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In this report I will be discussing the Knowledge Society Agenda, the pervasiveness of technology, the “Education for All” goals, future national strategic objectives as well as the broad aims of the various national and international initiatives regarding continuous professional development of teachers with regard to teacher competency standards relating to ICTs and professional aptitude.
Knowledge is power as it assists human development and is the basis for political, economic and societal growth and development in a country. A knowledge society is a society that creates, shares and uses knowledge for socio-economic development as well as for the well being of its people. Every individual in society is now a learner and a reflective practitioner.
The four main pillars of a knowledge society are education, Information and Communication Technology (ICT), technology as well as innovation. Throughout this report I will be touching on these four main elements that constitute a knowledge society.
For a knowledge society to be developed, education and innovation are drivers for socio economic development in a context where Information and Communication Technology enables both innovation and education. ICT and education are critical for securing employment in a knowledge society. ICT is used to ensure rapid, cost effective and reliable communication, networking and access to information which in turn is used to enhance productivity, education and development.
A knowledge society is an inclusive society in which everyone should participate and a sustainable society so that the growing use of ICT must support the economy. Globalisation and the changing world economy are driving a transition to knowledge based economies.
Knowledge society bring access to information and new forms of social interaction and cultural expression. Individuals now have more opportunities to participate in and influence development in their societies. Characteristics of knowledge societies are learning organisations whereby knowledge is organised in the form of digitised expertise, media and which have a culture of knowledge production and knowledge utilisation.
Education in a knowledge society should be seen as lifelong learning. Lifelong learning is required to keep pace with a constantly changing global job markets, technologies and knowledge based society.
The knowledge society and widespread use of ICT generates a need for digital skills and competencies for employment, education and training and participation in society. Education is of vital importance in a knowledge society, basic skills can be acquired and it is the foundation for the development of new knowledge and innovation as well as socio-economic development and skill participants in society and the economy. It is also the key driver in expanding the ICT usage. Effective education in a knowledge society must also deal with sharing information, knowledge and other resources. Innovation is the process of creation, exchange and application of knowledge.
ICT is an enabling requirement to support education and innovation for socio-economic development in a knowledge society. It is a critical tool for educating students with the required skills for the workplace, educates students so that they can adapt to work world of continuous technological innovations and make it easier for them to access knowledge. The following picture shows how ICT can be incorporated into education either via communicative media or audiovisual media, (http://btte1234a.blogspot.com/2010/08/higher-thinking-skills-through-it-based.html).
ICT is expanding the range of options available to educational planners in terms of teaching and learning strategies, allows for increases in the transfer of data through increasingly globalised communication systems and connecting growing numbers of people through those networks- therefore geographic distance is no longer seen as a barrier. It enables learning anywhere, anytime, anyhow. With ICT knowledge is not constrained by geographic proximity, it offers more possibilities for sharing, archiving and retrieving knowledge. ICT we now have cheap access to information resources, there has been an explosion in collective sharing and generation of knowledge as a consequence of growing numbers of connected people. ICT has the potential to wide access to educational resources and to improve the quality of learning. The downfall of ICT is tending to accentuate social disparities between rich and poor.
This picture shows what opportunities exist for technology. Namely; it enables relevant personalised and engaged learning, it gives teachers greater insight and more time, it supports agile, efficient and connected education systems, it nurtures powerful communities of learning and it extends the reach of high quality education to all (http://arcangel-sharpbrain.blogspot.com/2012/11/information-technology.html).
This picture was taken from http://www.wharc-online.org/about-us/units/ict-unit/
The last ten years there has been an explosion of innovation in ICT thus providing new technological options that can support education and facilitate teaching and learning. However innovations in technology tend to be much faster than changes in the education system. Trends indicate that wireless technology is becoming more pervasive and cost effective. Furthermore mobile internet centres are being used as a way to reach rural areas. A significant proportion of these developments has emerged as a consequence of the growing availability of high quality, stable broadband internet connections and the rapid growth of Web 2.0 platforms. According to The Guardian, nearly half of the world’s population will have mobile phones by the end of the year.
E-learning continues to grow in importance, the use of new multimedia technologies and the internet to improve the quality of learning by facilitating access to resources and remote exchange and collaboration. New educational methods that are not face to face but are mediated through new communication technologies. For example discussion forums allow sustained ongoing communication between academics and students. Technologies can be applied in a range of ways to support a limitless combination of teaching and learning strategies.
The problems associated with this for people living in countries where such internet access does not exist is significant, but in places where technology is readily accessible people who have grown with access to ICT, will demand that more learning be delivered via laptops, mobile telephones, electronic devices and MP3 Players. The emergence of these technological innovations has tremendous potential to accentuate the digital divide within education, benefiting those with access to ICT (whether it be hardware or internet connections or information literacy) and marginalising those without such access. Digital inclusion has become important as it seeks to examine factors that may limit participation in a knowledge society.
The “Education For All” goals are hoped to be achieved by the year 2015. There are six “Education For All” goals.
The six Education for All goals are to expand on early childhood care and education, provide free and compulsory primary education for all, promote learning and life skills for young people, increase adult literacy by 50%, achieve gender parity and improve the quality of education.
The 6 Education For All Goals are early child education, universal primary education, learning needs, improving adult literacy, gender parity and equality in education and the quality of education, (http://efareport.wordpress.com/2013/02/20/equity-in-education-post-2015-how-do-we-get-there/).
The proposed Education for All goals state that by 2030 all children should complete primary education so they can become productive society members. Secondly the need to provide high quality education for all is imperative, (http://efareport.wordpress.com/2013/02/20/equity-in-education-post-2015-how-do-we-get-there/).
The growth of knowledge societies has placed an increasing emphasis on the need to ensure that people are information literate. Education systems are faced with the need to provide formal instruction in information and technological literacy and create meaningful content with today’s tools.
“Education systems need to place increased emphasis on key basic and advanced skills if they are to produce skilled people to meet changing economic demands,” (Levy & Murname, 2006). Key basic and advanced skills include skills such as global awareness, critical thinking, collaboration, media fluency, problem solving, information literacy, effective writing and innovation, (http://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/LeaderTalk/2009/03/the_need_for_21st_century_curr.html).
The ability to read becomes important when people must process new information to learn new routines and when society relies heavily on text to disseminate information rapidly. The faster pace of change has also increased demands for writing, employees need to document solutions to new problems and the reliance of email to exchange information rapidly requires the ability to write clearly and persuasively.
Historically learning has relied on printed materials to deliver content. Now with the advent of ICT and its rapid and cost effective publishing opportunities this is no longer the case. All citizens can now publish learning materials in electronic formats and content can be updated regularly. Technology now makes available Open Education Resources (OERs) which are educational resources that are freely available for use by educators and learners, they hold the potential for reducing the cost of accessing educational materials. OERs have the potential to build capacity by providing educators access to develop their competence in producing educational materials and completing the necessary instructional design to integrate such materials into high quality programmes of learning. OER provides a structured opportunity to engage academics in structured processes that build capacity to design and deliver high quality higher education programmes without increasing the cost.
ICT use in education to build a knowledge society is not about teaching ICT literacy. ICT literacy is how to operate technology. It should be about fostering higher order skills. Higher order skills can be defined in this sense as knowing and understanding what is means to live in a digitised and networked society as well as the use of digital technology in everyday life.
The 21st Century requires learners to attain higher order skills these include learning skills as well as learning technologies, (http://www.stgeorgescollege.edu.pe/pg-en/educating-for-the-21st-century.php).
If societies are to harness ICT to build knowledge societies, the implications is that there will be changing skill requirements for students. We need to ensure that the learners and the workforce are information literate, have these higher order skills. Thus universities and employers are faced to provide formal instruction in information and technology literacy. This requires employers to continue in training and professional development practices.
The use of ICT as a tool in reducing poverty, extending health services, expanding educational opportunities and improving the quality of life.
Ensure that processes integrating ICT into education creating learning environments where one can build high quality education, by matching the choice of technology to the learning outcome and mixing media and technologies to achieve the learning objectives. The focus should be to narrow the digital divide this involves digital inclusion. Therefore legislation is required that telecommunication companies target under-serviced areas where infrastructure is weak. Education is a lifelong activity that cuts across different learning generations and life spheres and can no longer be confined to educational institutions alone.
In South Africa, “policy moves which introduced special education rates (e-rates) have facilitated ICT access to schools and colleges,” (Adam, 2003). However the use of ICT in education is seen to advantage schools in urban areas where infrastructure is best, thus impacting issues of equity. The government in South Africa has expressed its commitment to the knowledge society by focusing on policy and development of ICT in five main areas of e-Government: e-Health, e-Education, Small, Micro and Medium Enterprises and content development. Several projects are underway in these areas. For example, in e-Government, South African Revenue Service’s e-filing system (http://pnc.gov.za).
Teacher training is essential for educators to use ICT effectively for teaching and learning. Fully integrating technology into teaching and learning requires well-qualified educators. Teachers need ICT literacy skills as well as how those skills can be applied pedagogically – how they can use these skills to plan lessons and use technology for teaching and learning. For effective ICT deployment in education, a holistic approach to professional development should focus on ICT for enhancing teaching and learning. ICT should be integrated into the curriculum.
A new paradigm is emerging that replaces training with lifelong professional development of teachers. This approach includes three dimensions. Pre-service focusing on the initial preparation of pedagogy that provides teachers with a foundation of knowledge, competency in teaching and proficiency in using a variety of educational resources including technology. In-service, which consists of workshops and short courses that offer opportunities for acquiring new skills in the use of technology in the classroom and ongoing formal and informal pedagogical support for teachers as they address their daily challenges.
The UNESCO Planning Guide for ICT in teacher education has three key principles for effective ICT development in teacher education: Technology should be infused into the entire teacher education programme, it should permeate all courses in the programme, technology should be introduced in context and dealt with as the need arises in all courses of the teacher education programme, students should experience innovative technology supported learning environments in their teacher education programme, they should see their lecturers engaging in technology such as PowerPoint or simulations in lectures. The application of these principles will go a good way toward integrating ICT into teacher education.
Please note that many teachers may be more willing to participate in professional development activities if they are given time off from school to train and if their training expenses are paid for or if they are considered for promotion because they are ICT compliant. Furthermore communities of practice can provide sustained platforms where teachers share resources that enhance their curriculum, get peer reviews of lesson plans they have created and exchange ideas with other teachers. Communities of practice can be formed through online networks, this could involve teachers from other schools locally or globally.
There is interest in participatory approaches to professional development where educators are involved in designing their own professional development and would share materials and ideas and discuss challenges and solutions. This approach will help teachers to be model life –long learners. As students learn the skills of using ICT in education, professional role of teachers as mentors (able to impart the wisdom that only experience can provide) grows in importance. Teachers as mentors, must encourage students to become creators in the educational and professional environments.
Teacher training programmes should consist of 4 basic stages namely; the survival stage which is the emerging stage, the mastery stage whereby professionals apply the skills they have acquired, the impact stage and the innovation stage. The innovation stage at using ICTs is where transformation comes in and teachers can be creative and innovative with technology.
Teacher training programmes must foster mentorship. Teachers must not use chalk and talk methods in the classroom but become mentors and facilitate learners to achieving the necessitated outcomes.
Internationally, the need to provide quality education for all learners has motivated countries to develop plans focused on the use of ICT for teaching and learning. ICT in education can lead to participation in a global knowledge economy
For example Kenya’s National Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Strategy for Education recognises that “an ICT literate workforce is the foundation on which the nation will become a knowledge-based economy... Education is a platform for equipping the nation with ICT skills in order to create dynamic and sustainable economic growth.” Kenya envisages that the use of ICT will help the country to meet the objectives of Education For All.
Egyptian Information Society Initiative intends to exploit e-learning applications to spread knowledge using the internet. “Objective is to improve education in Egypt through effective the use of ICT,” (Czerniewicz).
In African contexts where the socio-economic conditions are vastly different from developed economic societies, the following require consideration, access to reliable electricity, access to efficient transport networks, access to a functional institution (in terms of secure buildings to house the ICT equipment) and their human resourcing to manage ongoing technology maintenance. Recognising these basic pre-conditions is not intended to imply that no investment in ICT can be made but these basics require attention, particularly in rural areas and without which ICT use is simply not possible.
In the above essay I have discussed what the Knowledge Society Agenda is, the pervasiveness of technology, the “Education for All” goals, future national strategic objectives as well as the broad aims of the various national and international initiatives regarding continuous professional development of teachers with regard to teacher competency standards relating to ICTs and professional aptitude.
Adam, L. (2003). Information and Communication Technologies in Higher Education in Africa: Initiatives and Challenges. JHEA/RESA Vol 1, No.1, pp. 195-221.Czerniewicz, L. (ed). 2007. Report on Higher Education ICTs and e-Learning in Egypt, p.4. Cape Town: CETKenyan Ministry of Education (June 2006). National Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Strategy for Education and Training, p.3.Levy,F. & Murname, R. 2006. How Computerized Work and Globalisation Shape Human Skill Demands. Unpublished paper. McCausland, H., Wache, D. & Berk, M. (1999). Computer literacy; its implications and outcomes. A case study from the Flexible Learning Centre. University of South Australia. p.2
New Zealand Ministry of Education. Enabling the 21st Century Learner: The e-Learning Action Plan for Schools 2006-2010. Retrieved from: http://www.minedu.govt.nz/index.cfm?layout=document&documentid=10475&indexid=6918&intdexparentid=1024 The PNC on ISAD, http://www.pnc.gov.za
Dawn ingrid atkins 201002868
Dawn Ingrid Atkins 201002868
IntroductionA. Knowledge Society AgendaB. Pervasiveness of TechnologyC. “Education for All” GoalsD. Future National Strategic ObjectivesE. Aims of Initiatives Regarding Professional Development of Teachers (with regard to ICTs)
A. Knowledge SocietyKNOWLEDGE = POWER! Human development Political, economic, societal growth http://www.otterbein.edu/resources/library/information_literacy/index.htmKnowledge Society- is a society that creates, shares & uses knowledge for socio-economic development & citizen‟s well being
4 Pillars of a Knowledge Society Education Knowledge Innovation ICT society Technology
How do these pillars contributeto a Knowledge Society ? ICT enables Innovation & Education ICT ensures rapid, cost effective & reliable communication; networking; access to information Which enhances education, development, productivity Education & Innovation drive socio economic development Education & Socio-economic ICT Innovation Development
KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY is an inclusive & sustainable societyInclusive Society Sustainable Society Everyone participates Use of ICT supports economy Globalisation Changing world economy
Characteristics of Knowledge Societies Access to information New forms of social interaction Cultural expression Opportunities to participate in society Learning organisations- knowledge is organised in digitised form media culture of knowledge production& knowledge utilisation
Educationin a knowledge society•Life long•Keep pace with : • Changing job markets • Technology
Importance of Education in Knowledge Society Use of ICT – need digital skills & competencies Acquire basic skills through education Skilled participants in society & economy Foundation for development of new knowledge & innovation Socio-economic development Expand use of ICT Sharing knowledge & resources
ICT and EducationICT is a tool for educating students Skills for workplace Adapt to technological innovations Easier access knowledgehttp://btte1234a.blogspot.com/2010/08/higher-thinking-skills-through-it-based.html
Pro’s and Con’s of ICT Advantages Disadvantages Variety of teaching & learning Accentuates social strategies disparities Globalised communication systems Connect people = networks Not constrained by geographic proximity Sharing, archiving, retrieving knowledge Wide, cheap access to resources Improve quality of learning
The Opportunity for Technology Enables relevant personalised, engaged learning Greater insight Connected education systems Communities of learning High quality education http://www.wharc-online.org/about- us/units/ict-unit/
B. Pervasiveness of Technology Last 10 years= explosion in ICT (new technologies) Facilitate teaching & learning Innovations in technology are faster than changes in education system (disadvantage!!!!) Wireless technology is more pervasive & cost effective Mobile internet used reach rural areas http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2008/sep/26/mob ilephones.unitednations
Pervasiveness of Technology cont...Improve the quality of learning E-learning Multimedia technologies InternetHow do they improve the quality of learning? Access to resources Remote exchange & collaboration Discussion forums Limitless combination of teaching & learning strategies
Pervasiveness of Tech cont... Advantages Disadvantages People with access to Benefits those with access technology to ICT demand learning via Disadvantages people who laptops, mobile telephones, do not have internet access electronic devices, MP3 Marginalising those without Players access =Digital Divide SOLUTION!!!!! Digital Inclusion
C. “Education For All” (EFA) Goals Achieved by 2015 6 EFA Goals http://rheasport.com/category/fifa/
6 Education For All GoalsGoal DescriptionGoal 1 Expand early childhood care and educationGoal 2 Provide free and compulsory primary education for allGoal 3 Promote learning and life skills for young peopleGoal 4 Increase adult literacy by 50%Goal 5 Achieve gender parityGoal 6 Improve the quality of education
Education For All in a Knowledge Society Need people who are information literate Education systems must provide formal instruction in: Information literacy Technological literacy Create meaningful content with today‟s tools http://www.otterbein.edu/resources/library/information_literacy/in dex.htm
Education = provider of skills“Education systems need to place increased emphasis on key basic and advanced skills if they are to produce skilled people to meet changing economic demands,” (Levy & Murname, 2006). http://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/LeaderTalk/2009/03/the_need_f or_21st_century_curr.html
What skills are required in a knowledge society??? Ability to read Ability to write clearly & persuasively
EFA in the past & present Past Present Printed ICT materials (limited) OERs
EFA in past & present Historically learning relied printed materials to deliver content NOW!!!! We have ICT!!!!!!!!! Rapid & cost effective publishing Publish materials in electronic format Updated regularly Access to Open Education Resources (OERs)
Open Education Resources (OERs)Advantages Freely available Reduced cost Develop educator‟s competence in producing educational materials Allow educators to complete the instructional design to integrate materials into high quality programmes of learning Structured process that build capacity to design & deliver high quality programmes.
ICT, Education & Knowledge Society Knowledge society Education ICT literacy, ICT higher order skills
Higher order skills Knowing & understanding what it means to live in a digitized & networked society How to use digital technology in every day life http://www.stgeorgescollege.edu.pe/pg-en/educating-for-the- 21st-century.php
New skill requirements for learners and the workforce Higher order skills Information literacy Technology literacy Knowledge Education ICT societies
D. Future National Strategic Objectives National Strategies relating to ICT: Reduce poverty Extend health services Expand educational opportunities Improve quality of lifehttp://www.integrallc.com/2012/06/12/ict-indaba-2012-africas-agenda-for-ict-growth/
Future National Strategic Objectives cont... High quality education • Match technology to learning outcome • Mix media & technologies Narrow the digital divide = Digital inclusion • Target under-serviced areas • Improve infrastructure Education is lifelong activity Education must not just be confined to educational institutions
Current developments in South Africa Special education rates (e-rates) ICT access in educational institutions However, use of ICT is seen to advantage urban schools with infrastructure- EQUITY? SA government‟s commitment to knowledge society (main areas): E-Health E-Education SMMEs Content development
E. Aims of initiatives regarding professional development of teachers - ICTs Teacher training Holistic approach- ICT for enhancing teaching & learning Use ICT effectively for teaching & learning How to integrate technology into teaching & learning ICT literacy skills How these skills can be applied pedagogically.
Aims of professional development of teachers & ICTs Training replaced with lifelong professional development of teachers. 3 dimensions:Pre-service •Preparation on pedagogy •Knowledge, competency in teaching •Proficiency in using educational resources (technology)In-service •Workshops/ courses •Acquire new skills (using technology in class)Ongoing formal •Assist teachers daily challenges they face& informalsupport
UNESCO Planning Guide forICT in Teacher EducationTeacher Education Programmes: Technology must be gradually introduced into the entire teacher education programme. Technology used in all courses Used in context innovative technology- supported learning environments PowerPoint or simulations in lectures
UNESCO Planning Guide forICT in Teacher Education cont...In-Service teachers More will participate in professional development Given time off from school to train Training expenses are paid for Considered for promotion (ICT compliant)Ongoing Formal and informal pedagogical support Communities of practice Teachers share resources, peer reviews, exchange ideas Formed through online networks locally & globally
UNESCO Planning Guide cont.... https://edutechdebate.org/teacher-professional-development/the-contextualization-and- implementation-of-a-teacher-competency-framework-for-ict4e-in-guyana/
Aims of initiatives regarding professional development of teachers Participatory approaches to professional development Educators involved in designing own professional development Share materials, ideas, discuss challenges & solutions Teachers model life long learning Teachers become mentors Encourage students to become creators in the educational & professional environments
Professional Development of Teachers – Teacher programmeshttp://tojde.anadolu.edu.tr/tojde35/articles/article_14.htm
Initiatives regarding professional development of teachers Internationally- provide quality education for all Develop plans use of ICT for teaching & learning ICT in education can lead to participation in global knowledge economy
Initiatives regarding professionaldevelopment (Internationally)Kenya ICT literate workforce= knowledge based economy Education equips the nation with ICT skills Creates sustainable economic growth ICT will help meet the Education For All objectives http://www.techsavvy.or.ke/magazine/2012/08/14/kenya- becomes-the-first-african-beneficiary-of-ibm-research-lab/
Initiatives regarding professional development (internationally)Egypt E-learning“Objective is to improve education in Egypt through effective the use of ICT,” (Czerniewicz).http://www.secc.org.eg/RECOCAPE/Media.html
Aims of the Initiatives regardingprofessional development cont...The plan to achieve ICT integration into the curriculum is an essential skill in a“time of rapid social, cultural, economic, technological & global change,”New Zealand’s Enabling the 21st Century Learner.
Aims of the Initiatives regardingprofessional developmentAfrica Socio-economic conditions are vastly different from developed countries Take into consideration (need this before we can invest in ICT) Access to reliable electricity Access to efficient transport networks Access to functional institution (house ICT) Human resourcing (maintenance) http://euroafrica-ict.org.sigma- orionis.com/events/forum_sponsors.php
Conclusion Knowledge society Pervasiveness of Technology EFA goals Future national strategic objectives Broad aims of various initiatives regarding professional development of teachers relating to ICTs.
ReferencesAdam, L. (2003). Information and Communication Technologies in Higher Education in Africa: Initiatives and Challenges. JHEA/RESA Vol 1, No.1, pp. 195-221.Archangel-Sharp Brain. Information Technology. Retrieved from:http://arcangel-sharpbrain.blogspot.com/2012/11/information-technology.htmlCzerniewicz, L. (ed). 2007. Report on Higher Education ICTs and e-Learning in Egypt, p.4. Cape Town: CETEducation Week. The need for 21st Century Curricula here in Iowa (and elsewhere). Retrieved from: http://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/LeaderTalk/2009/03/the_need_for_21st_century_curr.htmlEducational Technology. BTTE 3a. Retrieved from:http://btte1234a.blogspot.com/2010/08/higher-thinking-skills-through-it-based.html Accessed on: 22 February 2013.Educational Technology Debate: Exploring ICT and learning in Developing countries. Retrieved from: https://edutechdebate.org/teacher-professional-development/the-contextualization-and- implementation-of-a-teacher-competency-framework-for-ict4e-in-guyana/Elliott, S. 2009. ICT and Today‟s classroom. Retrieved from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hyd5juhfY4g
References cont...Information Literacy. Information Literacy at Otterbein College. Retrieved from: http://www.otterbein.edu/resources/library/information_literacy/index.htmInstitute for Security Studies. African Futures. Retrieved from: http ://www.otterbein.edu/resources/library/information_literacy/index.htmIntegra: ICT Indaba 2012: Africa‟s Agenda for ICT growth. Retrieved from: http://www.integrallc.com/2012/06/12/ict-indaba-2012-africas-agenda-for-ict-growth/Kabakci, I. 2005. A Proposal of Framework for Professional Development of Turkish Teachers with Respect to Information and Communication Technologies. Retrieved from: http://tojde.anadolu.edu.tr/tojde35/articles/article_14.htmKenyan Ministry of Education (June 2006). National Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Strategy for Education and Training, p.3.Levy,F. & Murname, R. 2006. How Computerized Work and Globalisation Shape Human Skill Demands. Unpublished paper.McCausland, H., Wache, D. & Berk, M. (1999). Computer literacy; its implications and outcomes. A case study from the Flexible Learning Centre. University of South Australia. p.2
References cont...New Zealand Ministry of Education. Enabling the 21st Century Learner: The e-Learning Action Plan for Schools 2006-2010. Retrieved from: http://www.minedu.govt.nz/index.cfm?layout=document&documentid=10475&indexid=6918&intdexp arentid=1024The PNC on ISAD, http://www.pnc.gov.zaThe Guardian. Half world‟s population „will have mobile phone by end of year.‟ Retrieved from: http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2008/sep/26/mobilephones.unitednationsRheasport:Archive for FIFA. Accessed from: http://rheasport.com/category/fifa/Women‟s Health and Action Research Centre. ICT Unit. Retrieved fromhttp://www.wharc- online.org/about-us/units/ict-unit/World Education Blog. Equity in Education post-2015: How do we get there? Accessed from: http://efareport.wordpress.com/2013/02/20/equity-in-education-post-2015-how-do-we-get-there/
References cont...St George‟s College. Educating for the 21st Century. Retrieved from: http://www.stgeorgescollege.edu.pe/pg-en/educating-for-the-21st-century.php