is one in eight.  In 1975, a diagnosis of breast cancer usually meant radical mastectomy – removal of the entire breast along with underarm lymph nodes and muscles underneath the breast.
  14. 14. HOW IS THE BREAST DESIGNED? 1. Chest wall. 2. Pectoral muscles. 3. Lobules (glands that make milk). 4. Nipple surface. 5. Areola. 6. Lactiferous duct tube that carries milk to the nipple 7. Fatty tissue.
  15. 15. THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM Lymphatic System which consists of vessels and organs plays two vital roles in our lives: 1) The vessels essentially maintain interstitial fluid levels by carrying excess fluids as well as any plasma proteins, back into the CVS. 2) The organs, house critical immune cells such as lymphocytes which carry out our body defense against infection.
  16. 16. Most of the lymph vessels of the breast drain into:  Lymph nodes under the arm (auxiliary nodes).  Lymph nodes around the collar bone (supraclavicular and infraclavicular lymph nodes)  Lymph nodes inside the chest near the breast bone (internal mammary lymph nodes)
  18. 18. Forms in the tissues of the breast Spreads mainly through the lymphatic system
  21. 21. FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTES TO BREAST CANCER 1. Gender 2. Age 3. Genetic risk factors 4. Family history 5. Personal history of breast cancer
  22. 22. CONT…  Race/ethnic background  Dense breasts tissue  Certain benign (not cancer) breast problems  Menstrual periods  Breast radiation early in life
  23. 23. CONT…  Gender: more prevalent in women.  Age: The chance of getting breast cancer goes up as a woman gets older.  Over 80% of all female breast cancers occur among women aged 50+ years
  24. 24. GENETIC RISK FACTOR: Women Who Carry The BRCA1 And BRCA2 Genes Have A Considerably Higher Risk Of Developing Breast Cancer.
  25. 25.  Family history: Breast cancer risk is higher among women whose close blood relatives have this disease. Personal history of breast cancer: A woman with cancer in one breast has a greater chance of getting a new cancer in the other breast or in another part of the same
  26. 26. Race/Ethnic background  Overall, white women are slightly more likely to get breast cancer than African- American women.  African-American women, though, are more likely to die of breast cancer.  Asian, Hispanic, and Native-American women
  27. 27.  Dense breast tissue: Dense breast tissue means there is more gland tissue and less fatty tissue.  Certain benign (not cancer) breast problems: Women who have certain benign breast changes may have an increased risk of breast cancer.
  28. 28.  Menstrual period: Women who began having periods early (before age 12) or who went through the change of life (menopause) after the age of 55 have a slightly increased risk of breast cancer.  Breast radiation early in life: Women who have had radiation treatment to the chest
  29. 29. Not having children or having them later in life.  Certain kinds of birth control  Using hormone therapy after menopause  Not breastfeeding  Alcohol  Being overweight or obese
  30. 30. Tobacco smoke: Smoking may increase the risk of breast cancer.  Night work: A few studies have suggested that women who work at night have a higher risk of breast cancer.
  31. 31. The veteran beauty was diagnosed with breast cancer in 2002, when she was 54- years-old. 6 chemotherapies and 35 radiations later, she managed to hold and was quoted telling bangalore times: "I don't give up easily. Even death will have to fight me." She followed a tight regime to get back in shape and can still turn heads with her charm.
  32. 32. PREVENTION Alcohol consumption  Physical exercise  Diet  Postmenopausal hormone therapy  Bodyweight  Breast cancer screening  Breastfeeding
  33. 33. SIGN AND SYMPTOMS OF BREAST CANCER A lump in a breast.  A pain in the armpits or breast that does not seem to be related to the woman's menstrual period.  Pitting or redness of the skin of the breast; like the skin of an orange.  A rash around (or on) one of the nipples
  34. 34.  A swelling (lump) in one of the armpits.  An area of thickened tissue in a breast.  One of the nipples has a discharge; sometimes it may contain blood
  35. 35.  The nipple changes in appearance; it may become sunken or inverted.  The size or the shape of the breast changes.  The nipple-skin or breast-skin may have started to peel, scale or flake.
  36. 36. STAGING OF BREAST CANCER The TNM staging system This system takes into account: a) the tumor size and spread (T), b) whether the cancer has spread to lymph nodes (N) And c) whether it has spread to distant organs (M) for metastasis
  37. 37. STAGING OF BREAST CANCER 1. Stage 0 2. Stage I 3. Stage II 4. Stage III 5. Stage IV
  38. 38.  Stage 0 : Non – Invasive breast cancer. Has not spread to breast tissues.  Stage I : ≤ 2cm and has not spread to lymph nodes.  Stage II  Stage IIA: ≤ 2 cm and has spread to lymph nodes or 2-5 cm and has spread to lymph nodes.  Stage IIB: 2-5 cm and has spread to lymph nodes or > 5 cm and has not spread to lymph nodes.
  39. 39.  Stage III  Stage IIIA: ≤ 5cm and spread to lymph nodes forming clumps or >5 cm and spread to lymph nodes without forming clumps.  Stage IIIB: Any size and spread to the skin or chest wall. Swelling.  Stage IIIC: Any size , spread to lymph nodes, skin and chest wall.  Stage IV: Metastasized
  40. 40. THE MAIN BREAST CANCER TREATMENT OPTIONS MAY INCLUDE A. Surgery B. Radiation therapy C. Biological therapy (targeted drug therapy) D. Hormone therapy E. Chemotherapy
  41. 41. Guard Yourself means Protect yourself very special programme to prevent cervical cancer.
  42. 42. CERVICAL CANCER It is a cancer of the female reproductive tract It is the most common cause of cancer death in the world where Pap tests are not available  It is the easiest gynecologic cancer to prevent through screening and early vaccination
  43. 43. WHAT IS THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE TRACT? 1.Vulva 2.Vagina 3. Cervix 4. Uterus 5.Fallopian tubes 6.Ovaries
  44. 44. WHAT IS THE CERVIX? Opening of the uterus (womb) into the vagina 1.Two cell types present (squamous and glandular) 2.Cervical cancer tends to occur where the two cell types meet
  45. 45. WHO IS AT RISK? Women who have ever had sex  Women who have had more than one partner  Women whose partner (s) has had more than one sexual partner  Women who have had a sexually- transmitted disease
  46. 46. CONT… Women who do not have Pap tests 1. Women with immune problems including those who: -Use steroid medications on a regular basis -Have organ transplant - Are undergoing chemotherapy -Are infected with HIV 2. Women who smoke-smoking all by itself increases the risk of HPV infection and cervical
  47. 47. HOW DO I LOWER MY RISK? 1. Delay onset of sexual activity or remain abstinent 2. Know your sexual partner 3. Do not smoke 4. Maintain a healthy diet and lifestyle 5. Practice safe sex. Condoms decrease the chance of HPV exposure. 6. If eligible, consider getting the vaccine that prevents most cervical cancers. 7.Get your Pap test and HPV testing as recommended by your health care provider.
  48. 48. SIGN AND SYMPTOMS • Bleeding that occurs between regular menstrual periods • Bleeding after sexual intercourse, douching, or a pelvic exam • Menstrual periods that last longer and are heavier than before • Bleeding after going through menopause • Increased vaginal discharge • Pelvic pain
  49. 49. STAGES OF CERVICAL CANCER 1. Stage I. Cancer is confined to the cervix. 2. Stage II. Cancer at this stage includes the cervix and uterus, but hasn't spread to the pelvic wall or the lower portion of the vagina.
  50. 50. 3. Stage III. Cancer at this stage has moved beyond the cervix and uterus to the pelvic wall or the lower portion of the vagina. 4. Stage IV. At this stage, cancer has spread to nearby organs, such as the bladder or rectum, or it has spread to other areas of the body, such as the lungs, liver or bones.
  51. 51. MANAGEMENT 1. Chemotherapy 2. Radiothearapy 3. Surgical management a) laser surgery b) Leep( Loop electrosurgical excision) 4. Cryosurgery 5. hysterectomy
  52. 52. Ovarian cancer on 29th november 2012, it was reported that manisha had been diagnosed with ovarian cancer and underwent surgery on 10th december. The surgery was successful. The bollywood star gave the performance of her lifetime by battling cancer and coming out on top. She has been cancer free for almost 2 years now.
  53. 53. Lets fight against cancer …..join hands…… …..take preventive measures……. …..update yourself….. …..take care…..