1. DISASTER READINESS AND
SHS CORE SUBJECT
PREREQUISITE: GRADE 3 – 10 SCIENCE
Sir Dexter B. Cargullo
2. SUBJECT DESCRIPTION
This course focuses on the application of scientific knowledge and the
solution of practical problems in a physical environment. It is designed to
bridge the gap between theoretical science and daily living.
1. Basic concept of disaster and disaster risk
2. Exposure and vulnerability
3. Basic concept of hazard
4. Earthquake hazard
5. Volcano hazard
6. Other related geological hazard
7. Hydrometeorological hazards
8. Fire Hazard
9. Concept of DRR and DRRM
4. 1.1 Concept of Disaster
5. 1.1 Concept of Disaster
The occurrence of a disaster depends on the interplay
between a natural phenomenon (that can turn into a
hazard) and the vulnerability of population exposed
(exposure and vulnerability).
6. Concept of
When Does a Natural
Event Become a Hazard?
Generally, natural events
become a hazard when it
has the potential to harm
lives (in large quantity).
7. 1.1 Concept of Disaster
When Does a Hazard Becomes a Disaster?
Vulnerability – refers to factors, such as physical, social, economic, and
environmental, that increase the susceptibility to the impact of a hazard.
Vulnerability in this context can be defined as the diminished capacity of an
individual or group to anticipate, cope with, resist and recover from the impact
of a natural or man-made hazard.
A disaster happens when the probable destructive agent, the hazard, hits a
vulnerable populated area.
A natural event like a Vulcanic eruption or tsunami which hits an uninhabited
area does not qualify as a disaster. It becomes a disaster only if it hits
vulnerable population and properties – in short, if there are victims.
9. 1.1 Concept of Disaster
Activity 1.1: Identify whether the following item is a hazard or disaster.
1. A super typhoon with storm surge affecting Leyte.
2. A typhoon passing over remote and unpopulated island.
3. A flood in rural area which floods the roads but does not affect any houses.
4. A volcano erupting in isolation in the middle of the Pacific Ocean.
5. An avalanche in a ski resort.
6. An avalanche high on the mountain and slopes remote from ant settlements.
7. A tsunami wave 5 meters high off the cost of Japan.
8. An earthquake in Davao.
9. A drought and wildfire in Brazil.
10. A landslide in Tiwi last 2018.
10. 1.2 Disaster Risk
Disaster Risk is defined as “the potential loss of life, injury, or destroyed or
damaged assets which could occur to a system, society or a community in a
specific period of time, determined probabilistically as a function of hazard,
exposure, and capacity”(UNDRR)
In the technical sense, it is defined through the combination of three terms: hazard,
exposure and vulnerability.
Disaster Risk is expressed as a function of hazard, exposure, and
vulnerability. It seeks not only to express the chance of the disaster
happening but also to quantify the impact.
11. 1.2 Disaster Risk
The magnitude of the disaster depends on:
Severity of the natural event
The quantity of exposure of the elements at risk which includes lives and properties
Vulnerability level or quality of exposure.
What can be done to lessen the risk of disaster?
12. 1.3 Nature and Effects of Disasters
Being aware of the nature of hazards and what these can
do to people and other elements at risk is the first step in
every effort to minimize the effects of disasters.
Disaster often result from the failure to anticipate the
timing and enormity of natural hazards.
13. 1.3 Nature and Effects of Disasters
Impact of Disasters
Medical effects. The medical effects of disasters include
traumatic injuries, emotional stress, epidemic diseases, and
14. 1.3 Nature and Effects of Disasters
Impact of Disasters
Damage to critical facilities. Widespread disasters can
destroy or damage facilities that may be critical not only in
maintaining a safe environment and public order, but also in
responding to the disaster. (Communication installations,
electrical generating and transmission facilities, hospitals,
water facilities, etc.)
15. 1.3 Nature and Effects
Impacts of Disasters
Disruption of Transportation. During the initial
stages of a disaster, almost all surface means of
transportation within a community are
disrupted by broken bridges and roads and
streets that are rendered impassable by
landslides or floods. The restricted mobility of
vehicles makes rescue and other emergency
16. 1.3 Nature and
Effects of Disasters
Impacts of Disasters
Economic Impact. As a result of
the destruction and damage to
critical facilities, especially to
communication facilities, disasters
disrupt economies as normal
business operations and other
economic activities are curtailed.
17. 1.3 Nature and Effects of Disasters
Impacts of Disasters
Global environmental change. There is increasing evidence
of a global climatic change brought about by both human
activity and disasters. Although the long-range
consequences are hard to predict, more severe cyclonic
storms, and increase in both flooding and drought, and a
trend towards desertification cannot be ruled out. The
changes could result in a wide range of more hazards such
as wildfires and mudslides, reduced productivity in the
oceans, and weakened immune systems of people and
18. 1.3 Nature and Effects of Disasters
Impacts of Disasters
Social and Political Impacts. As a large segment of the
population in developing countries consists the poor, who are
the most valuable whenever a disaster strikes, these counties
are most affected. The poor are the most prone to disasters
because of the structures they live in which are unreinforced
and poorly built.
20. 2.1 Exposure and Vulnerability
Various Elements That May Be Exposed to Hazards
Elements at Risk and Exposure
People, properties, economic activities, and private and public services.
21. 2.1 Exposure and Vulnerability
The social dimension of exposure and vulnerability covers a
wide range of concerns (including migration, social groups,
health and well-being, education, culture, institution, and
governance aspects) but demography is the most important
22. 2.1 Exposure and Vulnerability
The physical aspects of exposure and vulnerability refers to
location and built structures.
Environmental aspect of exposure and vulnerability encompass those
beyond the physical dimension. It includes natural systems such as low-
lying areas, coastal regions, mountainous areas.
24. 2.1 Exposure and Vulnerability
Medical and healthcare facilities
Emergency response facilities
Recreational or tourist facilities
Place of worships
Markets and shopping centers
25. 2.1 Exposure and Vulnerability
Industrial and High Potential Loss Facilities and Facilities
Containing Hazardous Materials
Dams and ponds
Fuel reservoir, pipelines, and pumps
Power generating plant lines
Multipurpose hydropower plants, water tanks, and lines
Food processing facilities
26. 2.1 Exposure and Vulnerability
Highways, bridges, railway tracks, and tunnels
Port and harbor facilities
Airport facilities and runways
27. 2.1 Exposure and Vulnerability
Potable water facilities, waste water facilities, pipelines, and
Oil and natural gas system facilities, pipelines, and distribution lines
Electric power facilities and distribution lines
Communication facilities and distribution lines.
28. Checkpoint! 2.1
Choose three elements from each of the physical element types
listed above. Take note of the location of the items you have
chosen in your community.
Which of these can be affected in case of:
A strong magnitude of earthquake
Analyze the possible consequences of these hazard events to the
physical elements you chose.
Analyze the potential impact for each consequence you have
29. 2.1 Exposure and Vulnerability
Includes business interruptions due to accessibility problem,
loss of jobs and access to work, and loss of government
income due to inability of business and people to pa taxes at
a time when more funds are needed for relief and
30. 2.2Social, Environmental, and Economic Factors
Vulnerability – The degree of loss to each element should a hazard of given
Social. Certain population groups may be more vulnerable than others.
People with disabilities
Women, especially those who are single, single parent, or the unemployed
Ethnic minorities, aboriginal or indigenous people
Homeless or “street people”
31. 2.2 Social, Environmental, and Economic
Factors of Vulnerability
Environmental. Compared with developed countries, developing nation
face more exposure and vulnerability because of their relative inability to
adapt to changes and to create wealth that ay enhance resilience. Rapid
urbanization in hazardous areas heightens vulnerability too disaster risk.
Economic. Economic vulnerability is the susceptibility of individual,
communities, business, and government to absorb or cushion the effects of
a hazard event. Rural household are found to be more vulnerable that
those in urban environment because of the greater number of people
living in poverty. This is tied to be more limited access to market and other
A natural event can be likened to a weak concrete fence that could collapse even with just a slight push. It does not pose a threat to anything or anybody if there is nothing or no one nearby. One you park a car od stand right beside it, it becomes a hazard. The threat of damage, injury or even death now exists.