1. CARBOXYLIC ACIDS
The General formula for it….
R-COOH, R-CO2H, R C
Where as R- is an Alkyl
Carboxylic acids are belongs to class of organic compounds having a carboxyl group
as functional group
1. Aliphatic acids have an alkyl group bonded to -COOH.
2. Aromatic acids have an aryl group bonded to –COOH..
Carbonyl + Hydroxyl
• The systematic name of individual acid is obtained by
replacing the ending “e” of the corresponding alkane
by –oic acid. Or Simply- alkane, drop –e, add –oic acid
Example Corresponding Alkanes IUPAC Name
HCOOH Methane Methanoic acid
CH3COOH Ethane Ethanoic acid
CH3CH2COOH Propane Propanoic acid
CH3CH2CH2COOH Butane Butanoic acid
3. If you want to give naming to higher members…..
1. Select the longest continuous chain containing the carboxyl
2. The number of carbon atoms in this chain gives the name
of the parent alkane and The -e ending of the parent alkane
name is replaced by the suffix -oic acid.
3. The carboxyl carbon is always given number 1 but the
number is not included in the name and the carbon atom
adjacent to it is given the number 2, and so on………………
4. The position of substituent's is indicated by numbers.
10. 1. Oxidation of Primary alcohols or aldehyde:
The primary alcohols or aldehyde undergoes oxidation with mixture of
potassium dichromate and sulfuric acid to form carboxylic acid. The
alcohol is first oxidized to an aldehyde and then to a carboxylic acid.
11. 2. Hydrolysis of esters:
When an ester is boiled with concentrated aq. NaOH sodium salt of the
acid is formed.
This on treatment with dil. HCl gives the corresponding carboxylic acid
12. 3. Reaction of Grignard reagents with Carbon dioxide (CO2):
Grignard reagent react with carbon dioxide to form addition products
that can be hydrolyzed to give carboxylic acid.
13. 4. Hydrolysis of Nitriles
Nitriles gives the corresponding carboxylic acid on hydrolysis in
either acidic or basic solution.
14. 5. Carboxylation of alkenes
When an alkene is heated with carbon monoxide and steam under
pressure with phosphoric acid (H3PO4) at 400 ℃ carboxylic acid is
formed. This reaction is called as Koch reaction.
16. 1. Lower carboxylic acids (upto C10) are liquid with sharp or disagreeable odor.
Higher members are waxes like solids and almost odorless.
2. Boiling points of carboxylic acids increases regularly with increase in molecular
3. Melting point of carboxylic acid increase irregularly with increase of molecular
Physical properties of carboxylic acid
Carboxylic acid also interact with water molecule by
hydrogen bonding through both the carbonyl group
and hydroxyl group. Because of these hydrogen
bonding interactions carboxylic acid are more soluble
in water than alcohol, ether, aldehyde and ketones of
same molecular weights.
20. 1. Salt formation:
An important reaction of carboxylic acids results from their acidity. They react rapidly
with the inorganic bases like NaOH and NH3 to form salts, Most of acids are enough
react with sodium bicarbonate solution, this reaction is accompanied by the
evaluation of carbon dioxide gas.
21. Carboxylic acids are react with phosphorus halide or thionyl chloride (SOCl2) to form
2. Formation of acyl halides (acid halides):
22. Carboxylic acids are react with ammonia to give salt which on heating yields amides
3. Formation of amide:
23. Carboxylic acids are react with alcohol in the presence of a strong acid catalysts like
sulphuric acid or hydrochloric acid to form ester. The reaction is called as Fischer
4. Formation of ester:
27. Uses Of Carboxylic Acid
1. Ethanoic acid (acetic acid): As a Flavouring agent, as a preservative, used with
chemicals to make drugs, dyes, paints, insecticides and
2. Methanoic acid (formic acid): Used to coagulate latex.
3. Fatty acids (long chain carboxylic acid): used to making the soaps.
4. Benzoic acid: Preservative in food