Common health problems and
risk factors in women
Women's lives have changed over the
centuries. life was particularly difficult for
most women. Aside from the numerous
dangers and diseases, women became
wives and mothers often when they were
just emerging from their own childhood.
Many women had a large number of
pregnancies which may or may not have
In the past, childbirth itself was risky
and not infrequently, led to the death
of the mother. Most women in the
past did not live long enough.
It is important that every woman has
access to knowledge related to the
spectrum of women's health issues,
not only about her reproductive
system, but about all aspects of her
A woman's reproductive
system includes her uterus,
Fallopian tubes, ovaries,
cervix, and external
genitalia. The breasts can
also be included, even
speaking, they are not part
of the reproductive system.
The breasts do play a major
role in pregnancy and
primary function of the reproductive
system is to conceive and bear
children, a female's reproductive
system makes a major contribution to
her being a woman. Due to the
complexity of her reproductive
system, she can experience a number
of problems ranging from yeast
infections of the vagina to fibroids of
the uterus or cysts of the ovary.
this condition is responsible for about 29
percent of deaths in women That's largely
because signs and symptoms of the
disease go misdiagnosed in female
What puts a woman at risk?
Obesity, stress, diabetes, high blood
pressure, high cholesterol, and inactivity.
Left untreated, the disease can lead to
Affecting 10 percent of women of reproductive
age, this condition causes small cysts to form
on the ovaries during ovulation. These cysts
may be causing side pains possibly damaging a
woman's uterus and, thereby, her fertility.
Women with PCOS are also more prone to
weight gain, abnormal periods, acne, and
excess hair growth.
While this disease can affect both men and
women, it disproportionately threatens the
health of females. Largely preventable, it affects
the strength and resiliency of the bones, which
can lead to fractures and bone breaks later on
in life. Other risk factors include age, eating a
diet that's low in calcium or vitamin D, smoking,
and excessive alcohol use.
This disease affects women about
50 percent more than men, largely
because of hormonal changes (for
example, postpartum depression that
develops post-pregnancy), or lifestyle
factors (feeling disconnected from loved
ones, a family history of the disease, or
substance abuse). It also can be triggered
by a stressful life event, a history of
childhood abuse, or neglect.
WHAT IS CANCER?
Uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in any
part of the body.
Generally due to
1. chemicals (e.g. From smoking )
3. micro-organisms (e.g. Bacteria, viruses)
Breast cancer, the second-leading cause
of cancer deaths in women, is the disease
women fear most.
Breast cancer can also occur in men, but
it's far less common.
In the last 30 years, doctors have made
great strides in early diagnosis and
treatment of the disease and in reducing
breast cancer deaths.
80% of breast cancers occur in women
older than age 50. In 30s, have a one in
233 chance of developing breast cancer.
By age 85, chance is one in eight.
In 1975, a diagnosis of breast cancer
usually meant radical mastectomy –
removal of the entire breast along with
underarm lymph nodes and muscles
underneath the breast.
HOW IS THE BREAST DESIGNED?
1. Chest wall.
2. Pectoral muscles.
3. Lobules (glands that
4. Nipple surface.
6. Lactiferous duct tube
that carries milk to the
7. Fatty tissue.
THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM
Lymphatic System which consists of vessels and
organs plays two vital roles in our lives:
1) The vessels essentially maintain interstitial
fluid levels by carrying excess fluids as well as
any plasma proteins, back into the CVS.
2) The organs, house critical immune cells such
lymphocytes which carry out our body defense
Most of the lymph vessels of the breast
Lymph nodes under the arm (auxiliary
Lymph nodes around the collar bone
(supraclavicular and infraclavicular lymph
Lymph nodes inside the chest near the
breast bone (internal mammary lymph
TYPES OF BREAST CANCER
DUCTAL CARCINOMA IN
Forms in the
tissues of the
RISK FACTORS IS CATEGORISED IN ,
1. MODIFIABLE FACTORS
2. Uncontrolled factors
FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTES TO
3. Genetic risk factors
4. Family history
5. Personal history of breast cancer
Dense breasts tissue
Certain benign (not cancer) breast
Breast radiation early in life
Gender: more prevalent in women.
Age: The chance of getting breast
cancer goes up
as a woman gets older.
Over 80% of all female breast
cancers occur among women aged
GENETIC RISK FACTOR:
Women Who Carry The BRCA1 And BRCA2 Genes
Have A Considerably Higher Risk Of Developing
Breast cancer risk is higher among
women whose close blood relatives
have this disease.
Personal history of breast cancer:
A woman with cancer in one breast
has a greater chance of getting a new
cancer in the other breast or in
another part of the same
Overall, white women are slightly more
to get breast cancer than African-
African-American women, though, are
likely to die of breast cancer.
Asian, Hispanic, and Native-American
Dense breast tissue: Dense breast
there is more gland tissue and less
Certain benign (not cancer) breast
Women who have certain benign
changes may have an increased risk
of breast cancer.
Menstrual period: Women who began
periods early (before age 12) or who went
through the change of life (menopause)
the age of 55 have a slightly increased risk
Breast radiation early in life: Women
have had radiation treatment to the chest
Not having children or having them
later in life.
Certain kinds of birth control
Using hormone therapy after
Being overweight or obese
Tobacco smoke: Smoking may
increase the risk of breast cancer.
Night work: A few studies have
suggested that women who work at
night have a higher risk of breast
The veteran beauty was
diagnosed with breast cancer
in 2002, when she was 54-
years-old. 6 chemotherapies
and 35 radiations later, she
managed to hold and was
quoted telling bangalore
times: "I don't give up easily.
Even death will have to fight
me." She followed a tight
regime to get back in shape
and can still turn heads with
SIGN AND SYMPTOMS OF BREAST
A lump in a breast.
A pain in the armpits or breast that
does not seem to be related to the
woman's menstrual period.
Pitting or redness of the skin of the
breast; like the skin of an orange.
A rash around (or on) one of the
A swelling (lump) in one of the
An area of thickened tissue in a
One of the nipples has a discharge;
sometimes it may contain blood
The nipple changes in appearance;
it may become sunken or inverted.
The size or the shape of the breast
The nipple-skin or breast-skin may
have started to peel, scale or flake.
STAGING OF BREAST CANCER
The TNM staging system
This system takes into account:
a) the tumor size and spread (T),
b) whether the cancer has spread to
lymph nodes (N) And
c) whether it has spread to distant
organs (M) for metastasis
STAGING OF BREAST CANCER
1. Stage 0
2. Stage I
3. Stage II
4. Stage III
5. Stage IV
Stage 0 : Non – Invasive breast cancer.
Has not spread to breast tissues.
Stage I : ≤ 2cm and has not spread to
Stage IIA: ≤ 2 cm and has spread to
lymph nodes or 2-5 cm and has spread
to lymph nodes.
Stage IIB: 2-5 cm and has spread to
lymph nodes or > 5 cm and has not
spread to lymph nodes.
Stage IIIA: ≤ 5cm and spread to lymph
nodes forming clumps or >5 cm and
spread to lymph nodes without forming
Stage IIIB: Any size and spread to the
chest wall. Swelling.
Stage IIIC: Any size , spread to lymph
nodes, skin and chest wall.
Stage IV: Metastasized
THE MAIN BREAST CANCER
TREATMENT OPTIONS MAY INCLUDE
B. Radiation therapy
C. Biological therapy (targeted
D. Hormone therapy
Guard Yourself means
very special programme
to prevent cervical cancer.
It is a cancer of the female
It is the most common cause of
cancer death in the world where Pap
tests are not available
It is the easiest gynecologic cancer to
prevent through screening and early
WHAT IS THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE
WHAT IS THE CERVIX?
Opening of the uterus
(womb) into the vagina
1.Two cell types present
(squamous and glandular)
2.Cervical cancer tends to
occur where the two cell
WHO IS AT RISK?
Women who have ever had sex
Women who have had more than one
Women whose partner (s) has had
more than one sexual partner
Women who have had a sexually-
Women who do not have Pap tests
1. Women with immune problems including
-Use steroid medications on a regular basis
-Have organ transplant
- Are undergoing chemotherapy
-Are infected with HIV
2. Women who smoke-smoking all by itself
increases the risk of HPV infection and
HOW DO I LOWER MY RISK?
1. Delay onset of sexual activity or remain
2. Know your sexual partner
3. Do not smoke
4. Maintain a healthy diet and lifestyle
5. Practice safe sex. Condoms decrease the
chance of HPV exposure.
6. If eligible, consider getting the vaccine that
prevents most cervical cancers.
7.Get your Pap test and HPV testing as
recommended by your health care provider.
SIGN AND SYMPTOMS
• Bleeding that occurs between regular
• Bleeding after sexual intercourse, douching,
or a pelvic exam
• Menstrual periods that last longer and are
heavier than before
• Bleeding after going through menopause
• Increased vaginal discharge
• Pelvic pain
STAGES OF CERVICAL CANCER
1. Stage I. Cancer is confined to the
2. Stage II. Cancer at this stage includes
the cervix and uterus, but hasn't
spread to the pelvic wall or the lower
portion of the vagina.
3. Stage III. Cancer at this stage has
beyond the cervix and uterus to the pelvic
wall or the lower portion of the vagina.
4. Stage IV. At this stage, cancer has
to nearby organs, such as the bladder or
rectum, or it has spread to other areas of
the body, such as the lungs, liver or
3. Surgical management
a) laser surgery
b) Leep( Loop electrosurgical excision)
on 29th november 2012, it
was reported that manisha
had been diagnosed with
ovarian cancer and
underwent surgery on 10th
december. The surgery was
successful. The bollywood
star gave the performance
of her lifetime by battling
cancer and coming out on
top. She has been cancer
free for almost 2 years
Lets fight against cancer
…..take preventive measures…….
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