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Kinship UCSP ppt

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Kinship UCSP ppt

  1. 1. KINSHIP
  2. 2. Kinship refers to the “web of social relationships” that humans form as part of a family, which is the smallest unit of society. Ferraro and Andreatta (2010) defined family as “a social and economic unit that consists of one or more parents and their chidren.” There are several points that you can learn from this definition Presentation title 2
  3. 3. 1. A family is a socioeconomic unit. What makes a group of individuals a family is their dependency on one another with regard to their social and economic activities. This implies that the family acts as the primary support group for its members as they participate in the social processes within a society. For this reason, an individual is often disposed to consult with family members during social and economics crises. Presentation title 3
  4. 4. 2. A family can have one or more parents. In the society that you grow up in, a family usually consists of two parents –a father and a mother. However, this is not the norm for other societies who would have one parent, a mother or a father, or multiple parents due to multiple marriages.
  5. 5. 3. A family can have parents who are not married. Although the marriage of parents is important in religious countries such as the Philippines, it is not a prerequisite in other societies. Hence, as long as individuals are socially and economically interdependent, they can be considered a family. This puts into perspective the concept of common law marriage, which is informal union of at least two individuals who present themselves as a couple. In popular context, this is also referred to as cohabitating couples or domestic partners. Presentation title 5
  6. 6. Presentation title 6 4. A family can have parents with same gender. Although same sex marriage is illegal in most countries including the Philippines, some societies allow for the marriage of individuals with the same sex. The United States now allows same sex marriages, which create families with either both female or both male.
  7. 7. 5. A family should have at least one child. One of the most crucial elements of a family is the existence of children. Without a child, a couple remains to be a couple and not a family.
  8. 8. Presentation title 8 fig 8.1. Symbols in kinship diagrams
  9. 9. 9 fig 8.2. families of procreation and orientation
  10. 10. Kinship by Blood 10 • One factor that allows an individual to identify another individual as a family member is through consanguinity, popularly called as blood relatives. This type of kinship links individuals based on their genetic realtions (i.e., their bloodline). This is referred to as descent or the socially accepted connection between an ancestor and its succeeding generation. • kinship connections are perceived to be of great importance in in some societies. Due to this, descent rules are created and followed. In anthropology, there are four main descent rules that are recognized.
  11. 11. Presentation title 11 Unilineal Descent This allows an individual to be affiliated to the descent of one sex group only – either the male or the female. There are two types of unilineal descents: matrilineal and patrilineal. Matrilineal descent leads an individual to trace kinship relations through the female’s line. This implies that the surname and inheritances of a family are passed on from one female to the other.
  12. 12. Fig 8.4. Young Minangkabau women attending a high-status wedding Fig 8.3. Matrilineal descent group
  13. 13. In patrilineal descent, an individual traces his or her kinship through the male’s line only. This promotes a passing down of name and inheritance to the male offspring only, whiole allowing the female offspring to be part of another family through marriage. This is also referred to as agnatic descent. A lot of societies in Asia are partrilineal. The most popular are the Chinese who are highly partrilineal, enforcing a strict kinship relations traced through the male’s line. Fig 8.5. Traditional Chinese Family 13
  14. 14. Figure 8.6 shows that the darker color is passed down to all offspring by the males. Presentation title Fig 8.6. Partrilineal descent
  15. 15. An expansion of unilineal descent groups creates a kinship group called the clan. This type of kinship is observed among groups of people who believe that they have unilineal relationship based on a common ancestor. The primary difference between a clan and the earlier unilineal descent groups is that individuals from the former cannot specify their actual relations.
  16. 16. This commonly members the ancestor as a mythical figure. Among Native Americans, ancestors are often ascribed animal characteristics. These clan originates are labelled in anthropology as totems. Hence, clan members use animal symbols to represent their group. In North America, totem poles are erected by Native American clans as a form of remembrance of their family’s past. Fig 8.7. Totem Pole in Canada
  17. 17. Fig 8.8. Seal of the Lenape The final type of unilineal descent group is called moiety. Although similar with phratries in having multiple clans within it, a moiety differs from a phratry in its function of creating a sustainable systemic balance within a society. A society can be divided into two distinct moieties that perform reciprocal responsibilities with one another. This characteristics ensures equality of access to economic and political values. The kariera of the Austrialian aborigines practices a kinship system that allows for the intermarriage between moieties, ensuring a stronger bond between the two groups.
  18. 18. • Unlike the unilineal descent that tends to focus on one line of a kinship, bilateral descent allows an individual to trace kinship ties on both sides of the family. This means that an individual can recognize both his or her parents’ relatives as his or her own relatives. In this type of kinship, everyone knows how he or she is connected to everyone. This provides a limit on the extent by which kinship ties can be recognized. Hence, unlike in a unilineal descent that can trace relations to several generations from the point person (Ego), bilateral descent can only trace Ego’s immediate family.
  19. 19. In some cases, ties with the nuclear family can be extended to family members of the spouses. This kinship grouping is called kindred. As this type of group is often united by a common relative, it risks of dissolution when connections to the common relative is lost. For example, if a spouse dies, the connection between the living spouse and the deceased family may be served, which results in the dissolution of the kindred group. Most families in the Philippines practice bilateral descent grouping.
  20. 20. Fig 8.9. Kinship diagram of a bilateral descent group
  21. 21. • Marriage is defined as the “socially or ritually recognized union or legal contract between spouses that establishes right and obligations between them,between them and their children, and between them and their in-laws” (Haviland et al., 2011). It is believed that all societies have a form of marriage that makes it a cultural universal. Presentation title 21
  22. 22. • cultural variation produces differing perspectives and practices of relating to marriage. The Tsimane of Bolivia practices an alternative perspective wherein “a couple is considered married if they sleep together under the same roof in a socially recognized way for more than just a brief period of time” (Winking, 2005). Presentation title 22
  23. 23. Using a functionalist perspective, marriage serves several functions. First, it regulates mating and reproduction. Second,it creates a system that allows for sexual division of labor. Third, it provides for a family dynamics that ensures the provision of needs of the children. Last, it perpetuates economic institutions that are based on family systems. There are four types of families based on marriage systems: patrifocal and matrifocal, monogamous, polygamous and extended. Fig 8.10. A Tsimane husband with his two wives and children 23
  24. 24. PATRIFOCAL AND MATRIFOCAL Presentation title 24 • This type of family is focused on one parent; a father( patrifocal ) or a mother( matrifocal ). This type of family is often associated with the terms patriarchal, the rule of the father, and matriarchal, the rule of the mother. It doesn’t solely imply that there is only one parent. In some situations, one parent is deemed more important than the other due to the economic or political positions he or she holds in the family and in society.
  25. 25. 25 This type of the family consists of a single couple and their child or children. This is also referred to as the nuclear family. Most societies in the world have this type of family. Serial monogamy occurs in societies where remarriage is allowed after divorced or death of the other spouse. POLYGAMOUS This type of family consists of several parents and their children. This is also referred to as the nuclear family. There are two types of polygamy: polyandry and pologyny. Polyandry is a marriage pattern wherein a woman is allowed to marry several men. In Tibet, women are allowed to marry several husbands who are at times brothers.This practice is called fraternal polyandry. The primary reason for allowing this practice is the need to preserve land ownership through generation. MONOGAMOUS
  26. 26. Polygyny is a marriage practice that allows a man to marry several women. Most Islamic societies allow this practice. In some cases, these women are sisters, making it a sororal polygyny. This is sometimes preferred to facilitate a less competitive environment in the home, as sisters would normally be more supportive as co-wives than women coming from different families. Presentation title 26
  27. 27. EXTENDED FAMILY This type of family has several married couples and their children living in one household. This can consist of the married parents and their married children living in one house. Filipinos and other Asian societies are known to practice extended family arrangements as a form of securing care for the elderly members of the family. Presentation title 27
  28. 28. •In some cases, rituals allow for the inclusion of individuals into a family. The compadrazgo system that is popular in Spanish-influenced regions of the world is an example of this. In this situation, individuals not originally part of the family are made extended family members by being godparents of a child of one of the actual family members. In the Philippines, this is practiced in our concept of having ninong and ninang for occasions such as baptism, confirmation, and marriage.
  29. 29. RECONSTITUTED FAMILY Though not part of the traditional categories of families, reconstituted families are a growing percentage of household classification in countries allowing divorce and legal separations. Such families consist of spouses and children whom the spouses may have had prior to their marriage or union. In this type of family, the current spouses were previously married and had children. Upon the dissolution of their previous marriages, these individuals remarried ad created a new family by bringing in their children from their past marriages and often birthing their own. Presentation title 29
  31. 31. Presentation title 31 One of the biggest questions that newlyweds have to answer is where to live and build a family after marriage. Every society has its own rules and traditions on post-marital residency. Anthropology has identified seven major residency patterns; patrilocal, matrilocal, avunculocal, neolocal, natalocal, matrifocal, and andambilocal.
  32. 32. Patrilocal Residence upon marriage, the woman is expected to transfer to the residence of her husband’s father. Her children will be raised by her husband’s family and be integrated to their lineage, allowing for the careation of a patrilineal descent. Virilocal residence is a subset of this practice that focuses only on the transfer for the woman from her parent’s residence to that of her husband’s without consideration for the creation of a patrilineage.
  33. 33. Matrilocal Residence upon marriage, the woman is expected to take residence with his wife’s mother’s area. Where they are expected to raise their children and integrate them to the maternal line, creating a matrilineal descent. Uxorilocal residence is a less complex rule that merely requires the husband to move in to his wife’s mother’s household without consideration for the creation of a matrilineage.
  34. 34. Neolocal Residence This is an arrangement that requires both spouses to leave their households and create their own at times even in a different locality. This supports the creation of nuclear households and is commonly experienced in developed and industrialized societies. A nuclear family essentially consists of a parent and a child.
  35. 35. Avuncolocal Residence This is a complex residency pattern as it requires two residence transfers. Upon marriage, the couple practices a form of virilocality and raises their children in the household of the husband’s father. However, upon reaching adulthood, these children will have to be relocated
  36. 36. •With their mother’s brother and live with him and his household which may consist of his wife and young children and the other adult male offspring of his sisters. This practice allows for the creation of patrilineage.
  37. 37. Natalocal Residency This arrangement allows both spouses to remain with their own households after marriage. The couple will have to arrange for meetings as the two are not living under one household. Their children are allowed to choose which household they would join. Should they choose to join their father’s household, they will be integrated in a patrilineal descent. However, if they decide to join their mother’s household, they will be made part of a matrilineal descent.
  38. 38. Matrifocal Residency This type of residency rule arises when the father is economically and physically unable to provide support for the family, thereby ascribing the role of sole provider and caregiver to the woman. In this situation, all of the children reside with their mother who is part of her mother’s household. This is different from the concept of uxorilocality or even matrilocality, as both patterns allow for the cohabitation of the husband and the wife.
  39. 39. Ambilocal Residency This type of residence pattern allows the couple to choose to live either with the wife’s mother’s area of the husband’s father’s area. This often creates an extended family, as several married children and married couples may cohabit in one household.
  40. 40. Transnational Families Due to globalization and transnational movements of people, families tend to practice alternative forms of residency patterns that are not based on lineage perpetuation, but more so on economic reasons such as job offers, educational advancement, and job placements. This creates transnational families or families whose members reside separately across territories. The overseas Filipino worker(OFW) phenomenon experienced by a considerable
  41. 41. •Number of Filipinos contribute to the growing number of transnational families as Filipino parents reside outside the country to work while their children remain in the home country to study.
  42. 42. Politics of Kinship Kinship does not only create social ties among individuals. In some cases, politics and kinship are interrelated, allowing for the creation of political alliances and dynastics. A political dysnasty refers to the continuous political rule of one family. This can be in the form of the succession of rule or in the occupancy of several political positions by one family.