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Problem solving and decision-making by TUYIZERE Delphin

  1. Problem-solving and Decision-making TUYIZERE Delphin St-BSC in NURSING
  2. Problem-solving and Decision- making Problem solving and decision making belong together. You cannot solve a problem without making a decision.
  3. 1. Definition Problem solving:Problem solving is the act of defining a problem; determining the cause of the problem; identifying, prioritizing, and selecting alternatives for a solution; and implementing a solution. Decision making :The action or process of making important decisions
  4. 2. Problem solving vs decision- making Problem solving :is an analytical process used to identify the possible solutions to the situation at hand. Making decisions is a part of problem solving. Problem solving is a complex process, and judgement calls or decisions will have to be made on the way. Decision-making is a choice made by using one’s judgement. The art of making sound decisions is a particularly important skill for leaders and managers. You may need to make numerous decisions as part of the problem-solving process. And, of course, leaders and managers will need to use their decision-making skills to determine which solution to pursue. They will also typically need to confirm and set into motion next steps to fix the problem.
  5. 2.1 Problem solving or decision making which is most important? Both problem solving and decision making go hand in hand, but success in one does not automatically lead to the other. Those in leadership and management roles need to understand the difference between the two and aim to make lifelong improvements in both skillsets. Decisions are made when multiple opportunities for action present themselves. You can make decisions, yet never solve the problem.
  6. 2.2 The similarities between problem solving and decision making Problem solving and decision-making are not synonymous with each other, but they are both important skills for leaders to have.  People often use the terms problem solving and decision making interchangeably specifically because they have elements in common. Both problem solving and decision making involve critical thinking.
  7. 3. Steps for Problem Solving 1. Identify the problem 2. Search for alternatives 3. Weigh the alternatives 4. Make a choice 5. Implement the decision 6. Evaluate the outcome
  8. 3. Steps for Problem Solving 1. Identify the problem What are you trying to solve? In addition to getting clear on what the problem is, defining the problem also establishes a goal for what you want to achieve. Input: something is wrong or something could be improved. Output: a clear definition of the opportunity and a goal for fixing itWhere is it happening?
  9. 3. Steps for Problem Solving 2. Search for alternatives What are some ways to solve the problem? The goal is to create a list of possible solutions to choose from. The harder the problem, the more solutions you may need. Input: a goal; research of the problem and possible solutions; imagination. Output: pick-list of possible solutions that would achieve the stated goal.
  10. 3. Steps for Problem Solving 3. Weigh the alternatives Once a number of ideas have been generated, you need to assess each of them to see how effective they might be in addressing the problem. Consider the following factors: • Impact on the organization • Effect on public relations • Impact on employees and organizational climate • Cost • Ethics of actions
  11. 3. Steps for Problem Solving 4. Make a choice: What are you going to do? The ideal solution is effective (it will meet the goal), efficient (is affordable), and has the fewest side effects (limited consequences from implementation). Input: pick-list of possible solutions; decision-making criteria. Output:decision of what solution you will implement.
  12. 3. Steps for Problem Solving 5. Implement the decision: The implementation of a solution requires planning and execution. It’s often iterative, where the focus should be on short implementation cycles with testing and feedback, not trying to get it “perfect” the first time. Input: decision; planning; hard work. Output: resolution to the problem.
  13. 3. Steps for Problem Solving 6. Evaluate the outcome Whenever you have implemented a decision, you need to evaluate the results. The outcomes may give valuable advice about the decision-making process, the appropriateness of the choice, and the implementation process itself. This information will be useful in improving the company’s response the next time a similar decision has to be made.
  14. 4. Decision-making process steps
  15. 4. Decision-making process steps 1. Identify the decision 2. Gather relevant information 3. Identify the alternatives 4. Weigh the evidence 5. Choose among alternatives 6. 6. Take action 7. Review your decision
  16. 4. Decision-making process steps 1. Identify the decision : Clearly define your decision 2. Gather relevant information :Once you have identified your decision, it is time to gather the information relevant to that choice. Do an internal assessment, seeing where your organization has succeeded and failed in areas related to your decision. Also, seek information from external sources, including studies, market research, and, in some cases, evaluation from paid consultants.
  17. 4. Decision-making process steps 3. Identify the alternatives :With relevant information now at your fingertips, identify possible solutions to your problem. There is usually more than one option to consider when trying meeting a goal— for example, if your company is trying to gain more engagement on social media, your alternatives could include paid social advertisements, a change in your organic social media strategy, or a combination of the two.
  18. 4. Decision-making process steps 4. Weigh the evidence: Once you have identified multiple alternatives, weigh the evidence for or against said alternatives. See what companies have done in the past to succeed in these areas, and take a good hard look at your own organization’s wins and losses. Identify potential pitfalls for each of your alternatives, and weigh those against the possible rewards.
  19. 4. Decision-making process steps 5. Choose among alternatives Here is the part of the decision-making process where you, you know, make the decision. Hopefully, you have identified and clarified what decision needs to be made, gathered all relevant information, and developed and considered the potential paths to take. You are perfectly prepared to choose
  20. 4. Decision-making process steps 6. Take action Once you have made your decision, act on it! Develop a plan to make your decision tangible and achievable. Develop a project plan related to your decision, and then set the team loose on their tasks once the plan is in place.
  21. Thank you