2. A design code is a set of illustrated design rules and requirements which
instruct and may advise on the physical development of a site or area.
The graphic and written components of the code are detailed and precise,
and build upon a design vision such as a masterplan or other design and
development framework for a site or area.
DEFINITION OF DESIGN CODES
Introduction to Codes of Practice
• Introduction to various building codes in professional practice
emphasizing the importance of codes and regulations to protect public
health, safety and welfare and to ensure compliance with the local
• Design codes are a new approach to delivering improved quality
development. They help to proactively plan for better design, investing
resources upfront to help streamline later processes.
• Design codes are a distinct form of detailed design guidance comprising
a set of written and graphic rules that establish with precision the two
and three dimensional design elements of a particular development or
4. • Design Codes are delivery tools. To be effective they need to be based
upon a specific design vision for a site or an area.
• Design codes support the culture change in planning and the transition to a
spatial approach to planning
• Codes were introduced into the 1667 Act for the Rebuilding of the City of
London and, amongst other design requirements for new buildings, they
related building types to street types.
• Today, design codes in various forms are used internationally, for example
in Germany, France, the Netherlands, Australia and the United States, as a
means to focus on the delivery of high quality contemporary urbanism.
5. “Building codes are a series of ordinances enacted by a state or local
governmental entity, establishing minimum requirements that must
be met in the construction and maintenance of buildings”.
· The government establishes requirements and standards to protect
people from unsafe living and working conditions.
6. Some of the potential benefits of design codes include:
• Better designed development, with less opposition locally and a more
level playing field for developers.
• Enhanced economic value that a positive sense of place and better
quality design can bring.
• A more certain planning process and linked to this, a more certain
climate for investment.
• Streamlined development control, saving time and money for
developers and local authorities alike.
• A more coordinated development process which is built on consensus
instead of conflict.
7. where can Design codes be applied?
• A design code’s aim is to provide clarity over what constitutes acceptable
design quality for a particular site or area, and thereby provide a level of
certainty for developers and the local community.
• Design codes set out design principles aimed at delivering better quality
places, for example the requirements for streets, blocks, massing and so
forth, or they may focus on landscape, architectural or building
performance issues (for example ,increasing energy efficiency).
• Codes are focussed around those design characteristics that are important
to achieve, and they establish and firmly fix the ‘must have’ design
8. Design codes and relationship to zoning
• Zoning regulations, in their most basic form, are not informed by
urban design considerations which relate to place-making.
• They typically relate to mapped land uses which are supported by
formal site-specific written regulations relating to permissible uses
and development densities, building heights, floorspace ratios,
building lines, parking provision and the proportions of the types of
space on a site.
• In many countries, zoning regulations are also linked to building
9. ✓ Ensure public health and safety throughout a building.
✓ Most have come into play “after-the-fact” as a learning experience
from a major tragedy.
✓ They are primarily concerned with
✓ Construction requirements
✓ Hazardous materials or equipment used in the building
✓ 75% of all codes and standards deal with fire
✓ Energy conservation
PURPOSE OF CODES
10. • The codes includes various aspect for regulation on design & construction
• For Planning Building/Development work
• For Structural Design
• For Constructional aspects
• For Building Services (HVAC, electrical, Acoustics, lifts etc.)
• Plumbing Services (Water supply, Sewerage, Drainage, waste
• Landscaping, signs and outdoor display structures
11. NATIONAL BUILDING CODE
• The National Building Code of India (NBC), (a comprehensive building Code),
is a national instrument providing guidelines for regulating the building
construction activities across the country.
• It serves as a Model Code for adoption by all agencies involved in building
construction works be they Public Works Departments, other government
construction departments, local bodies or private construction agencies.
• The Code mainly contains administrative regulations, development control rules
and general building requirements; fire safety requirements; stipulations regarding
materials, structural design and construction (including safety); and building and
• The National Building Code was first published in 1970 at the instance of Planning
Commission and then revised in 1983. Thereafter three major amendments were
issued, two in 1987 and the third in 1997.
12. • In 1968 A Report on Economies in Construction Cost’ was published by
• It revealed that building bylaws and regulations and some of the
prevailing methods of construction were outmoded; some designs were
over burdened with safety factors; building bylaws of municipal bodies
were outdated etc.
• These resulted in recommendation that a NATIONAL BUILDING
CODE be prepared to unify the building
regulations throughout the country.
• The Bureau of Indian Standards was established with the objective of
harmonious development of standardization activity in India.
13. • This Bureau, Under the Bureau of Indian Standards Act, 1986, established
Indian Standards, by a process of consultation involving consumers,
manufacturers, Government and regulatory bodies, technologists, scientists
and testing laboratories through duly constituted committees
• The first version of the NATIONAL BUILDING CODE was published in
1970. Since the publication in 1970 version of the NATIONAL BUILDING
CODE a large number of comments and useful suggestions for
modifications and additions to different parts and sections of the code were
• The revised version of NATIONAL BUILDING CODE of India was
therefore, brought out in 1983
14. Based on the changes effected in the:
• Steel Code,
• Masonry Code
• Loading Codes
• to update Fire Protection Requirements,
three voluminous amendments were brought out to the 1983 version of the
Code, Two in 1987 and the third in 1997.
In the last about two decades since the publication of the 1983 version of the
Code, substantial further experience had been gained in the areas of the
• Building planning,
• Designing and
15. Intensive efforts involving wide consultative process have resulted in
finalization and publication of the
NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA – 2005
• It is the third revision compiled under the aegis of the Bureau of Indian
• It provides guidelines for regulating building construction activities across
• It has the basic codes for construction materials, services, systems and
16. CONTENTS OF NBC 2005
INTEGRATED APPROACH – PREREQUISITE FOR
APPLYING PROVISION OF THE CODE
DEVELOPMENT CONTROL RULES ANDGENERAL
FIRE AND LIFE SAFETY
CONSTRUCTIONAL PRACTICES ANDSAFETY
LANDSCAPING, SIGNS AND OUTDOORDISPLAY
17. Salient Features of NBC – 2005
• A series of reforms in building permit process.
• Provision for ensuring safety of buildings against natural disaster&
certification of structural sufficiency by engineer & structural engineer.
• Permission of two stage permit for high rise residential and special
• Provision for periodic renewal certificate of occupied buildings from
structural, fire, electrical, health safety point of view
• Provision for empowering engineers/architects for sanctioning plans for
residential buildings up to 500 sqm.
18. • Revision of parking requirements for metro & mega cities. (mega
cities are metros with population more than 50 lacs)
• Up gradation of special requirements for low income housing for urban areas.
• Inclusion of special requirements for low income housing for rural
• Inclusion of guidelines for development planning for hilly areas.
• Revisions of the provisions for building and facilities for
• Promotion to new/innovative building materials/technologies
• Inclusion of latest provisions for earthquake resistant design & construction
• Inclusion of details on multi-disaster prone districts
19. • Inclusion of new chapter on design & construction using bamboos
• Chapter on pre-fabricated & composite construction for speedier
• Up gradation of provision of safety in construction.
• Complete revision of provision on building & plumbing services
in line with applicable international practices.
• Provision on Rain Water Harvesting
• Inclusion of new chapter to cover landscaping needs.
• Basic instrument for regulating all building activities
• For facilitating Planned Development
• For maintaining public health, Public safety and public convenience
PARAMETERS OF BUILDING RULES
External aspects (setbacks, height, etc.)
Building volume (Floor area, Coverage, etc.)
Standards and specifications of construction
Building standards and specifications are given as per the
national building code
21. PARAMETERS OF BUILDING RULES
• PLOT SIZE
• ROAD WIDTH
• SET BACKS
• PLOT COVERAGE
• FLOOR AREA
• PARKING AREA
23. • Development control, planning control, or development
management: is the element through which
• local government regulates bland use and new building.
• It relies on a "plan-led system“ whereby development plans
are formed and the public is consulted.
24. DEVELOPMENT CONTROL RULES
• Regulation is necessary to ensure planned development
• Development Control is the process: that regulates the development and use
• This includes:
• -- the construction of new buildings,
• -- the extension of existing ones and
• -- the change of use of buildings or land to another use.
25. Developing new houses/industrial buildings/shops are important for supporting
economic progress. At the same time, it is also necessary to protect or improve
the quality of towns, villages, countryside, etc.
What are the motives of the Development Control Regulations (DCR)?
The motive of Development Control Regulations (DCR) is that any approved
plan is implemented by individuals and by corporate or by public-sector
developers and thus all new developments should adhere to the terms of the
Why is Development Control Regulations necessary?
Development Control Regulations are a must for every growing city because the
area immediately beyond the city limits is often a source of health risk to the city
and generally under no strict control of the effective local authority.
26. Objectives of the Development Control Regulations
• To stop the unfavourable demand and misuse of land.
• To assist private interest along with public interest in all phases of
• Development control is legal in nature and the planning authority has the
power to punish the defaulters.
• To control and limit overcrowding on land.
• To control the private development as per the required rules in connection to
public safety, health, and convenience.
27. How many types of Development Controls Regulations are there?
• Town and Country Planning Act
• Building Bye-laws
• Land Acquisition Act
• Zoning Regulations
• Slum Clearance Act
• Periphery Control Act
28. • LAND USE CONTROLS
• ZONING CONTROLS
• DENSITY CONTROLS
• HEIGHT CONTROL
• FLOOR AEA RATIO
• SETBACK CONTROLS
29. Key objectives of Zoning
• Zoning proves to be a useful means for making any town planning scheme
effective and successful.
• Zoning supports proper coordination of various public amenities such as road,
electricity, drainage, water connection, transport facilities, etc.
• Rezoning for better uses of land by amending their zoning laws can be
• The town planner gets enough opportunity for designing the future growth
and development of the town.
30. Where is building Bye-laws applicable?
• New construction
• Additions and modification to buildings
• The need for open space
What are the objectives of building Bye-laws?
• The building bye-laws stop reckless development without any similarity to the
development of the area as a whole.
• To give open spaces, noise, air breeze, smoke, and manage safety against fire,
• To control land development keeping in mind the bye-laws.
• It becomes more accessible to pre-plan the building activities and provisions
of bye-laws, give directions to the designing architect or engineer.
• Material types of control
31. What are the controllable factors under DCR?
• Floor Space Index (FSI)
It is the ratio between the total built-up area and the plot area available. It is
authorized by the government for a particular locality. It principally describes
the ratio of the total covered area of construction to the total plot size. It is
sometimes termed as floor space compensation ratio (FSR), floor area ratio
(FAR), site ratio or plot ratio. FSI rules are usually based on the National
As per the new DCR rules, balconies, stairs, voids, and corners are calculated in
FSI and to compensate for the loss, the government has allowed compatible FSI
up to 35% for residential and 20% for commercial developments.
32. Parking space
There is a specified space for parking in residential, commercial and educational
institutions as per the set laws in different States. However, as per the norms, the
ideal parking size should be a minimum of 2.5 x 5.5 sq.m. (Motor Vehicle), 1.2-
3 sq.m. (2 Wheeler), 3.75 x 7.5 sq.m. (Transport Vehicle).
Size of plots
As per the DCR, the size of plots appropriate for residential development varies
according to the income level of residents. The ideal size conditions under DCR
1. Low-Income Group (LIG) – 135-180 sq.m.
2. Mid-Income Group (MIG) – 216 to 360 sq.m.
3. High-Income Group (HIG) – 486 to 972 sq.m.
33. Structural design and services
The architectural design of a building should be executed as per the directed
norms of the National Building Code of India. The building must hold facilities
of plumbing (for toilet and drinking), protection from electricity, electrical
installation, air-conditioning, lift, etc.
A building with a height of more than 13 meters must have a lift from the
ground floor. The minimum capacity of the lift should be 6-persons.
A building that exceeds more than three floors needs a certificate of approval
from the Fire Department. Besides, every floor with more than 150 sq.m. of
floor area and a capacity of 20+ people should have at least two doorways, along
with a staircase for the fire exit.