Robotics is an interdisciplinary branch of computer
science and engineering Robotics involves the design,
construction, operation, and use of robots. The goal of
robotics is to design machines that can help and assist
humans. Robotics integrates fields of mechanical
engineering, electrical engineering, information engineering,
mechatronics engineering, electronics, biomedical
engineering, computer engineering, control systems
engineering, software engineering, mathematics, etc.
3. • Robotics develops machines that can substitute for humans and
replicate human actions. Robots can be used in many situations
for many purposes, but today many are used in dangerous
environments (including inspection of radioactive materials,
bomb detection and deactivation), manufacturing processes, or
where humans cannot survive (e.g., in space, underwater, in high
heat, and clean up and containment of hazardous materials and
radiation). Robots can take any form, but some are made to
resemble humans in appearance.
• This is claimed to help in the acceptance of robots in certain
replicative behaviors which are usually performed by people.
Such robots attempt to replicate walking, lifting, speech,
cognition, or any other tasks mainly performed by a human.
4. • Certain robots require user input to operate, while other
robots function autonomously. The concept of creating robots
that can operate autonomously dates back to classical times,
but research into the functionality and potential uses of
robots did not grow substantially until the 20th century.
• Throughout history, it has been frequently assumed by
various scholars, inventors, engineers, and technicians that
robots will one day be able to mimic human behavior and
manage tasks in a human-like fashion.
• Today, robotics is a rapidly growing field, as technological
advances continue; researching, designing, and building new
robots serve various practical purposes, whether
domestically, commercially, or militarily.
5. • Many robots are built to do jobs that are hazardous to
people, such as defusing bombs, finding survivors in unstable
ruins, and exploring mines and shipwrecks. Robotics is also
used in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and
mathematics) as a teaching aid.
• The word robotics was derived from the word robot, which
was introduced to the public by Czech writer Karel Čapek in
his play R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots), which was
published in 1920. The word robot comes from the Slavic word
robota, which means "work/job". The play begins in a factory
that makes artificial people called robots, creatures who can
be mistaken for humans – very similar to the modern ideas of
• Karel Čapek himself did not coin the word. He wrote a short
letter in reference to an etymology in the Oxford English
Dictionary in which he named his brother Josef Čapek as its
7. • According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word robotics
was first used in print by Isaac Asimov, in his science fiction
short story "Liar!", published in May 1941 in Astounding
Science Fiction. Asimov was unaware that he was coining the
term; since the science and technology of electrical devices
is electronics, he assumed robotics already referred to the
science and technology of robots.
• In some of Asimov's other works, he states that the first use
of the word robotics was in his short story Runaround
(Astounding Science Fiction, March 1942), where he
introduced his concept of The Three Laws of Robotics.
However, the original publication of "Liar!" predates that of
"Runaround" by ten months, so the former is generally cited as
the word's origin.
8. ISSAC ASIMOV'S THREE LAWS OF ROBOTICS
A robot may
not injure a
A robot must
as long as
the First or
A robot must
it by human
the First Law.
A robot must
as long as
the First or
9. HISTORY OF ROBOTICS
• 1950, Turning Test by Alan turning in 1950-The Alan Turning
test, which was originally called the imitation game by Alan
turning in 1950 is a test in which tests the ability to exhibit
intelligent behaviour equivalent to humans. Also its control
system is managed via coding.
• 1951, Electro-Mechanical Manipulator-The ElectroMechanical
Manipulator was the first remotely-controlled articulated arm,
for the Atomic Energy Commission, this was made to handle
radioactive material. As well, its control system is mechanical.
10. • 1956, The First Artificial Intelligence Program- American
researchers Allen Newell, Herbert Simon and John Shaw
created the first artificial intelligence program. The artificial
intelligence was the first computer that was able to process
logic and be able to respond to a question. This was the first
big break for AI control systems.
• 1962,The first Unimate robot-The first Unimate robot is
installed in a General Motors plant in Trenton, New Jersey. The
assembly line spot welding robot iscontrolled step-by-step by
commands stored on a magnetic drum and was one of the first
unimate robot with a coded control system.
11. • 1966,AI that can reason about its surroundings- An artificial
intelligence program named ELIZA is created at MIT by Joseph
Weizenbaum. and inputs it into Shakey and creates the first
mobile a robot that can reason about its surroundings and
move up and down ramps and pick up blocks. This was the first
AI control system that can reason/feel/see its surroundings.
• 1969,Industry robots- The Japanese company Kawasaki
develops the Kawasaki-Unimate 2000 which is the first
industrial robot ever produced in Japan, with technology. The
robot is used to help the industry business with heavy loads
and sorting as well as welding. These robots were inspired by
the first unimate robot in 1962 and uses coding as its control
12. • 1984, A Data Base-AI researcher Douglas Lenat initiates the
encyclopedia project to create a database of common sense to
help robots understand our world and their surrounding and be
able to absorb knowledge when it is given some and able to
repeat it. The control system used was coding.
• 1985, The PUMA 560 robotic surgical arm- The PUMA 560
robotic surgical arm was used to be sent into a flooded
basement of a damaged reactor building. it drilled core
samples to measure radiation levels and the two robots worked
for four years inside the reactor building and remain there to
this day. This robot's control system was mechanical as it had
to be precisely done by a human.
13. • 2005, The First Self replicating robot- A team of researchers
at Cornell University built the first self replicating robot. The
robot can create itself which is a code which can be
implemented into other robots in the industry to help them
replicate robots. This is a much more efficient way of making
robots as humans are not needed, and all the company needs to
buy is the parts and the robots will just go off of their code. The
control system is coding.
• 2012, Driverless cars- The first driverless cars were tested on
tracks before going out to the public. This is because they had
to do trial and error with an AI system to eventually make it
understand its surrounding and when to stop and go. This has
been done with cameras big 360 cameras and coding. Hopefully
in the future we won't need big cameras
15. A robot is a machine—especially one
programmable by a computer—capable of
carrying out a complex series of actions
automatically. A robot can be guided by an
external control device, or the control may
be embedded within.
16. A cobot, or collaborative robot, is a robot
intended for direct human-robot interaction
within a shared space, or where humans and
robots are in close proximity. Cobot
applications contrast with traditional
industrial robot applications in which robots
are isolated from human contact.
17. Automation describes a wide range of
technologies that reduce human
intervention in processes, namely by
predetermining decision criteria,
subprocess relationships, and related
actions, as well as embodying those
predeterminations in machines
18. A humanoid robot is a robot resembling the
human body in shape. The design may be
for functional purposes, such as interacting
with human tools and environments, for
experimental purposes, such as the study of
bipedal locomotion, or for other purposes.
19. The SCARA is a type of industrial robot. The
acronym stands for Selective Compliance
Assembly Robot Arm or Selective
Compliance Articulated Robot Arm. It is
compliant in the X-Y axis, and rigid in the Z-
axis. The SCARA configuration is unique and
designed to handle a variety of material
20. A domestic robot is a type of service robot,
an autonomous robot that is primarily used
for household chores, but may also be used
for education, entertainment or therapy.
While most domestic robots are simplistic,
some are connected to Wi-Fi home
networks or smart environments and are
autonomous to a high degree.
21. Aerospace is a term used to collectively
refer to the atmosphere and outer space.
Aerospace activity is very diverse, with a
multitude of commercial, industrial and
military applications. Aerospace engineering
consists of aeronautics and astronautics.
22. A medical robot is a robot used in the
medical sciences. They include surgical
robots. These are in most telemanipulators,
which use the surgeon's activators on one
side to control the "effector" on the other
23. Industrial Robot
An industrial robot is a robot system used
for manufacturing. Industrial robots are
automated, programmable and capable of
movement on three or more axes.
24. Nanoid robotics, or for short, nanorobotics
or nanobotics, is an emerging technology
field creating machines or robots whose
components are at or near the scale of a
25. Service robots assist human beings,
typically by performing a job that is dirty,
dull, distant, dangerous or repetitive. They
typically are autonomous and/or operated
by a built-in control system, with manual
override options. The term "service robot"
does not have a strict technical definition.
26. An android is a humanoid robot or other
artificial being often made from a flesh-like
material. Historically, androids were
completely within the domain of science
fiction and frequently seen in film and
television, but advances in robot technology
now allow the design of functional and
realistic humanoid robots.
27. An entertainment robot is, as the name
indicates, a robot that is not made for
utilitarian use, as in production or domestic
services, but for the sole subjective
pleasure of the human. It serves, usually the
owner or his housemates, guests or clients.
28. Universal Robots is a Danish manufacturer
of smaller flexible industrial collaborative
robot arms, based in Odense, Denmark.
Since 2015, the company has been owned
by American automatic test equipment
designer and manufacturer Teradyne.
29. A humanoid is a non-human entity with
human form or characteristics. The earliest
recorded use of the term, in 1870, referred
to indigenous peoples in areas colonized by
30. Swarm Robotics
Swarm robotics is an approach to the
coordination of multiple robots as a system
which consist of large numbers of mostly
simple physical robots.
31. Military robots are autonomous robots or
remote-controlled mobile robots designed
for military applications, from transport to
search & rescue and attack. Some such
systems are currently in use, and many are
32. An articulated robot is a robot with rotary
joints. Articulated robots can range from
simple two-jointed structures to systems
with 10 or more interacting joints and
materials. They are powered by a variety of
means, including electric motors.
33. A robotic arm is a type of mechanical arm,
usually programmable, with similar functions
to a human arm; the arm may be the sum
total of the mechanism or may be part of a
more complex robot. The links of such a
manipulator are connected by joints
allowing either rotational motion or
34. A mobile robot is an automatic
machine that is capable of
locomotion. Mobile robotics is usually
considered to be a subfield of
robotics and information engineering.
Mobile robots have the capability to
move around in their environment
and are not fixed to one physical
35. Unimate was the first industrial robot, which
worked on a General Motors assembly line
at the Inland Fisher Guide Plant in Ewing
Township, New Jersey, in 1961. It was
invented by George Devol in the 1950s
using his original patent filed in 1954 and
granted in 1961.
36. 1) Sense things (detect items in the world)
2) Think about those things (in a less "intelligent" fashion, which
is a tough subject we'll get into later),
3) Take an action (respond to the commands it has been given).
In psychology (the science of human behaviour) and in robotics,
these factors are known as perception (sensing), cognition
(thinking), and action (moving). Some robots only have one or two
legs. Robot welding arms in industries, for example, are primarily
concerned with action (albeit they may include sensors), whereas
robot vacuum cleaners are mostly concerned with perception and
action and lack cognition.
HOW DOES ROBOT WORK?
37. How Do Robots Function?
Independent robots are capable of functioning completely
autonomously and independent of human operator control. These
typically require more intense programming but allow robots to take
the place of humans when undertaking dangerous, mundane or
otherwise impossible tasks, from bomb diffusion and deep-sea travel
to factory automation. Independent robots have proven to be the
most disruptive to society, as they eliminate certain jobs but also
present new possibilities for growth.
38. How Do Robots Function?
Dependent robots are non-autonomous robots that
interact with humans to enhance and supplement their
already existing actions. This is a relatively new form of
technology and is being constantly expanded into new
applications, but one form of dependent robots that has
been realized is advanced prosthetics that are controlled
by the human mind.
40. A sensor is a device that produces an output signal for the purpose of sensing a
physical phenomenon. In the broadest definition, a sensor is a device, module,
machine, or subsystem that detects events or changes in its environment and
sends the information to other electronics, frequently a computer processor.
Robot and Effector
In robotics, an end effector is the device at the end of a robotic arm, designed to
interact with the environment. The exact nature of this device depends on the
application of the robot. In the strict definition, which originates from serial robotic
manipulators, the end effector means the last link of the robot.
41. A power supply is an electrical device that supplies electric power to an electrical
load. The main purpose of a power supply is to convert electric current from a
source to the correct voltage, current, and frequency to power the load.
In robotics, a manipulator is a device used to manipulate materials without direct
physical contact by the operator. The applications were originally for dealing with
radioactive or biohazardous materials, using robotic arms, or they were used in
42. An electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into
mechanical energy. Most electric motors operate through the interaction between
the motor's magnetic field and electric current in a wire winding to generate force
in the form of torque applied on the motor's shaft.
IA stepper motor, also known as step motor or stepping motor, is a brushless DC
electric motor that divides a full rotation into a number of equal steps.
43. A servomotor is a rotary actuator or linear actuator that allows for precise control
of angular or linear position, velocity, and acceleration. It consists of a suitable
motor coupled to a sensor for position feedback
Central Processing Unit
A central processing unit —also called a central processor or main processor—is
the most important processor in a given computer. Its electronic circuitry
executes instructions of a computer program, such as arithmetic, logic, controlling,
and input/output operations.
44. Pneumatics is a branch of engineering that makes use of gas or pressurized air.
Pneumatic systems used in industry are commonly powered by compressed air or
compressed inert gases. A centrally located and electrically-powered compressor
powers cylinders, air motors, pneumatic actuators, and other pneumatic devices.
Hydraulics is a technology and applied science using engineering, chemistry, and
other sciences involving the mechanical properties and use of liquids. At a very
basic level, hydraulics is the liquid counterpart of pneumatics, which concerns
45. A robotic arm is a type of mechanical arm, usually programmable, with similar
functions to a human arm; the arm may be the sum total of the mechanism or may
be part of a more complex robot. The links of such a manipulator are connected
by joints allowing either rotational motion or translational displacement.
A hydraulic cylinder is a mechanical actuator that is used to give a unidirectional
force through a unidirectional stroke. It has many applications, notably in
construction equipment, manufacturing machinery, elevators, and civil engineering.
46. An actuator is a component of a machine that is responsible for moving and
controlling a mechanism or system, for example by opening a valve. In simple
terms, it is a "mover". An actuator requires a control device and a source of energy.
48. • Cost-Effectiveness: Robots may be programmed to operate
constantly and without stopping in a repeated cycle,
increasing output. More production is produced as a
consequence, which aids in cost recovery and increases
• Increased Productivity: Robotic automation can do repeated
jobs more effectively than humans since they are built to
perform the same without getting tired or taking a break.
Robotics may significantly increase productivity when used in
the manufacturing process.
49. • Improved Quality Assurance: Repetitive manual work may
decrease focus and increase the likelihood of mistakes and
poor quality work. Robotic automation avoids these risks by
precisely manufacturing and inspecting goods by
predetermined standards. More precise and consistently high-
quality products open up new business opportunities for
• Reduced Wastage: Robotics in the production process
guarantees fewer quality variations, which means there will be
no material waste because of failures or non-standard items.
50. • Consistency: Robots can do the same repetitive tasks with the
same precision over an extended time after being programmed,
ensuring consistency in the manufacturing workflow and
• Motivated workforce: Robotic automation frees the workers
from tedious, monotonous work and reassigns them to other
activities that allow them to develop their abilities. The
environment will improve as a result, which will benefit the
company. The performance will only become better with more
energy and attention put into it, which will help spur overall
51. • Work in Hazardous Environments: Workers in some sectors
may be required to work in inadequate or unsafe surroundings,
posing health and safety hazards. Without harming businesses
or their personnel, automated robots may be developed and
used in any situation.
• Long Working Hours: If properly maintained, robots can be
operated for extended periods. However, people cannot
constantly work at a certain point, which increases the danger
of exhaustion, harm, and other problems.
52. • Potential Job Losses: The effect on people who may lose their
jobs due to the deployment of robots is one of the main
worries. In the future, there could not be a need for human
involvement in some tasks since a robot can provide results
more quickly, with more detail and accuracy.
• Hiring Skilled Staff: Robotic automation demands highly
qualified employees skilled in complex programming,
operations, and maintenance. A company specializing in
automation can help with the initial installation and setup, but
additional staff members must be trained to handle the system
in the long term.
53. • Over-dependence on technology: People may become
dependent on this technology as soon as robots play a
significant role in our everyday lives, which might lead to
adding more functions to simplify our lives. With fewer
contacts and motions, this can be harmful to human living. In
addition, the absence of a backup plan leads to the entire
process being adversely damaged if any automated system
goes down due to a technical issue.
54. • Investment Costs: The significant costs associated with
robotic automation concern companies. Installation, upkeep,
additional components, and programming are all included in
the price. The continual power supply required for robotic
automation comes at an additional cost. To ensure that the
cash flow will be stable until the firm is stable enough to
provide profits, a complete analysis must be conducted while
considering the use of this technology.
55. • No analytical ability: Robots can be better for us in certain
areas, but they need to improve our ability to think, evaluate,
and create using knowledge from our environment. Robots are
ideally suited for a limited number of specialized jobs to save
labour costs and time. They are reliant on people because they
program them for particular jobs. The use of robots remains
constrained, despite the substantial advancements made by
artificial intelligence and machine learning.
56. Robotics and Artificial Intelligence
• Robotics and artificial
intelligence are two related
but entirely different fields.
Robotics involves the
creation of robots to perform
tasks without further
intervention, while AI is how
systems emulate the human
mind to make decisions and
57. What about software robots and artificial
• To make things a bit more confusing, the term “bot” — an
abbreviation of “robot” — can also be used to describe
software programs which autonomously complete tasks.
And these sometimes also use artificial intelligence.
• Software bots aren’t a part of robotics, as they have no
physical presence, and the term can describe anything
from web crawlers to chatbots.
• The latter of these embraces artificial intelligence to
respond appropriately to messages sent by humans.
58. What Is The Role of Artificial Intelligence In
• Essentially, the role of artificial intelligence in robotics is
to mimic human intelligence and enable robots to
respond and act independently in various situations. AI
is used to provide robots with the ability to learn, adapt,
and make decisions on their own.
• AI-enabled robots are programmed with algorithms that
allow them to process data from their surroundings,
interpret it, and act accordingly. We can compare these
algorithms to the human brain. It will enable the robot to
“think” and react without any human input.
59. • Let’s take the self-driving car as an example. In this
case, artificial intelligence is used to replace the human
driver that would normally be in control of the vehicle.
The car has sensors that detect obstacles, cameras to
recognize traffic signals, and powerful processors that
interpret all this data. This allows the car to “see” the
road. It can then decide when to accelerate, brake, or
turn without a driver.
• In short, AI is essential for robots to become
autonomous and be able to make decisions on their own.
Beyond allowing robots to become more independent, AI
also helps them to become more accurate and efficient
in performing their tasks.
60. How AI And Machine Learning Are Working
• Machine learning (ML) is a subset of artificial
intelligence that focuses on creating machines that can
learn from data. ML algorithms are complex
mathematical models that allow machines to learn from
data and improve their performance over time. And deep
learning is a subset of ML that focuses on developing
neural networks that can learn from data without being
61. • ML and deep learning are used in robotics to enable
robots to “learn” themselves. Over time, robots can use
ML and deep learning algorithms to “teach” themselves
how to perform specific tasks more efficiently. They will
use data from past experiences to make predictions
about what to do in different situations. This is how
robots become smarter over time. All of this
improvement would require little to no human
63. How Robotics Help The UN To Achieve
Sustainability Development Goals
• From clean water and fresh produce to clean energy manufacturing, robots have become
tools for positive change as the world works towards the UN’s Sustainability Goals.
• Robots are taking on a vital role in the progress of the United Nations’ Sustainable
Development Goals, ranging from cleaning the world’s waterways to building sustainable
cities. While robots may not be able to help with more socially-focused ideas, they are
beneficial in several other ways.
• As 2030 draws nearer, these are the top ways robots are helping countries achieve the
United Nations’ sustainability goals.
64. The UN’s Sustainable Development Goals
• In 2015, the United Nations established the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)–
key benchmarks designed to ensure that every nation evolves sustainably. The goals
cover social and environmental priorities, ranging from ending poverty to protecting
ecosystems on land and sea.
• Since the UN created the SDGs, progress has varied between nations, with some
countries projected to come much closer to meeting the goals than others.
• Robots don’t lend themselves to all of the SDGs, especially the more social goals like
gender equality. It is also important to note that many of the robots being applied to SDG
projects are still in development or not yet ready to be launched on a large scale.
• However, there are several SDGs where robots could be critical to success.
Agricultural Robots: SDG 2
• Agricultural robots could be extremely useful for meeting SDG 2, “Zero Hunger”. There is
no single solution to end world hunger, but many ideas have been developed throughout
the years that will certainly help achieve this goal. One of them is robotics.
65. • Soft robotic grippers, for example, are helping manufacturers automate production for all
types of food, even delicate ones like fruits and vegetables. Food-production automation
could improve manufacturers’ productivity, making more in less time. Robots can also
reduce the likelihood of human employees unintentionally contaminating products,
improving food safety.
• Similarly, robots are helping farmers meet demand. A group of researchers at Monash
University in Australia have developed an apple harvesting robot that can autonomously
harvest one apple every seven seconds. The robot uses artificial intelligence to analyse
images of the apples and detect whether or not they are ready to pick.
• These robots can help farmers harvest food more quickly and for less money, increasing
the availability of fresh produce without increasing the price.
Air Quality Monitoring Robots: SDGs 3 and 13
• Healthy air quality is essential in SDG 3 – “Good Health and Well-being” – as well as SDG 13
– “Climate Action”. Air can have a monumental impact on health and wellness, so people
everywhere need to be able to monitor local air quality. The quality is often representative
of climate-related issues as well. For example, high emissions indicate increased pollution.
66. • Luckily, robots can help the UN meet its air quality-related SDGs. Drones are the perfect
tool for monitoring air quality and collecting real-time information worldwide. A team of
researchers from MIT even designed an autonomous drone platform that collects air
quality data all on its own. The autonomous drones help make air quality monitoring more
accessible to low-income communities, which are frequently impacted most by air
Clean Energy Robots: SDG 7
• Clean energy is one of the pillars of a sustainable future, which is why it gets its own SDG
category. Robotics is well equipped to help the world meet SDG 7 – “Affordable and
• Robots are automating the manufacturing of clean energy infrastructures such as solar
panels and wind turbines. Swedish clean energy manufacturer Absolicon has already built
a fully automated factory to produce parts for solar heat generators.
• Other manufacturers could also use robots to create any clean energy component. They
can operate more efficiently by automating production, making more parts for less
money. This could help clean energy become more accessible.
67. • Robots can also help maintain clean energy infrastructure. Engineers have developed
an autonomous robot that cleans solar panels without water — it doesn’t even run on
fuel. The robot moves along solar panels and cleans them off using fabric and air, allowing
the panels to maintain peak energy collection.
Recycling Robots: SDGs 9, 12, and 13
• Like clean energy, recycling is central to a sustainable future. Recycling robots can help
the UN achieve numerous SDGs, specifically 9 – ”Industry, Innovation, and Infrastructure“,
12 – “Responsible Consumption and Production”, and 13 – ”Climate Action”.
• When it comes to responsible consumption and production, there are already some
basic steps most people know to take. For example, opting for LED lights is better for the
environment, and recycling plastic helps keep pollution out of the oceans. At least, that’s
what ideally happens — plastic waste is often difficult to recycle and reuse.
Robots are automating sorting at recycling centers, resulting in more accurate and
efficient recycling. This allows recycling centers to keep up with rising rates of plastic
pollution and deliver more high-quality recycled plastic.
• Factories can then use this recycled plastic to make sustainable goods such as food
packaging. Plus, more efficient recycling means manufacturers can remove more
68. Aquatic Robots: SDGs 12 and 14
• There is an estimated 150 million tonnes of plastic waste in the world’s oceans. With
more entering the world’s waterways every year, it’s no wonder the UN is prioritising
cleaning up the oceans and reducing waste.
• Robots that can take to the water are helping nations address SDGs 12 – “Responsible
Consumption and Production”, and 14 – “Life Below Water”.
• Scientists are developing nanobots – extremely small robots – that can decontaminate
wastewater using magnets. The robots do not require fuel and can eliminate pollutants
like arsenic in hours.
• Similarly, a larger robot called the “Ro-boat” has been in development since 2013, aiming
to remove pollutants and waste from rivers autonomously. It uses sensors and cameras
to detect pollution, then processes the polluted water through a filter to clean it. In tests,
engineers found the Ro-boat is capable of cleaning up to 200 tons of waste per year,
which could significantly impact communities globally.