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Gymnastics Shoulder and Hip Flexibility Essentials

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PDF slides to "Essentials of Gymnastics Flexibility" a lecture given by Dr. David Tilley. Topics center on shoulder and hip flexibility to increase performance and reduce injury risk.

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Gymnastics Shoulder and Hip Flexibility Essentials

  1. 1. Shoulder Flexibility Essentials for Better Handstands, Bar Lines, and Tumbling 1 Dr. Dave Tilley DPT, SCS, CSCS
  2. 2. 2 All of my lecture PDFs, videos, research articles from this weekend can be found for free via private DropBox Link
  3. 3. 3 Who’s This Clown? • Former Gymnast – USA JO / College • Coaching for 14 years, currently optionals • Doctorate in PT, Board Certified in Sports • Strength and Conditioning Coach • CEO of SHIFT Movement Science • Educator / Researcher / Massive Nerd • Endlessly Grateful
  4. 4. 4 I Feel Your Pain! “How do I help you get full handstand without hurting you?” Information overload + limited progress = coaches who feel frustrated, overwhelmed, stuck
  5. 5. 5 Expectation vs Reality Me making flexibility programs at practice 5 years ago
  6. 6. 6 The Real Reason We Need Better Flexibility… Increased Injury Risk Coaches feel helpless and anxious Missed Practice Time And Meets Mental Blocks Limited Skill Progress Poor Meet Performance Gymnast/Parent worries + =
  7. 7. 7 Thankfully You Can Help! + Patience Communication Group Collaboration More Patience Increases possibility of
  8. 8. 8
  9. 9. 9 Anyone have any peanuts? For the elephant in the room… We can’t shy away from the uncomfortable reality /conversation, injuries and burnout rates are insanely high (our gym included) As a medical provider I have worked with… 34 gymnasts who had serious stress fractures/overuse tears 20 who lost their entire competitive year 4 with major hip/shoulder surgery 8 who quit gymnastics This season.
  10. 10. 10 Screening Soft Tissue Care • Foam Roll • Targeted Stretching Strength • Eccentrics • Balance Control • Full Range • Skill Specific Technique • Basics, Shapes, Drills Culture, Values, Habits
  11. 11. 11 Culture, Values, Habits Do No Harm Consistency > Intensity Science + Coaching Expertise Individuality Happily a Mutt
  12. 12. 12 Screening •Assess, Don’t GuessWhy? •Wall Shoulder ScreenHow? Research Articles [1 – 11]
  13. 13. 13 • Over, under, narrow Shoulder Screen Research Articles Shoulder [ 1 - 9 ] Hip [ 9 – 11 ]
  14. 14. Shoulder Screen
  15. 15. Shoulder range gets worse with front / narrow grip - Focus underarm, upper back, chest muscles then appropriate active flexibility drills All looks good - Focus upper back strength, active flex, technique
  16. 16. 16 Soft Tissue Care • Muscle stiffness develops with more training and during growth spurts Why? • Foam Roll / Lacrosse Ball • Targeted Stretching How? Research Articles Foam Rolling [ 12 – 18] Stretching [ 19 - 30 ]
  17. 17. 17 • 30-60s per area daily • 3-4/10 discomfort • Focus lats, pecs, teres major Foam Roll, Lacrosse Ball • 2x30s per muscle group 5x week • Proper technique, ideally in circuit Stretching Research Articles Foam Rolling [ 12 – 18] Stretching [ 19 - 30 ]
  18. 18. 18 Static Stretching? Active? PNF? Ballistic? Thomas et al 2018 Research Article - [ 30 ] Static seems to be best for increasing flexibility, but all seem effective! - 5 minutes total per week, per muscle group - 2x30 seconds per day - 5-6 days per week 1. Assessment + Consistency > Intensity 2. Proper alignment and technique to bias muscle tissue, not ligaments
  19. 19. Shoulder Soft Tissue Work
  20. 20. 20 Strength • Eccentrics suggested to increase muscle length via research • Balance is crucial to keep flexibility Why? • Eccentrics based on screen • Balanced strength program • Don’t feed the fire How? Research Articles Eccentrics for Flexibility [ 31 – 36 ] Balance Work and Strength for Youth [ 37 – 47 ]
  21. 21. 21 • 2-3x 5 reps - 5s lower • Down slow, help up • Chin Ups / Push Ups Eccentrics • 2-3 sets of 10 -12 • Upper back, rotator cuff • Glutes, hip cuff Strength Balance Research Articles Eccentrics [ 31 – 36 ] Strength Balance [ 37 – 52 ]
  22. 22. Hip and Shoulder Eccentrics
  23. 23. Hip and Shoulder Balance Work
  24. 24. • Caution overworking already stiff muscles Don’t Feed The Fire
  25. 25. 25 Control • Passive flexibility doesn’t automatically transfer to skills • Strength alone also not enough Why? • Active flexibility drills • BasicsHow? Research Articles [ 53 – 57 ]
  26. 26. 26 • 2-3 reps of 10 - 12 • Specific to athlete & skill Active Flexibility • 5 Dimensions of Flat Line • Via Nick Ruddock • Shape Changing Drills Basics Research Articles [ 53 – 57 ]
  27. 27. Hip and Shoulder Active Flex
  28. 28. (credit to many different coaches/gyms!) Basics and Shape Changing Drills
  29. 29. 29 Technique • Without basics and technique it’s hard to make change ‘stick’Why? • Skill Specific technique and drills dailyHow?
  30. 30. 30 • Via everyone • Way too many to show! Skill Specific Drills
  31. 31. 31 So What About Real Life? Screening Soft Tissue StrengthActive Flex Technique, Basics Pick 2-3 that fit for your athletes, time, space, equipment, and then put in circuit 3x Upper (15 min) 3x Lower (15 min) 1-2x/week (30 min)
  32. 32. Shoulder Performance Complex
  33. 33. 33 So what about the REALLY stiff athletes who unfortunately picked the wrong parents? 1. Be a good human 2. Have an honest discussion 3. Gymnastics specific medical assessment for individual program 4. Modify Strength Programs 5. Modify Skill Profiles
  34. 34. 34
  35. 35. 35 Want to Learn More? Download my new e-book for free at http://shiftmovementscience.com/freeresourcelibrary/ 10 Minute Hip and Shoulder Flexibility Circuits Chapter 7 – Flexibility View all of my flexibility ideas onlines www.shiftmovementscience.com/articles
  36. 36. 36 References 1. Andrews, J., Reinold, M., Wilk, K. The Athlete’s Shoulder. Second Edition, 2009. 2. Wilk KE, Macrina LC, Reinold MM. Nonoperative rehabilitation for traumatic and atraumatic glenohumeral instability. North Am J Sports Phys Ther 1(1):1631, 2006. 3. Wilk KE, Arrigo CA, Andrews JR. Current concepts: The stabilizing structures of the glenohumeral joint. J Orthop Sports 4. Phys Ther 25(6):36479, 1997. 4. Wilk KE, Andrews JR, Arrigo CA. The physical examination of the glenohumeral joint: Emphasis on the stabilizing structures. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 25:3809, 1997. 5. Cordasco FA. Understanding multidirectional instability of the shoulder. J Athl Training 35(3):278285, 2000. 6. Andrews, J., Reinold, M., Wilk, K. Current Concepts in the Evaluation and Treatment of the Shoulder in Overhead Throwing Athletes Part 2: Injury Prevention and Treatment. Sports Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach 2(2) 2010. 7. Ehmke, R. S. (2006). Kinetic Anatomy. (2 ed., pp. 3556). Champagne, IL: Human Kinetics. 8. Caplan J., et al. Multidirectional Instability of the Shoulder in Elite Female Gymnasts. Am J Orthop. 2007;36(12) 660 - 665. 9. Rainman, Thornburg. Clinical Examination and Physical Assessment of Hip Related Joint pain In Athletes. ISJPT 9(6) 2014. 10. Weber AE, Bedi A, Tibor LM, Zaltz I, Larson CM. The Hyper Flexible Hip: Managing Hip Pain in the Dancer and Gymnast. Sports Health. 2015 Jul;7(4):34658. 11. Shu B., Safran MR. Hip Instability: Anatomic and Clinical Considerations of Traumatic and Atraumatic Instability. Clin Sports Med 30 (2011) 349-367 12. Cheatham SW, Kobler MJ, Cain M, Lee M. The Effects of Self Myofascial Release Using A Foam Roll or Roller Massage on Join Range of Motion, Muscle Recovery, and Performance: A Systematic Review. 2015. IJSPT; 10(6): 827 - 838.
  37. 37. 37 References 13. Beardsley C, Skarabot J. Effects of self - myofascial release: A systematic review. J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2015. Oct; 19(4): 747 - 758. 14. Schleip, R. Fascial Plasticity: A New Neurobiological Explanation: Part 1. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, 2004. 15. Bialosky, et al. The Mechanisms of Manual Therapy in the Treatment of Musculoskeletal Pain: A Comprehensive Model. Man Therapy 2009. Oct 4 (15). 16. Chaundry H, et al. Three-Dimensional Mathematical Model for Deformation of Human Fasciae in Manual Therapy. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2008;108:379390. 17. Field T. Massage therapy research review. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2016 Aug; 24: 19-31. Morasaka A., Sports massage. A comprehensive review. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2005. Sept; 45(3): 370-80. 18. Best TM., Hunter, Robin DC, et al. Effectiveness of Sports Massage for Recovery of Skeletal Muscle from Strenuous Exercise. Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine: September. 2008; 18(5): 446-460. 19. Weppler CH, Magnusson SP. Increasing muscle extensibility: a matter of increasing length or modifying sensation? Phys Ther. 2010;90:438 - 449. 20. Ben M., Harvey LA. Regular Stretch does not increase muscle extensibility: a randomized control trial. Scand J Med SCi Sports, 2010: 136 - 144. 21. Konrad A, Tip M. Increased range of motion after static stretching is not due to changes in muscle and tendon structures. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2014 Jun;29(6):636-42. doi: 10.1016/j. clinbiomech.2014.04.013. Epub 2014 May 22. Nakamura M., et al. Acute Effects of Stretching on Passive Properties of Human Gastrocnemius Muscle-Tendon Unit: Analysis of Differences Between Hold-Relax and Static Stretching. Journ Sport Rehab, 2015, 24, 286 – 292 23. Zollner AM., et al. Stretching Skeletal Muscle: Chronic Muscle Lengthening through Sacrocmeregenesis. PLOS, 2012, 7(10): 1- 10
  38. 38. 38 References 23. Zollner AM., et al. Stretching Skeletal Muscle: Chronic Muscle Lengthening through Sacrocmeregenesis. PLOS, 2012, 7(10): 1-10 24. Kubo K., Kanehisa H., Fukunaga, T. Effect of stretching training on the viscoelastic properties of human tendon stiffness in vivo. J Appl Physiol, 2002, 92: 565 - 601 25. Konrad A, Gad M, Tilp M1. Effect of PNF stretching training on the properties of human muscle and tendon structures. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2015 Jun;25(3):346-55. doi: 10.1111/sms.12228. Epub 2014 Apr 10. 26. Cipriani DJ, Terry ME, Haines M, et al. Effect of Stretch Frequency and Sex on the Rate and Gain and Rate of Loss in Muscle Flexibility During a Hamstring Stretching Program: A Randomized Single-Blind Longitudinal Study. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 2012; 26(8) 2119 - 2129. 27. Harvey L, Herbert R, Crosbie J. Does stretching induce lasting increases in joint ROM? A systematic review. Physiother Res Int 2002;7:1- 28. Aaltonen S, Karjalainen H, Heinonen A, et al. Prevention of sports injuries: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Arch Intern Med 2007;167:1585-92. 29. Page P., Current Concepts in Muscle Stretching for Exercise and Rehabilitation. Int J Sports Phys Ther. 2012 Feb; 7(1): 109-119. 30. Thomas E., et al. The Relationship Between Stretching Typology and Stretching Duration: The Effects on Range of Motion. Int J Sports Med. 2018: 39; 39: 243 – 254 31. Blazevich AJ, Cannavan D, Coleman DR, et al. Influence of concentric and eccentric resistance training on architectural adaptation in human quadriceps muscles. J Appl Physiol 2007;103:1565-75. 32. Duclay J, Martin A, Duclay A, et al. Behavior of fascicles and the myotendinous junction of human medial gastrocnemius following eccentric strength training. Muscle Nerve 2009;39:819-27. 33. Mahieu NN, McNair P, Cools A, et al. Effect of eccentric training on the plantar flexor muscle- tendon tissue properties. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2008;40:117-23.
  39. 39. 39 References 34. Nelson RT, Bandy WD. Eccentric training and static stretching improve hamstring flexibility of 125 high school males. J Athl Train 2004;39:254-8. 35. Proske U, Morgan DL. Muscle damage from eccentric exercise: mechanism, mechanical signs, adaptation and clinical applications. J Physiol (Lond) 2001;537:333-45. 36. O’Sullivan K, McAulifee S, DeBurca N. The effects of eccentric training on lower limb flexibility: a systematic review. Br J Sports Med 2012;46:838-845. 37. Podlogar T., Kolar J. Optimizing Hypertrophy for Gymnastics. Jan 2017. Conference paper. 108 - 120 38. Sands WA., McNeal JE., Jamni M., Delong TH. Should Gymnasts Life Weights? Sport Science. 2000. 39. Close GL, Morton JP. Developing Strength and Power. In Jeffreys I, and Moody J. Strength and Conditioning for Sports Performance. New York: Routledge. 230 - 260 40. Haff GG. Dispelling the myths of resistance training for youths. In Llyod RS, Oliver JL, Strength and Conditioning for Young Athletes: Science and Application. 2014. Routledge: New York. 169 - 184 41. Suchomel TJ., Comfort P. (2018) Developing muscular strength and power. In Turner A, Comfort P; Advanced Strength and Conditioning: An Evidenced-Based Approach. New York: Routledge 13-38 42. MacDougall D, Sale D. Training for Strength, Power, Speed. In The Physiology of Training for High Performance. London: Oxford Press. 2014, 246 - 205 43. 25. Lloyd RS., et al. UKSCA Position Statement: Youth Resistance Training. UKSCA. 2012, 26 : 26 - 39 44. Faigenbaum AD. Strength Training for Children and Adolescents. In Cardinale, M., Newton R., 45. Nowsaka K. Strength and Conditioning Biological Principles and Practical Applications. Wiley- Blackwell. 2011. 427 - 435
  40. 40. 40 References 46. Dahab KS., and McCambridge TC.Strength Training in Children and Adolescents: Raising the Bar for Young Athletes? Sports Health. 2009 May; 1(3): 223-226. 47. Laurensen JB., Bertelsen DM., Anderson LB. The effectiveness of exercise interventions to prevent sports injuries: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Br J Sports Med 2014;48:871-877. 48. Boren K. Electromyographic Analysis of Gluteus Medius and Gluteus Maximus During Rehabilitation Exercises. I nternational Journal of Sports Physical Therapy. 2011;6(3):206-223. 49. Kang S-Y, Jeon H-S, Kwon O, Cynn H-S, Choi B. Activation of the gluteus maximus and hamstring muscles during prone hip extension with knee flexion in three hip abduction positions. Manual Therapy. 2013;18(4):303-307. 50. 50 50. Macadam P, Cronin J, Contreras B. An Examination of the Gluteal Muscle Activity associated with dynamic hip abduction and hip external rotation: A Systematic Review. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy. 2015;10(5):573-591. 51. Contreras B, Vigotsky AD, Schoenfeld BJ, Beardsley C, Cronin J. Comparison of Gluteus Maximus, Biceps Femoris, and Vastus Lateralis EMG Amplitude for the Barbell, Band, and American Hip Thrust Variations. Journal of Applied Biomechanics. December 2015. 52. McCurdy K., Walker J., Tuen D. Gluteus Maximis and Hamstring Activation During Selected Weight Bearing Resistance Exercises. Strength Cond J. 2018 32(3), p 594-601 53. Wu YH., Latash ML. The Effect of Practice on Coordination. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2014 Jan; 42 (1): 37 – 42 54. Hamill J., Palmer C., Van Emmerik RE. Coordinative Cariabiltiy and Overuse Injury 55. Optimal Loading – Key Variables and mechanisms. Sports Med Arthrosc Rhabil Ther Techno. 2012 Nov 27; 4 (1) : 45 56. Latash ML., Biomechanis and Motor Control: Definindg Central Concepts. Academic Press. 2016 57. Stergio N. Nonlinear Analysis for Human Movement Variability. CRC Press. 2016
  41. 41. Thank You! dave@shiftmovementscience.com
  42. 42. Hip Flexibility Essentials For Better Splits, Leaps, and In Bars 42 Dr. Dave Tilley DPT, SCS, CSCS
  43. 43. 43 All of my lecture PDFs, videos, research articles from this weekend can be found for free via private DropBox Link
  44. 44. 44 Who’s This Clown? • Former Gymnast – USA JO/College • Coaching for 14 years, currently optionals • Doctorate in PT, Board Certified in Sports • Strength and Conditioning Coach • CEO of SHIFT Movement Science • Educator / Researcher / Massive Nerd • Endlessly Grateful
  45. 45. 45 I Feel Your Pain! “How do I help you get a full split / leaps without hurting you?” Information overload + limited progress = coaches who feel frustrated, overwhelmed, stuck
  46. 46. 46 Expectation vs Reality Me making flexibility programs at practice 5 years ago
  47. 47. 47 The Real Reason We Need Better Flexibility… Increased Injury Risk Coaches feel helpless and anxious Missed Practice Time And Meets Mental Blocks Limited Skill Progress Poor Meet Performance Gymnast/Parent worries + =
  48. 48. 48 Thankfully You Can Help! + Patience Communication Group Collaboration More Patience Increases possibility of
  49. 49. 49
  50. 50. 50 Anyone have any peanuts? For the elephant in the room… We can’t shy away from the uncomfortable reality /conversation, injuries and burnout rates are insanely high (our gym included) As a medical provider I have worked with… 34 gymnasts who had serious stress fractures/overuse tears 20 who lost their entire competitive year 4 with major hip/shoulder surgery 8 who quit gymnastics This season.
  51. 51. 51 Screening Soft Tissue Care • Foam Roll • Targeted Stretching Strength • Eccentrics • Balance Control • Full Range • Skill Specific Technique • Basics, Shapes, Drills Culture, Values, Habits
  52. 52. 52 Culture, Values, Habits Do No Harm Consistency > Intensity Science + Coaching Expertise Individuality Happily a Mutt
  53. 53. 53 Screening •Assess, Don’t GuessWhy? •Floor Split ScreenHow? Research Articles [1 – 11]
  54. 54. 54 • Right, left, middle Hip Screen Research Articles Shoulder [ 1 - 9 ] Hip [ 9 – 11 ]
  55. 55. Split Screen
  56. 56. Limited split range? Focus hamstring, inner thigh, quad muscles first then active flex All looks good Focus glute / core strength, active flex, technique
  57. 57. 57 Soft Tissue Care • Muscle stiffness develops with more training and during growth spurts Why? • Foam Roll / Lacrosse Ball • Targeted Stretching How? Research Articles Foam Rolling [ 12 – 18] Stretching [ 19 - 30 ]
  58. 58. 58 Very interesting example Take away? 1. Focus on muscles > ligaments 2. Consistency > Intensity
  59. 59. 59 • 30-60s per area daily • 3-4/10 discomfort Foam Roll, Lacrosse Ball • 2x30s per muscle group 5x week • Proper technique, ideally in circuit Stretching Research Articles Foam Rolling [ 12 – 18] Stretching [ 19 - 30 ]
  60. 60. 60 Static Stretching? Active? PNF? Ballistic? Thomas et al 2018 Research Article - [ 30 ] Static seems to be best for increasing flexibility, but all seem effective! - 5 minutes total per week, per muscle group - 2x30 seconds per day - 5-6 days per week 1. Assessment + Consistency > Intensity 2. Proper alignment and technique to bias muscle tissue, not ligaments
  61. 61. Hip Soft Tissue Work
  62. 62. 62 Strength • Eccentrics suggested to increase muscle length via research • Balance is crucial to keep flexibility Why? • Eccentrics based on screen • Balanced strength program • Don’t feed the fire How? Research Articles Eccentrics for Flexibility [ 31 – 36 ] Balance Work and Strength for Youth [ 37 – 47 ]
  63. 63. 63 • 2-3x 5 reps - 5s lower • Down slow, help upEccentrics • 2-3 sets of 10 -12 • Upper back, rotator cuff • Glutes, hip cuff Strength Balance Research Articles Eccentrics [ 31 – 36 ] Strength Balance [ 37 – 52 ]
  64. 64. Hip and Shoulder Eccentrics
  65. 65. Hip and Shoulder Balance Work
  66. 66. • Caution overworking already stiff muscles Don’t Feed The Fire
  67. 67. 67 Control • Passive flexibility doesn’t automatically transfer to skills • Strength alone also not enough Why? • Active flexibility drills • BasicsHow? Research Articles [ 53 – 57 ]
  68. 68. 68 • 2-3 reps of 10 - 12 • Specific to athlete & skill Active Flexibility • 5 Dimensions of Flat Line • Via Nick Ruddock • Shape Changing Drills Basics Research Articles [ 53 – 57 ]
  69. 69. Hip and Shoulder Active Flex
  70. 70. (credit to many different coaches/gyms!) Basics and Shape Changing Drills
  71. 71. 71 Technique • Without basics and technique it’s hard to make change ‘stick’Why? • Skill Specific technique and drills dailyHow?
  72. 72. 72 • Via everyone • Way too many to show! Skill Specific Drills
  73. 73. 73 So What About Real Life? Screening Soft Tissue StrengthActive Flex Technique, Basics Pick 2-3 that fit for your athletes, time, space, equipment, and then put in circuit 3x Upper (15 min) 3x Lower (15 min) 1-2x/week (30 min)
  74. 74. Hip Performance Complex
  75. 75. 75 Want to Learn More? Download my new e-book for free at http://shiftmovementscience.com/freeresourcelibrary/ 10 Minute Hip and Shoulder Flexibility Circuits Chapter 7 – Flexibility View all of my flexibility ideas onlines www.shiftmovementscience.com/articles
  76. 76. 76 References 1. Andrews, J., Reinold, M., Wilk, K. The Athlete’s Shoulder. Second Edition, 2009. 2. Wilk KE, Macrina LC, Reinold MM. Nonoperative rehabilitation for traumatic and atraumatic glenohumeral instability. North Am J Sports Phys Ther 1(1):1631, 2006. 3. Wilk KE, Arrigo CA, Andrews JR. Current concepts: The stabilizing structures of the glenohumeral joint. J Orthop Sports 4. Phys Ther 25(6):36479, 1997. 4. Wilk KE, Andrews JR, Arrigo CA. The physical examination of the glenohumeral joint: Emphasis on the stabilizing structures. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 25:3809, 1997. 5. Cordasco FA. Understanding multidirectional instability of the shoulder. J Athl Training 35(3):278285, 2000. 6. Andrews, J., Reinold, M., Wilk, K. Current Concepts in the Evaluation and Treatment of the Shoulder in Overhead Throwing Athletes Part 2: Injury Prevention and Treatment. Sports Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach 2(2) 2010. 7. Ehmke, R. S. (2006). Kinetic Anatomy. (2 ed., pp. 3556). Champagne, IL: Human Kinetics. 8. Caplan J., et al. Multidirectional Instability of the Shoulder in Elite Female Gymnasts. Am J Orthop. 2007;36(12) 660 - 665. 9. Rainman, Thornburg. Clinical Examination and Physical Assessment of Hip Related Joint pain In Athletes. ISJPT 9(6) 2014. 10. Weber AE, Bedi A, Tibor LM, Zaltz I, Larson CM. The Hyper Flexible Hip: Managing Hip Pain in the Dancer and Gymnast. Sports Health. 2015 Jul;7(4):34658. 11. Shu B., Safran MR. Hip Instability: Anatomic and Clinical Considerations of Traumatic and Atraumatic Instability. Clin Sports Med 30 (2011) 349-367 12. Cheatham SW, Kobler MJ, Cain M, Lee M. The Effects of Self Myofascial Release Using A Foam Roll or Roller Massage on Join Range of Motion, Muscle Recovery, and Performance: A Systematic Review. 2015. IJSPT; 10(6): 827 - 838.
  77. 77. 77 References 13. Beardsley C, Skarabot J. Effects of self - myofascial release: A systematic review. J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2015. Oct; 19(4): 747 - 758. 14. Schleip, R. Fascial Plasticity: A New Neurobiological Explanation: Part 1. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, 2004. 15. Bialosky, et al. The Mechanisms of Manual Therapy in the Treatment of Musculoskeletal Pain: A Comprehensive Model. Man Therapy 2009. Oct 4 (15). 16. Chaundry H, et al. Three-Dimensional Mathematical Model for Deformation of Human Fasciae in Manual Therapy. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2008;108:379390. 17. Field T. Massage therapy research review. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2016 Aug; 24: 19-31. Morasaka A., Sports massage. A comprehensive review. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2005. Sept; 45(3): 370-80. 18. Best TM., Hunter, Robin DC, et al. Effectiveness of Sports Massage for Recovery of Skeletal Muscle from Strenuous Exercise. Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine: September. 2008; 18(5): 446-460. 19. Weppler CH, Magnusson SP. Increasing muscle extensibility: a matter of increasing length or modifying sensation? Phys Ther. 2010;90:438 - 449. 20. Ben M., Harvey LA. Regular Stretch does not increase muscle extensibility: a randomized control trial. Scand J Med SCi Sports, 2010: 136 - 144. 21. Konrad A, Tip M. Increased range of motion after static stretching is not due to changes in muscle and tendon structures. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2014 Jun;29(6):636-42. doi: 10.1016/j. clinbiomech.2014.04.013. Epub 2014 May 22. Nakamura M., et al. Acute Effects of Stretching on Passive Properties of Human Gastrocnemius Muscle-Tendon Unit: Analysis of Differences Between Hold-Relax and Static Stretching. Journ Sport Rehab, 2015, 24, 286 – 292 23. Zollner AM., et al. Stretching Skeletal Muscle: Chronic Muscle Lengthening through Sacrocmeregenesis. PLOS, 2012, 7(10): 1- 10
  78. 78. 78 References 23. Zollner AM., et al. Stretching Skeletal Muscle: Chronic Muscle Lengthening through Sacrocmeregenesis. PLOS, 2012, 7(10): 1-10 24. Kubo K., Kanehisa H., Fukunaga, T. Effect of stretching training on the viscoelastic properties of human tendon stiffness in vivo. J Appl Physiol, 2002, 92: 565 - 601 25. Konrad A, Gad M, Tilp M1. Effect of PNF stretching training on the properties of human muscle and tendon structures. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2015 Jun;25(3):346-55. doi: 10.1111/sms.12228. Epub 2014 Apr 10. 26. Cipriani DJ, Terry ME, Haines M, et al. Effect of Stretch Frequency and Sex on the Rate and Gain and Rate of Loss in Muscle Flexibility During a Hamstring Stretching Program: A Randomized Single-Blind Longitudinal Study. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 2012; 26(8) 2119 - 2129. 27. Harvey L, Herbert R, Crosbie J. Does stretching induce lasting increases in joint ROM? A systematic review. Physiother Res Int 2002;7:1- 28. Aaltonen S, Karjalainen H, Heinonen A, et al. Prevention of sports injuries: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Arch Intern Med 2007;167:1585-92. 29. Page P., Current Concepts in Muscle Stretching for Exercise and Rehabilitation. Int J Sports Phys Ther. 2012 Feb; 7(1): 109-119. 30. Thomas E., et al. The Relationship Between Stretching Typology and Stretching Duration: The Effects on Range of Motion. Int J Sports Med. 2018: 39; 39: 243 – 254 31. Blazevich AJ, Cannavan D, Coleman DR, et al. Influence of concentric and eccentric resistance training on architectural adaptation in human quadriceps muscles. J Appl Physiol 2007;103:1565-75. 32. Duclay J, Martin A, Duclay A, et al. Behavior of fascicles and the myotendinous junction of human medial gastrocnemius following eccentric strength training. Muscle Nerve 2009;39:819-27. 33. Mahieu NN, McNair P, Cools A, et al. Effect of eccentric training on the plantar flexor muscle- tendon tissue properties. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2008;40:117-23.
  79. 79. 79 References 34. Nelson RT, Bandy WD. Eccentric training and static stretching improve hamstring flexibility of 125 high school males. J Athl Train 2004;39:254-8. 35. Proske U, Morgan DL. Muscle damage from eccentric exercise: mechanism, mechanical signs, adaptation and clinical applications. J Physiol (Lond) 2001;537:333-45. 36. O’Sullivan K, McAulifee S, DeBurca N. The effects of eccentric training on lower limb flexibility: a systematic review. Br J Sports Med 2012;46:838-845. 37. Podlogar T., Kolar J. Optimizing Hypertrophy for Gymnastics. Jan 2017. Conference paper. 108 - 120 38. Sands WA., McNeal JE., Jamni M., Delong TH. Should Gymnasts Life Weights? Sport Science. 2000. 39. Close GL, Morton JP. Developing Strength and Power. In Jeffreys I, and Moody J. Strength and Conditioning for Sports Performance. New York: Routledge. 230 - 260 40. Haff GG. Dispelling the myths of resistance training for youths. In Llyod RS, Oliver JL, Strength and Conditioning for Young Athletes: Science and Application. 2014. Routledge: New York. 169 - 184 41. Suchomel TJ., Comfort P. (2018) Developing muscular strength and power. In Turner A, Comfort P; Advanced Strength and Conditioning: An Evidenced-Based Approach. New York: Routledge 13-38 42. MacDougall D, Sale D. Training for Strength, Power, Speed. In The Physiology of Training for High Performance. London: Oxford Press. 2014, 246 - 205 43. 25. Lloyd RS., et al. UKSCA Position Statement: Youth Resistance Training. UKSCA. 2012, 26 : 26 - 39 44. Faigenbaum AD. Strength Training for Children and Adolescents. In Cardinale, M., Newton R., 45. Nowsaka K. Strength and Conditioning Biological Principles and Practical Applications. Wiley- Blackwell. 2011. 427 - 435
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  81. 81. Thank You! dave@shiftmovementscience.com

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