2. Mohammed Bin Qasim (715 AD)
Mahmud of Ghazni (1000-1027 AD)
The first Islamic Invaders
Source - [Alberuni, ‘Tahkik-i-
3. Muhammad-bin-Qasim was an
Umayyad general who conquered the
Sindh and Punjab regions at a very
young age of 17.
Sind invasion is considered as one of
the world's historic marvels as it led to
the spread of Islam in South Asia and
the Muslim communities in India
Mahmud of Ghazni raided India for the
first time in 1000 AD, and was from
the Abbasid dynasty.
He is said to have conquered India 17
times, till his death.
Between 1009 AD and 1026 AD, the
places that Mahmud of Ghazni invaded
were Kabul, Delhi, Kanauj, Mathura,
Kangra, Thaneshwar, Kashmir,
Gwalior, Malwa, Bundelkhand, Tripuri,
Bengal and Punjab.
He died in 1030 AD, and before his
death, his last invasion of India was in
1027 AD. In 1027 AD, he invaded the
Somnath temple in Gujarat, on the
coast of Saurashtra or Kathiwar. This
was supposed to be his biggest invasion
as he had looted all treasures and
precious items of the fortified temple.
5. Mamluk Dynasty/ Ghulam
Dynasty/ Slave Dynasty
Mamluk means Slaves
10 Rulers in the span of 84 years
First Ruler : Qutb ud-din Aibak
First and last muslim woman to ever
rule Delhi : Raziya Sultan
Indian Feudalism (Iqta) began here
6. Qutub ud-din aibak
The First Ruler of Mamluk Dynasty
source – ‘Tabaqat-i Nasiri’, Minhaj-us-Siraj
‘Taj – ul Maathir’, Hasan Nizami
7. The Ghurid victory in the Second
Battle of Tarain in 1192 between the
Ghurid forces of Muhammad Ghuri and
the Rajput Confederacy of Prithviraj
Chauhan led to the destruction of
Rajput powers for a while and laid the
foundation of Muslim rule in North
India, establishing Delhi Sultanate.
Muhammad Ghori made Aibak
in charge of his Indian territories.
Aibak expanded the Ghurid power in
northern India by conquering and
raiding several places in the
Chahamana, Gahadavala, Chaulukya,
Chandela, and other kingdoms.
Aibak was a native of Turkestan
[Xinjiang province of china]
Aibak was sold into slavery as a child.
He was purchased by a Qazi at
Nishapur in Persia.
He was subsequently resold to
Muhammad Ghori in Ghazni, where he
rose to the position of the officer of the
8. • Hatim – generous
• Jizya was introduced by him
• Lakh baksh – gives daan in lakhs
• Quran Khan – he remembered whole of
• His Guruji’s name was Bakhtiyar kaki
in whose remembrance he made Qutb
• He burnt down the Nalanda university,
• He didn’t introduce new coinage
• He didn’t introduce any kind of
• He did not take the permission of
caliphate/Khilaut to become a king of a
nation, and thus he is called the first
ruler of Ghulam Dynasty, and not the
10. In 1210, Qutb al-Din Aibak died
unexpectedly in Lahore during a sport
game (polo), without having named a
successor. To prevent instability in the
kingdom, the Turkic nobles (maliks and
amirs) in Lahore appointed Aram Shah
[1210-11] as his successor at Lahore.
Iltutmish killed Aram Shah, within a
Iltutmish was a slave of a slave, and
was from Delhi, he changed his capital
from Lahore to Delhi. [he is the
greatest of the slave ruler]
He introduced the silver tanka and the
copper jital – the two basic coins of the
Sultanate period, with a standard
weight of 175 grains.
Iltutmish implemented the iqta system
of administrative grants in the Delhi
Sultanate. This system, borrowed from
the earlier Islamic dynasties of the
Middle East, involved dedicating the
revenues from a certain region to a
subordinate in exchange for military
service and political loyalty.
12. • Iltutmish assigned several regions to his
Turkic subordinates in form Iqtas
(Lands). The larger iqtas - which were
effectively provinces of the empire -
were assigned to high-ranking men,
who were expected to administer the
regions, maintain local law and order,
and supply military contingents in
times of need. The holders of the
smaller iqtas were only expected to
collect revenues from their regions, in
exchange for providing military service
to the emperor. To ensure that this iqta
system remained bureaucratic - rather
than feudal - in nature, Iltutmish
transferred the iqta holders from one
region to another, refused to grant them
legal immunity, and discouraged
localism in administration.
• Both free amirs as well as bandagan-i-
shamsi (slaves appointed by iltutmish)
were used by Iltutmish over an
extended, long process involving
rotation of the iqtas assigned to each
noble every once in a while to ensure
that there was no question of claims on
a specific region by a specific noble.
Besides these, princes were used as
well in almost the same capacity, but in
more important roles
• Iqta – state [iqtadar – military], Shiq
– city[Shiqdar], Pargana – District
[Amir, chaudhary], Gram - village
The Iqta System
(The beginning of feudalism)
14. Born in 1205 as Iltutmish’s daughter.
Was given a sound education by her
Also known as Razia al-Din.
Before ascending to the throne of Delhi
after her father’s death, the reign was
briefly handed over to her half-brother
Rukn ud-din Firuz. But after Firuz’s
assassination within 6 months of his
ascendency, the nobles agreed to place
Razia on the throne.
She was known as an efficient and just
She was married to Malik Ikhtiar-ud-
din Altunia, the governor of Bathinda.
She was reportedly killed by her
Her brother Muizuddin Bahram Shah
16. He was purchased as a slave by Iltutmish.
He was the wazir (political advisor) of the
grandson of Iltutmish, Nasir-ud-din-
After Nasir’s death, Balban declared
himself the Sultan as the former did not
have any male heirs.
He carried military and civil reforms in
administration which earned him the
position of the greatest Sultanate ruler after
Iltutmish and Alauddin Khalji.
Balban was a strict ruler and his court was
the symbol of austerity and strict obedience
to the emperor. He even demanded that
people prostrate before the king with Sijda
He laid out severe punishments to the
slightest of offences by his courtiers.
Punjab saw large-scale conversions during
his rule. He followed 'Iron and Blood' policy
Balbun introduced the 'Divine theory of
After his death, his grandson Qaiqubad
succeeded him at the throne of Delhi.
Qaiqubad died of a stroke in 1290 and was
succeeded by his three-year-old son
Kayumars was murdered by Jalal ud-Din
Firuz Khalji, thus ending the Mamluk
Dynasty to replace it with the Khalji
17. There are in totality 3 Khilji rulers,
but they never ruled for long.
They controlled the Mongol invader
from coming to India by strategic
This Islamic Dynasty spread
through most of India.
19. Malik Feroz, the founder of Khalji
dynasty, ascended the throne on 3rd
June, 1290 as Jalaluddin khilji Firoz
Shah. The Khaljis were Central Asian in
origin but had lived in Afghanistan so
long that they had become different
from the Turks in their customs and
manners. The Muslim population of
Delhi was overwhelmingly Turkish and
did not react favorably to the change.
As a Sultan, he repulsed a Mongol
invasion, and allowed many Mongols to
settle in India after their conversion to
Mongols attacked once again under
Khan. He accepted Islam and was given
sultan’s daughter in marriage. He
settled near Delhi.
Jalal-ud-din Khilji pardoned criminals
whether it was a conspirator or a traitor.
This policy was not appreciated by his
courtiers and nobles. They were
actually exasperated by his kind
behavior. As a result, Jalaluddin Khilji
was killed by his nephew and son-in-
law Alauddin Khilji who succeeded
him as the new king of Khilji Dynasty.
21. He is known as Sikandar II
He excelled in commanding the army. He expanded
the territory of Delhi Sultanate to down south.
During his time the empire extended from Indus to
Bengal and from Himalayas to Vindyas. He defeated
the ruler Raja Ramchandra and forced him to flee to
He also wanted to make another religion in his own
capacity, he wanted to go outside the scope of
Every land that there is which is given in Gift, or
charity, will be Khalsa Land (land of the ruler)
He taxed all the intoxicants, including Madya
(alcohol), and Biri.
He disabled any kind of congregation of Rich people.
He also banned small festivals, (small festivals brings
disharmony in the society) by following the
footsteps of Ashoka.
He also introduced the grand spy system in his
He also introduced Nagad Betan (the yearly salary
which added and the iqta system was destroyed).
He also made Canteen for soldiers, where they
didn’t have to pay any for of tax.
People disliked him for these reason, and thus
Islamic scholars wrote disguided and misguided
history about him.
22. Tughluq Dynasty
1320 – 1415
The Tughlaqs provided three important rulers: Ghiyath-
ud-din Tughlaq, Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq and Firuz
Reign of the dynasty started in 1321 when Ghazi Malik
assumed the throne of Delhi under the title of Ghiyath-
ud-din Tughlaq. After stabilizing his decree in the
capital with the help of Khilji nobles who sided with him,
he expanded his rule to other parts of India. He
launched operations against the Hindu kingdoms of
Deogir, Arangal and Triang. He also tried his luck in
Bengal. He along with his favorite son Mahmud Khan
was killed in an accident when the stage which was
built to give them a reception after their victory,
he dynasty reached its highest point between AD 1330
and 1335 when a military campaign led by Muhammad
24. Taxation in the Doab: The Sultan
made an ill-advised financial
experiment in the Doab between
the Ganges and Jamuna. He not
only increased the rate of taxation
but also revived and created some
additional Abwabs or cesses
Transfer of Capital (1327): It
appears that the Sultan wanted to
make Deogir second capital so that
he might be able to control south
India better. Deogir was named
Daulatabad. However, after a
couple of years, Muhammad
Tughlaq decided to abandon
Daulatabad largely because he
soon found that just as he could not
control south India from Delhi, he
could not control North from
Introduction of Token Currency
(1330): Muhammad Tughlaq
decided to introduce bronze coins,
which were to have the same value
as the silver coins.
Futile plan to conquer Khurasan
Unsuccessful expedition to
subjugate Quarajal-the region
identified as the modern Kulu in
Kangra district of Himachal
25. What he Lost?
Madurai became independent under
Jalaluddin Ahsan Shah. (Reddys and
Gjapatis took over)
Foundation of Vijaynagara empire by
Foundation of Bhammani Kingdom
26. Sayyid Dynasty
This family claimed to be sayyids, or descendants of
the Prophet Muhammad.
The central authority of the Delhi sultanate had been
fatally weakened by the invasion of the Turkic
conqueror Timur (Tamerlane) and his capture of
Delhi in 1398. For the next 50 years, north India was
virtually divided between a number of military chiefs,
the strongest of whom were the Sharqī sultans of
The first Sayyid ruler of Delhi was Khizr Khan (reigned
1414–21), who had been governor of the Punjab.
Ālam Shah last ruler abandoned Delhi for Badaun in
1448, and three years later Bahlūl Lodī, already ruler
of the Punjab, seized Delhi and inaugurated the Lodī,
the last dynasty of the Delhi sultanate.
[Source – ‘Tarikh-i-Mubarakshahi’, Fakhruddin]
27. Lodhi Dynasty
1451 – 1526
Lodī dynasty, (1451–1526), last ruling family of the Delhi
sultanate of India. The dynasty was of Afghan origin. The
first Lodī ruler was Bahlūl Lodī (reigned 1451–89), the most
powerful of the Punjab chiefs, who replaced the last king of
the Sayyid dynasty in 1451.
This expansion involved the conquest of the powerful
kingdoms of Malwa and Jaunpur. Though twice besieged in
Delhi, he finally defeated and partially annexed Jaunpur in
Bahlūl’s second son, Sikandar (reigned 1489–1517),
continued his father’s expansion policy. He gained control of
Bihar and founded the modern city of Agra on the site
known as Sikandarabad.
Sikandar’s eldest son, Ibrāhīm (reigned 1517–26), attempted
to enhance the royal authority. His harshness built up
discontent, however, which led the governor of the Punjab,
Dawlat Khan Lodī, to invite the Mughal ruler of Kabul,
Bābur, to invade India. Ibrāhīm was killed at the first battle
of Panipat (April 21, 1526), whereupon the loose aristocratic
confederacy of the Lodīs dissolved.
28. Ibrahim Lodi
1480 – 1526
The Last Delhi Sultanate
[source - Richards, John F. (August 1965).
"The Economic History of the Lodi Period]
29. • After attaining youth, he proved to be a
very good soldier and general. After the
death of Sikandar, the Afghan Amirs
seated him on the throne unanimously. In
order to avoid civil war and to enhance his
power, these Amirs divided the kingdom of
Sikandar Lodi among his two sons. Ibrahim
Lodi was given the charge of Delhi and
Agra region and the region of Jaunpur and
Kalpi was bestowed on Jalal.
• He was the supporter of the theory of
divine right of kings as propounded by
Balban and Alauddin Khalji. Dr. R.P.
Tripathi has remarked, “He openly
confessed that king has no relations, nor
clan and that all men and clans were his
servants.” In fact, he was destroyed by his
own overweening ambitions.
• Although he was himself an Afghan, he
was ignorant of the feelings of the Afghans.
He forgot that the Afghans regarded the
king first among the equals. He gave up
the policy of his father and grandfather and
tried to impose restrictions on the nobles
• One of his relatives, Daulat Khan, who was
annoyed with him, invited Babur, the ruler
of Kabul for an invasion over India. He
failed to defeat him and was himself killed
in the battle of Panipat in A.D. 1526.