Managing communications by redd f bancien (dr. borge)
2. WHAT IS MANAGING COMMUNICATIONS?
Is the systematic planning, implementing, monitoring,
and revision of all the channels
of communication within an organization, and between
organizations; it also includes the organization and
dissemination of new communication directives
connected with an organization, network,
or communication technology. Aspects of
communications management include developing
corporate communication strategies, designing internal
and external communications directives, and
managing the flow of information,
including online communication.
4. Importance of Communication in Managing People and Org
* Communication is a central activity in most human and organizational activities.
* Communication is one of the important topics of Organization Behavior.
* Effective communication is a prerequisite for implementing organizational strategies as well
as for managing day to day activities through people.
* Managers spend more than three fourths of their time in communicating – exchanging
* Communication is found to make the biggest relative contribution to the effectiveness of
* Or in other words, good communicators are more likely to be adjudged as effective
managers (followers voluntarily listen to them and carry out instructions).
*But is communication the reason and solution to all problems in the world? Certainly not.
*Other issues like motivation, decision making, stress, organizational structure, etc. can also
contribute to problems and therefore can be solutions to problems.
* But, it is to be stated that communication is a central activity in most human and
5. Two-way communication is a
form of transmission in which both
parties involved transmit
communication has also been
referred to as interpersonal
Common forms of two-way
communication are: Amateur
Radio, CB or FRS radio contacts.
6. Problems Associated With Two-Way Communication
* May result in friction, especially when two people hold different views on the same
subject. At the same time, two-way communication can help people understand each
* This type of communication can also lead to cognitive dissonance. When people
receive information that questions their value systems, decisions, or judgments or
contradicts other information they received earlier, they experience internal conflict and
anxiety. This is referred to as cognitive dissonance. People try to eliminate or minimize
the discomfort caused by dissonance by obtaining new information, interpreting the
information in a different way, reversing their earlier decision, or by compromising their
* The sender should be very careful when communicating a message since
communication is a form of self-revelation. When a person speaks, people not only try to
understand the content of the speech but also try to assess his personality. A person
unable to deliver his message in an appropriate way loses credibility. Therefore, a
person involved in the communication process always seeks to preserve his self-image.
While communicating, people try to preserve their self-image. The self-image of a person
is threatened when he receives communication that may be verbally abusive. Although
8. Understanding Nonverbal Communication
It's well known that good communication is the foundation
of any successful relationship, be it personal or
It's important to recognize, though, that it's our nonverbal
communication—our facial expressions, gestures, eye
contact, posture, and tone of voice—that speak the loudest.
The ability to understand and use nonverbal
communication, or body language, is a powerful tool that
can help you connect with others, express what you really
mean, and build better relationships.
11. NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION CUES CAN PLAY FIVE ROLES:
•Repetition: they can repeat the message the person is making verbally.
•Contradiction: they can contradict a message the individual is trying to
•Substitution: they can substitute for a verbal message. For example, a
person's eyes can often convey a far more vivid message than words do.
•Complementing: they may add to or complement a verbal message. A boss
who pats a person on the back in addition to giving praise can increase the
impact of the message.
•Accenting: they may accent or underline a verbal message. Pounding the
table, for example, can underline a message.
16. Body Language
While speaking, people tend to use some body movements, without
even knowing that they are doing so. Their facial expressions and the
way they stand (posture), make gestures with their hands, and move
their eyes and eyebrows send visual signals to the listener. It is
important for everyone, whether he is a sales executive, a top manager
or a politician, to be aware of their body language and to control their
body movements to be successful in their respective careers.
30. Methods of Making Upward Communication More Effective
The techniques described below are used to promote upward communication in organizations.
The grievance procedure
The grievance procedure enables employees to appeal to management and seek redressal of their
grievances. It enables employees to bring their work-related problems to the notice of top management and
protest against the arbitrary actions of their immediate superior. Companies such as General Electric and
Federal Express have set up peer review boards to address the grievances of employees. These peer review
boards consist of three representatives from employees and two representatives from management. Peer
review boards accept grievances from employees, hear the arguments of both parties, and then arrive at a
decision. The parties concerned are then bound by these decisions.
This is an organizational policy that allows employees to approach managers at any time and discuss their
problems with them. Most of the times, this policy is not actually implemented in organizations.
Counseling, attitude questionnaires and exit interviews
The personnel department can conduct nondirective counseling programs to help employees deal with their
work-related problems as well as work and family conflicts. Attitude questionnaires may be administered
periodically to find out employees' attitudes towards the workplace and the work-load. Exit interviews may be
held for the employees quitting the organization to find out their reasons for leaving and their suggestions for
improving the workplace. Valuable information can be obtained through these methods.
33. Lateral Communication
is defined as the exchange,
imparting or sharing of
information, ideas or
feeling between people
within a community, peer
groups, departments or
units of an organization
who are at or about the
same hierarchical level as
each other for the purpose
of coordinating activities,
efforts or fulfilling a
is an exchange of ideas
where both participants,
machine or art form,
are active and can have
an effect on one
another. It is a dynamic,
two-way flow of
38. Common Barriers to Effective Communication:
•The use of jargon. Over-complicated, unfamiliar and/or technical terms.
•Emotional barriers and taboos. Some people may find it difficult to express their emotions and
some topics may be completely 'off-limits' or taboo.
•Lack of attention, interest, distractions, or irrelevance to the receiver.
•Differences in perception and viewpoint.
•Physical disabilities such as hearing problems or speech difficulties.
•Physical barriers to non-verbal communication. Not being able to see the non-verbal cues,
gestures, posture and general body language can make communication less effective.
•Language differences and the difficulty in understanding unfamiliar accents.
•Expectations and prejudices which may lead to false assumptions or stereotyping. People
often hear what they expect to hear rather than what is actually said and jump to incorrect
•Cultural differences. The norms of social interaction vary greatly in different cultures, as do the
way in which emotions are expressed. For example, the concept of personal space varies between
cultures and between different social settings.
49. Chapter Summary
Communication, in general, may be defined as the process by which information is
exchanged between individuals using written messages, spoken words, or gestures. It is a
dynamic, interpersonal process in which an individual modifies his response on the basis of
the behavior of the recipient of the message. The more recently proposed managerial
communication model is based on the modern research findings on communication.
Managers need timely and appropriate information to make sound decisions. Therefore,
communication is essential for the effective functioning of organizations. In the two-way
communication process, a sender or speaker transmits a message to a receiver through a
proper medium and gets feedback from him. Downward communication is the primary
means of organizational communication and is directive in nature. Upward communication
is less frequent and non-directive in nature. Lateral communication or cross-
communication involves communication across the chain of command. Interactive
communication helps employees coordinate their work to achieve overall organizational
Communication need not always involve the exchange of words. Nonverbal communication
refers to the use of non-word human responses like facial expressions and gestures and
the perceived characteristics of the environment through which the human verbal and
nonverbal messages are transmitted.
50. There may be a number of interruptions in the communication process that
act as barriers to communication. These barriers may totally prevent
communication, filter a part of it, or convey the wrong meaning. Filtering,
selective perception, defensiveness and linguistic differences are some of
the barriers to effective communication.
A network refers to a group of people who develop and maintain contact
with others to exchange information of common interest in an informal
manner. The grapevine is an informal network in which information moves
freely in all directions, goes beyond the chain of authority and satisfies the
social needs of organizational members.
Information technology has, to a great extent, revolutionized the
communication process in organizations. A computerized MIS facilitates
faster and efficient communication in organizations. Electronic mail is a
computer-based communication system which allows messages to be
exchanged instantly. Telecommuting involves the accomplishment of all or
part of a person's work at home through computer links to the office.
Though telecommuting benefits employees, organizations and society in
many ways, it can lead to the social isolation of employees working from