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10.1 Plan Communication Management

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10.1 Plan Communication Management

  1. 1. Plan Communication Management
  2. 2. Plan Communication Management Coincides with PMBOK 10.1 Process Group and Knowledge Area Mapping Knowledge Areas Initiating Planning Process Group Executing Process Group Monitoring and Controlling Process Group Closing Process Group 4. Project Integration Management 4.1 Develop Project Charter 4.2 Develop Project Management Plan 4.3 Direct and Manage Project Work 4.4 Manage Project Knowledge 4.5 Monitor and Control Project Work 4.6 Perform Integrated Change Control 4.7 Close Project or Phase 5. Project Scope Management 5.1 Plan Scope Management 5.2 Collect Requirements 5.3 Define Scope 5.4 Create WBS 5.5 Validate Scope 5.6 Control Scope 6. Project Schedule Management 6.1 Plan Schedule Management 6.2 Define Activities 6.3 Sequence Activities 6.4 Estimate Activity Durations 6.5 Develop Schedule 6.6 Control Schedule 7. Project Cost Management 7.1 Plan Cost Management 7.2 Estimate Costs 7.3 Determine Budget 7.4 Control Costs 8. Project Quality Management 8.1 Plan Quality Management 8.2 Manage Quality 8.3 Control Quality 9. Project Resource Management 9.1 Plan Resource Management 9.2 Estimate Activity Resources 9.3 Acquire Resources 9.4 Develop Team 9.5 Manage Team 9.6 Control Resources 10. Project Communications Management 10.1 Plan Communications Management 10.2 Manage Communications 10.3 Monitor Communications 11. Project Risk Management 11.1 Plan Risk Management 11.2 Identify Risks 11.3 Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis 11.4 Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis 11.5 Plan Risk Responses 11.6 Implement Risk Responses 11.7 Monitor Risks 12. Project Procurement Management 12.1 Plan Procurement Management 12.2 Conduct Procurements 12.3 Control Procurements 13. Project Stakeholder Management 13.1 Identify Stakeholders 13.2 Plan Stakeholder Engagement 13.3 Manage Stakeholder Engagement 13.4 Monitor Stakeholder Engagement
  3. 3. What is it? Plan Communications Management is the process of developing an appropriate approach and plan for project communications activities based on the information needs of each stakeholder or group, available organizational assets, and the needs of the project. Why? The key benefit of this process is a documented approach to effectively and efficiently engage stakeholders by presenting relevant information in a timely manner. Plan Communication Management Coincides with PMBOK 10.1
  4. 4. Overview • An effective communications management plan that recognizes the diverse information needs of the project’s stakeholders is developed early in the project life cycle. • The methods of storage, retrieval, and ultimate disposition of the project information need to be considered and documented during this process. • The results of the Plan Communications Management process should be reviewed regularly throughout the project and revised as needed to ensure continued applicability. Coincides with PMBOK 10.1 Plan Communication Management
  5. 5. Plan Communication Management Coincides with PMBOK 10.1 Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs 1. Project charter 2. Project management plan • Resource management plan • Stakeholder engagement plan 3. Project documents • Requirements documentation • Stakeholder register 4. Enterprise environmental factors 5. Organizational process assets 1. Expert judgment 2. Communication requirements analysis 3. Communication technology 4. Communication models 5. Communication methods 6. Interpersonal and team skills • Communication styles assessment • Political awareness • Cultural awareness 7. Data representation • Stakeholder engagement assessment matrix 8. Meetings 1. Communications management plan 2. Project management plan updates • Stakeholder engagement plan 3. Project documents updates • Project schedule • Stakeholder register Inputs, Tools & Techniques, Outputs
  6. 6. Plan Communication Management Coincides with PMBOK 10.1 10.1 Plan Communications Management Project Management Plan Enterprise/Orga nization 4.1 Develop Project Charter • Communication management plan • Resource management plan • Stakeholder engagement plan • Enterprise environmental factors • Organizational process assets • Project charter Project Documents • Requirements documentation • Stakeholder register Project Management Plan Project Documents • Project Schedule • Stakeholder Register Project management plan updates: • Stakeholder engagement plan
  7. 7. Plan Communication Management - Inputs Coincides with PMBOK 10.1 Project Charter The project charter identifies the key stakeholder list. It may also contain information about the roles and responsibilities of the stakeholders.
  8. 8. Plan Communication Management - Inputs Coincides with PMBOK 10.1 Project Management Plan Project Management Plan components include: • Resource management plan • Stakeholder engagement plan
  9. 9. Plan Communication Management - Inputs Coincides with PMBOK 10.1 Project Documents Project Documents include: • Requirements documentation • Stakeholder register
  10. 10. Coincides with PMBOK 10.1 Enterprise Environmental Factors Expertise should be considered from individuals or groups with specialized knowledge or training in the following topics: • Politics and power structures in the organization • Environment and culture of the organization and other customer organizations • Organizational change management approach and practices • Industry or type of project deliverables • Organizational communications technologies • Organizational policies and procedures regarding legal requirements of corporate communications • Organizational policies and procedures regarding security • Stakeholders, including customers or sponsors Plan Communication Management - Inputs
  11. 11. Coincides with PMBOK 10.1 Organisational Process Assets The organizational process assets that can influence the Plan Communications Management process include: • Organizational policies and procedures for social media, ethics, and security • Organizational policies and procedures for issue, risk, change, and data management • Organizational communication requirements • Standardized guidelines for development, exchange, storage, and retrieval of information • Historical information and lessons learned repository • Stakeholder and communications data and information from previous projects Plan Communication Management - Inputs
  12. 12. Plan Communication Management – Tools & Techniques Coincides with PMBOK 10.1 Expert Judgment Expertise should be considered from individuals or groups with specialized knowledge or training in the following topics: • Politics and power structures in the organization • Environment and culture of the organization and other customer organizations • Organizational change management approach and practices • Industry or type of project deliverables • Organizational communications technologies • Organizational policies and procedures regarding legal requirements of corporate communications • Organizational policies and procedures regarding security • Stakeholders, including customers or sponsors
  13. 13. Plan Communication Management – Tools & Techniques Coincides with PMBOK 10.1 Communication Requirement Analysis Sources of information typically used to identify and define project communication requirements include: • Stakeholder information and communication requirements • Number of potential communication channels or paths • Organizational charts • Project organization and stakeholder responsibility, relationships, and interdependencies • Development approach • Disciplines, departments, and specialties involved in the project • Logistics of how many persons will be involved with the project and at which locations • Internal information needs • External information needs • Legal requirements.
  14. 14. Coincides with PMBOK 10.1 Communication Technology Plan Communication Management – Tools & Techniques Common methods used for information exchange and collaboration include conversations, meetings, written documents, databases, social media, and websites. Factors that can affect the choice of communication technology include: • Urgency of the need for information • Availability and reliability of technology • Ease of use • Project environment • Sensitivity and confidentiality of the information
  15. 15. Plan Communication Management – Tools & Techniques Coincides with PMBOK 10.1 Communication Model - Sample basic sender/receiver communication model. This model describes communication as a process and consists of two parties, defined as the sender and receiver. This model is concerned with ensuring that the message is delivered, rather than understood. The sequence of steps in a basic communication model is: • Encode. • Transmit message • Decode
  16. 16. Plan Communication Management – Tools & Techniques Coincides with PMBOK 10.1 Communication Model - Sample Interactive Communication Model This model also describes communication as a process consisting of two parties, the sender and receiver, but recognizes the need to ensure that the message has been understood. The additional steps in an interactive communication model are: • Acknowledge • Feedback/response
  17. 17. Plan Communication Management – Tools & Techniques Coincides with PMBOK 10.1 Communication Methods There are several communication methods that are used to share information among project stakeholders. These methods are broadly classified as follows: • Interactive communication • Push communication • Pull communication
  18. 18. Plan Communication Management – Tools & Techniques Coincides with PMBOK 10.1 Communication Methods - Approach Different approaches should be applied to meet the needs of the major forms of communication defined in the communications management plan: • Interpersonal communication • Small group communication • Public communication • Mass communication • Networks and social computing communication
  19. 19. Plan Communication Management – Tools & Techniques Coincides with PMBOK 10.1 Communication Methods - Artifacts Possible communications artifacts and methods include: • Notice boards • Newsletters/in-house magazines/e-magazines • Letters to staff/volunteers • Press releases • Annual reports • Emails and intranets • Web portals and other information repositories • Phone conversations • Presentations • Team briefings/group meetings • Focus groups • Face-to-face formal or informal meetings between various stakeholders • Consultation groups or staff forums • Social computing technology and media.
  20. 20. Plan Communication Management – Tools & Techniques Coincides with PMBOK 10.1 Interpersonal and Team Skills Interpersonal and team skills that can be used for this process include: • Communication styles assessment • Political awareness • Cultural awareness
  21. 21. Plan Communication Management – Tools & Techniques Coincides with PMBOK 10.1 Data Representation A data representation technique that can be used for this process includes a stakeholder engagement assessment matrix. The stakeholder engagement assessment matrix displays gaps between current and desired engagement levels of individual stakeholders. C – Current engagement level D – Desired engagement level Stakeholder Assessment Matrix
  22. 22. Plan Communication Management – Tools & Techniques Coincides with PMBOK 10.1 Meetings Project meetings can include virtual (e-meetings) or face-to-face meetings, and can be supported with document collaboration technologies, including email messages and project websites. The Plan Communications Management process requires discussion with the project team to determine the most appropriate way to update and communicate project information, and to respond to requests from various stakeholders for information.
  23. 23. Plan Communication Management - Outputs Coincides with PMBOK 10.1 Communication Management Plan The communications management plan is a component of the project management plan that describes how project communications will be planned, structured, implemented, and monitored for effectiveness. The plan contains the following information: • Methods or technologies used to convey the information, • Resources allocated for communication activities • Method for updating and refining the communications management plan as the project progresses and develops • Glossary of common terminology • Flow charts of the information flow in the project • Constraints derived from specific legislation or regulation, technology, organizational policies, etc. • Stakeholder communication requirements; • Information to be communicated • Escalation processes • Reason for the distribution of that information • Timeframe and frequency for the distribution of required information • Person responsible for communicating the information • Person responsible for authorizing release of confidential information • Person or groups who will receive the information
  24. 24. Plan Communication Management – Outputs Coincides with PMBOK 10.1 Project Management Plan Updates Any change to the project management plan goes through the organization’s change control process via a change request. Components that may require a change request for the project management plan include but are not limited to the stakeholder engagement plan. The stakeholder engagement plan is updated to reflect any processes, procedures, tools, or techniques that affect the engagement of stakeholders in project decisions and execution.
  25. 25. Plan Communication Management – Outputs Coincides with PMBOK 10.1 Project Document Updates Project documents that may be updated as a result of carrying out this process include: • Project Schedule • Stakeholder Register

Hinweis der Redaktion

  • This process is performed periodically throughout the project as needed.

  • On most projects, communications planning is performed very early, during stakeholder identification and project management plan development.


  • Resource management plan - Provides guidance on how team resources will be categorized, allocated, managed, and released. Team members and groups may have communication requirements that should be identified in the communications management plan.

    Stakeholder engagement plan - The stakeholder engagement plan identifies the management strategies required to effectively engage stakeholders. These strategies are often fulfilled via communications.
  • Requirements documentation - Requirements documentation can include project stakeholder communications.
    Stakeholder register - The stakeholder register is used to plan communications activities with stakeholders.
  • Analysis of communication requirements determines the information needs of the project stakeholders.
    These requirements are defined by combining the type and format of information needed with an analysis of the value of that information.
  • The methods used to transfer information among project stakeholders may vary significantly.

    Factors affecting choice of communication:
    Urgency for need of information - The urgency, frequency, and format of the information to be communicated may vary from project to project and also within different phases of a project.
    Availability and reliability of technology - The technology that is required for distribution of project communications artifacts should be compatible, available, and accessible for all stakeholders throughout the project.
    Ease of use - The choice of communication technologies should be suitable for project participants and proper training events should be planned, where appropriate.
    Project Environment - Whether the team will meet and operate on a face-to-face basis or in a virtual environment; whether they will be located in one or multiple time zones; whether they will use multiple languages for communication; and finally, whether there are any other project environmental factors, such as various aspects of culture, which may constrain the efficiency of the communication.
    Sensitivity and confidentiality of the information - Whether information to be communicated is sensitive or confidential. If so, additional security measures may be required. Social media policies for employees to ensure appropriate behavior, security, and the protection of proprietary information.

  • Encode - The message is coded into symbols, such as text, sound or some other medium for transmission (sending).
    Transmit message - The message is sent via a communication channel. The transmission of this message may be compromised by various physical factors such as unfamiliar technology or inadequate infrastructure. Noise and other factors may be present and contribute to loss of information in transmission and/or reception of the message.
    Decode - The data received is translated by the receiver back into a form useful to the receiver.
  • In this model, noise includes any interference or barriers that might compromise the understanding of the message, such as the distraction of the receiver, variations in the perceptions of receivers, or lack of appropriate knowledge or interest.

    Acknowledge - Upon receipt of a message, the receiver may signal (acknowledge) receipt of the message, but this does not necessarily mean agreement with or comprehension of the message—merely that it has been received.
    Feedback/response - When the received message has been decoded and understood, the receiver encodes thoughts and ideas into a message and then transmits this message to the original sender. If the sender perceives that the feedback matches the original message, the communication has been successful.

  • Interactive communication - Between two or more parties performing a multidirectional exchange of information in real time. It employs communications artifacts such as meetings, phone calls, instant messaging, some forms of social media, and videoconferencing.

    Push Communication - Sent or distributed directly to specific recipients who need to receive the information. This ensures that the information is distributed but does not ensure that it actually reached or was understood by the intended audience. Push communications artifacts include letters, memos, reports, emails, faxes, voice mails, blogs, and press releases.

    Pull communication - Used for large complex information sets, or for large audiences, and requires the recipients to access content at their own discretion subject to security procedures. These methods include web portals, intranet sites, e-learning, lessons learned databases, or knowledge repositories.

  • Interpersonal communication - Information is exchanged between individuals, typically face-to-face.
    Small group communication - Occurs within groups of around three to six people.
    Public communication - A single speaker addressing a group of people.
    Mass communication - There is a minimal connection between the person or group sending the message and the large, sometimes anonymous groups for whom the information is intended.
    Networks and social computing communication - Supports emerging communication trends of many-to-many supported by social computing technology and media.
  • Communication style assessment - . A technique used to assess communication styles and identify the preferred communication method, format, and content for planned communication activities. Often used with unsupportive stakeholders.

    Political awareness - Political awareness helps the project manager to plan communications based on the project environment as well as the organization’s political environment. Political awareness concerns the recognition of power relationships, both formal and informal, and also the willingness to operate within these structures.

    Cultural awareness - is an understanding of the differences between individuals, groups, and organizations and adapting the project’s communication strategy in the context of these differences. This awareness and any consequent actions minimize misunderstandings and miscommunication that may result from cultural differences within the project’s stakeholder community. Cultural awareness and cultural sensitivity help the project manager to plan communications based on the cultural differences and requirements of stakeholders and team members.

  • It can be further analyzed in this process to identify additional communication requirements (beyond the regular reports) as a method to close any engagement level gaps.
  • The communications management plan can include guidelines and templates for project status meetings, project team meetings, e-meetings, and email messages. The use of a project website and project management software can be included if these are to be used in the project.
  • Project schedule - The project schedule may be updated to reflect communication activities.
    Stakeholder register - The stakeholder register may be updated to reflect communications planned.

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