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DR. VULLI VENKATA RAO Ph.D.(Medical
Biochemistry)
SENIOR LECTURER
DEPARTMENT OF BIOCHEMISTRY
ACID BASE BALANCE
Objectives.
■ Concept of Acid & base.
■ pH and H ion concentration.
■ Handerson-Hasselbalch equation.
■ Mechanisms to maintain acid base balance.
■ Applied aspects.
Saturday, April 18, 2015
ACIDS
❑ Acids are the substances which can donate
H+ ion (proton).
❑These are hydrogen containing substances
which can dissociate in soln. to release H+.
❑Not all hydrogen containing substances are
acids; e.g. Carbohydrate.
H+
HCl + Cl-
ACIDS
❑ Types of acids in the body:
1. Volatile Acids:
➢Can leave the solution and enter the
environment.
➢H2CO3 is the only volatile acid in the body.
2. Non-Volatile Acids (Fixed Acids/Metabolic
Acids):
➢Acids that do not leave the solution.
➢All other acids in the body.
➢Ex: Pyruvic acid, Lactic acid, Phosphoric acid
etc.
H2CO3 H2O + CO2
ACIDS
❖ Physiologically important acids:
❖Carbonic acid (H2CO3)
❖Phosphoric acid (H3PO4)
❖Pyruvic acid (C3H4O3)
❖Lactic acid (C3H6O3)
❖ These acids are products of various
metabolisms in the body.
❖ Dissolved in body fluids.
BASE
➢
➢ Bicarbonate (HCO3
-)
Biphosphate (HPO4 )
-2
❑
Base is a substance which can
accept H+ ion (proton).,e.g. Hydroxyl
ion (OH-).
OH- +H+ H2O
■Physiologically important bases:
Alkali
❑ Used synonymously with base.
❑ Molecule formed by combination of an
alkaline metal (Na,K,Li) with a highly basic ion.
➢ Ex- NaOH, KOH, NaHPO4
❑ Base portion of these molecules react quickly
with H+to remove these from solution, i.e.
alkalis act as typical bases.
NaOH
+ H+
Na+ + OH-
H2O
Acids & Bases can be classified as strong or weak
acid/base
■ Strong acid/base:
■ One that dissociates completely in a solution.
■ Ex: HCl, H2SO4, NaOH
■ Weak acid/base:
■ One that dissociates partially in a solution.
■ Ex: H2CO3,
HCl
NaOH
H+ + Cl-
Na+ + OH-
H2CO3
H+ + HCO3-
Weak base:
NH3+H2O-----NH4++OH-
pH:potential of hydrogen
The letters pH stand for potential of
hydrogen, since pH is effectively a measure
of the concentration of hydrogen ions (that is,
protons) in a substance.
PH SCALE
❑ Normal blood pH is 7.35 - 7.45
❑ pH range compatible with life is 6.8 - 8.0
pH = - log H+ concentration
pH = 7.4
The pH is a measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions,
the acidity or alkalinity of a solution. The pH-scale is normally
between 0 and 14.
pH SCALE
29-Nov-22 Acid Base Balance
13
Normal H+
Concentration
Because of low H+ conc in body
fluids
H+ concentration
Customarily expressed on
logarithm scale
Using pH units
pH = log (1/[H+]) = -log[H+]
29-Nov-22 Acid Base Balance
14
Normal H+
Concentration
With a normal [H+] = 40 nEq/L =
0.00000004 Eq/L
pH = -log[0.00000004]
pH = 7.4
Thus pH is inversely related to [H+]
Low pH corresponds to high [H+]
High pH corresponds to low [H+]
❑ Normal blood pH is 7.35 - 7.45
❑ pH range compatible with life is 6.8 - 8.0
PH SCALE
pH = - log [H+] pH = log 1/
[H+]
❑ pH is inversely related to H+concentration. low pH –
indicates high H+concentration. high pH –
indicates low H+concentration.
❑pH = 4 has 10 times more free H+concentration than pH = 5
and 100 times more free H+concentration than pH = 6
❑pH range from 1-14.
pH < 7 – Acidic pH
> 7 – Basic pH
7 - Neutral
PH of the ECF is regulated very precisely
ACIDOSIS ALKALOSIS
NORMAL
DEATH DEATH
Venous
Blood
Arterial
Blood
7.3 7.4 7.5
6.8 8.0
EFFECTS OF pH change
■ pH changes have dramatic effects on normal cell
function
■ 1) Changes in excitability of nerve and muscle
cells
■ 2) Influences enzyme activity
■ 3) Influences K+levels
18
Changes in cell excitability
■ pH decrease (more acidic) depresses the central
nervous system
■ Can lead to loss of consciousness
■ pH increase (more basic) can cause over-excitability
■ Tingling sensations, nervousness, muscle twitches
pH Excitability
pH Excitability
19
Influences on enzyme activity
■ pH increases or decreases can alter the shape
of the enzyme rendering it non-functional
■ Changes in enzyme structure can result in
accelerated or depressed metabolic actions
within the cell
20
ACID BASE BALANCE
■
■ pH maintenance means maintaining [H+].
■ This involves two important ions which are regulated by
various chemical & physiological process:
H+
HCO3
-
29-Nov-22 Acid Base Balance
22
Henderson
Hasselbach
Equation
pH = pKa + log(Base)/(Acid)
This is the Henderson-Hasselbach
equation
Diagnosing Acid-Base imbalance
■Remember 3 important values:
pH = 7.4
pCO2 = 40 mm Hg
HCO3- = 24 mmol/l

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ACID BASE BALANCE BY DR. VENKATA.pptx

  • 1. DR. VULLI VENKATA RAO Ph.D.(Medical Biochemistry) SENIOR LECTURER DEPARTMENT OF BIOCHEMISTRY ACID BASE BALANCE
  • 2. Objectives. ■ Concept of Acid & base. ■ pH and H ion concentration. ■ Handerson-Hasselbalch equation. ■ Mechanisms to maintain acid base balance. ■ Applied aspects. Saturday, April 18, 2015
  • 3. ACIDS ❑ Acids are the substances which can donate H+ ion (proton). ❑These are hydrogen containing substances which can dissociate in soln. to release H+. ❑Not all hydrogen containing substances are acids; e.g. Carbohydrate. H+ HCl + Cl-
  • 4. ACIDS ❑ Types of acids in the body: 1. Volatile Acids: ➢Can leave the solution and enter the environment. ➢H2CO3 is the only volatile acid in the body. 2. Non-Volatile Acids (Fixed Acids/Metabolic Acids): ➢Acids that do not leave the solution. ➢All other acids in the body. ➢Ex: Pyruvic acid, Lactic acid, Phosphoric acid etc. H2CO3 H2O + CO2
  • 5. ACIDS ❖ Physiologically important acids: ❖Carbonic acid (H2CO3) ❖Phosphoric acid (H3PO4) ❖Pyruvic acid (C3H4O3) ❖Lactic acid (C3H6O3) ❖ These acids are products of various metabolisms in the body. ❖ Dissolved in body fluids.
  • 6. BASE ➢ ➢ Bicarbonate (HCO3 -) Biphosphate (HPO4 ) -2 ❑ Base is a substance which can accept H+ ion (proton).,e.g. Hydroxyl ion (OH-). OH- +H+ H2O ■Physiologically important bases:
  • 7. Alkali ❑ Used synonymously with base. ❑ Molecule formed by combination of an alkaline metal (Na,K,Li) with a highly basic ion. ➢ Ex- NaOH, KOH, NaHPO4 ❑ Base portion of these molecules react quickly with H+to remove these from solution, i.e. alkalis act as typical bases. NaOH + H+ Na+ + OH- H2O
  • 8. Acids & Bases can be classified as strong or weak acid/base ■ Strong acid/base: ■ One that dissociates completely in a solution. ■ Ex: HCl, H2SO4, NaOH ■ Weak acid/base: ■ One that dissociates partially in a solution. ■ Ex: H2CO3, HCl NaOH H+ + Cl- Na+ + OH- H2CO3 H+ + HCO3-
  • 10. pH:potential of hydrogen The letters pH stand for potential of hydrogen, since pH is effectively a measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions (that is, protons) in a substance.
  • 11. PH SCALE ❑ Normal blood pH is 7.35 - 7.45 ❑ pH range compatible with life is 6.8 - 8.0 pH = - log H+ concentration pH = 7.4 The pH is a measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions, the acidity or alkalinity of a solution. The pH-scale is normally between 0 and 14.
  • 13. 29-Nov-22 Acid Base Balance 13 Normal H+ Concentration Because of low H+ conc in body fluids H+ concentration Customarily expressed on logarithm scale Using pH units pH = log (1/[H+]) = -log[H+]
  • 14. 29-Nov-22 Acid Base Balance 14 Normal H+ Concentration With a normal [H+] = 40 nEq/L = 0.00000004 Eq/L pH = -log[0.00000004] pH = 7.4 Thus pH is inversely related to [H+] Low pH corresponds to high [H+] High pH corresponds to low [H+]
  • 15. ❑ Normal blood pH is 7.35 - 7.45 ❑ pH range compatible with life is 6.8 - 8.0
  • 16. PH SCALE pH = - log [H+] pH = log 1/ [H+] ❑ pH is inversely related to H+concentration. low pH – indicates high H+concentration. high pH – indicates low H+concentration. ❑pH = 4 has 10 times more free H+concentration than pH = 5 and 100 times more free H+concentration than pH = 6 ❑pH range from 1-14. pH < 7 – Acidic pH > 7 – Basic pH 7 - Neutral
  • 17. PH of the ECF is regulated very precisely ACIDOSIS ALKALOSIS NORMAL DEATH DEATH Venous Blood Arterial Blood 7.3 7.4 7.5 6.8 8.0
  • 18. EFFECTS OF pH change ■ pH changes have dramatic effects on normal cell function ■ 1) Changes in excitability of nerve and muscle cells ■ 2) Influences enzyme activity ■ 3) Influences K+levels 18
  • 19. Changes in cell excitability ■ pH decrease (more acidic) depresses the central nervous system ■ Can lead to loss of consciousness ■ pH increase (more basic) can cause over-excitability ■ Tingling sensations, nervousness, muscle twitches pH Excitability pH Excitability 19
  • 20. Influences on enzyme activity ■ pH increases or decreases can alter the shape of the enzyme rendering it non-functional ■ Changes in enzyme structure can result in accelerated or depressed metabolic actions within the cell 20
  • 21. ACID BASE BALANCE ■ ■ pH maintenance means maintaining [H+]. ■ This involves two important ions which are regulated by various chemical & physiological process: H+ HCO3 -
  • 22. 29-Nov-22 Acid Base Balance 22 Henderson Hasselbach Equation pH = pKa + log(Base)/(Acid) This is the Henderson-Hasselbach equation
  • 23.
  • 24.
  • 25. Diagnosing Acid-Base imbalance ■Remember 3 important values: pH = 7.4 pCO2 = 40 mm Hg HCO3- = 24 mmol/l