SlideShare ist ein Scribd-Unternehmen logo
1 von 178
Downloaden Sie, um offline zu lesen
From Open Government
to
Living Policy making
Damien Lanfrey + Donatella Solda
Policy Advisors, Ministry of Education, University and Research, Italy
Part 1: Lesson plan
DESIGNING ENGAGEMENT FOR POLICY
(AKA OPEN GOVERNMENT)
1.1THE MANY CONCEPTUAL ROOTS OF ENGAGEMENT
GW. IDENTIFYING A TOOL FOR MANAGING ENGAGEMENT
1.2 SOME CHALLENGES OF ENGAGEMENT IN THE DIGITAL AGE
1.3 CASE STUDIES FROM OPEN GOVERNMENT DESIGN: PUBLIC CONSULTATIONS
1.4 A FRAMEWORK FOR DESIGNING PARTICIPATORY POLICY-MAKING
GW. GROUP-WORK CHALLENGE: APPLYING THE FRAMEWORK
Part 2: Lesson plan
LIVING POLICY MAKING
GW. PART 1 GROUP-WORK PITCH AND DISCUSSION
2.1 COMPLETING THE FRAMEWORK: THE POLICY CYCLE
2.2 INNOVATIONS IN POLICY DESIGN: STATE OF THE ART
2.3 FROM OPEN POLICY TO LIVING POLICY-MAKING
GW. APPLIED LIVING POLICY MAKING & FINAL DISCUSSION
Part 1:
Designing Engagement
towards Policy
1
Is it possible to design impactful
engagement towards policy ?
CHALLENGES / 1
CHALLENGES / 2
Is it possibile to model
a theory on Engagement ?
SOME PILLARS FOR THE DAY
there is no such thing as
“participation for 

participation’s sake”
SOME PILLARS FOR THE DAY
enough with the “idealized citizen”
SOME PILLARS FOR THE DAY
when it comes to government
(policy & politics)
scale makes a difference
1.1
The (many) conceptual
roots of
Engagement
The Many Conceptual Roots of Engagement
The Many Conceptual Roots of Engagement
Politics Advocacy Governance mobilization
Design
(Experience/Service/
Process/System)
Law-Making
[Sunstein, Thaler]
Community Organizing
[Alinsky]
Communication /
Information Systems
[tech-makers themselves]
Education
(pedagogy, skills,
learning patterns)
Citizenship
+
The Many Conceptual Roots of Engagement
Political roots [Bennett, Coleman]: Participation as emerging forms of citizenship
Communication roots [Bimber, Shirky]: Every bit counts, communication = collective action
Organizational roots [Bennett, Earl & Kimport, Chadwick]: Collective action as organizational change
Philanthropic roots filantropiche [Fine, Kanter]: Reimagining our links to social causes
Conflictual and symbolic roots [Diani, Della Porta]: Social movement theories, alternative spaces in society, framing processes,
mobilizing structures, political opportunities
Macro-theories [Benkler, Castells]: Collective action as power-shifting (communicative and economic)
Techno-Legal roots [Bollier, Lessig]: Code as law, power of digital architectures/artifacts, remix
New media roots [Loader and Mercea, Manovich]: Social media, new modes of engagement, narratives, genres, new media theories
Design roots [various]: open design, p2p design, user-centred design, service design, design for policy
(Social) Innovation roots [Mulgan et al]: hybridity, iteration, social impact
The Many Conceptual Roots of Engagement
As “ladder” of activities
The Many Conceptual Roots of Engagement
As “ladder” of activities
Source: Forrester
The Many Conceptual Roots of Engagement
As “ladder” of activities
Source: Forrester
The Many Conceptual Roots of Engagement
As “ladder” of activities
Credits: Beth Kanter
The Many Conceptual Roots of Engagement
By Mode of Production
Crowds Communities
The Many Conceptual Roots of Engagement
By Mode of Production
Crowds Communities
Credits: Haythornthwaite
The Many Conceptual Roots of Engagement
Crowds and Communities
Credits: Pew Research Centre
The Many Conceptual Roots of Engagement
As Citizenship practice
Credits:
Nathaniel Heller
The Many Conceptual Roots of Engagement
As Civic Tech Categories
As emerging “fields” of the civic
tech sector, defined by the
proliferation of tools
(Credits: Young Foundation)
The Many Conceptual Roots of Engagement
As Civic Tech Categories
The Many Conceptual Roots of Engagement
As Civic Tech Categories
The Many Conceptual Roots of Engagement
By Impact over the system
Melucci's (1996)framework categorizes
all forms of collective action
The Many Conceptual Roots of Engagement
Sifry's (2014) summary of debates on
categorizing public engagement
By Impact over System Vs Mode of Production
The Many Conceptual Roots of Engagement
As “format work”
A Scuola di OpenCoesione, a 6-step lesson plan
for engaging students through open data in civic
monitoring of cohesion funds expenditure
The Many Conceptual Roots of Engagement
Leveraging Participation “Styles”
Take the example of kiva.org, the
online social lending platform.
It is way more than the lending
practice, leveraging many
“engagement paths”
The Many Conceptual Roots of Engagement
Leveraging Participation “Styles”
The “tight community” path
The Many Conceptual Roots of Engagement
Leveraging Participation “Styles”
The “community” path
The Many Conceptual Roots of Engagement
Leveraging Participation “Styles”
Leveraging existing communities
The Many Conceptual Roots of Engagement
Leveraging Participation “Styles”
Communities as distributed governance
The Many Conceptual Roots of Engagement
Leveraging Participation “Styles”
The Education Path
The Many Conceptual Roots of Engagement
Leveraging Participation “Styles”
The “instrumental” Path
The Many Conceptual Roots of Engagement
Leveraging Participation “Styles”
The individual/utilitarian Path
The Many Conceptual Roots of Engagement
Leveraging Participation “Styles”
The “Ambassador” Path
The Many Conceptual Roots of Engagement
Leveraging Participation “Styles”
The “every bit counts” Path
The Many Conceptual Roots of Engagement
Leveraging Participation “Styles”
The “Generative” Path
Case 1: Poverty2Prosperity
Created by Scott, KivaFriends member
Allows other Kiva users to make loans 

automatically to safe funds
Fosters non-generative, simplified engagement
Case 2: 101 Cookbooks Blog
Created by Heidi , author of the Cookbooks blog
Posted on September 3rd, 2008 + instructions
763 lenders, 38,000$ in loans
The Many Conceptual Roots of Engagement
Leveraging Participation “Styles”
kiva.org, the online 

social lending platform, is way more
than the lending practice. it leverages
many “engagement paths”
So, engagement can be interpreted in many ways
“Ladder” of activities
Mode of production
Civic tech categories
Impact over the system
Leveraging “participation styles”
“format work”
GROUP WORK
IDENTIFYING A TOOL (or combo of up to 2
tools) FOR MANAGING ENGAGEMENT
GROUP 1: the Council of Rome wants to gather opinions and ideas from citizens before
drafting the next traffic plan
GROUP 2: the Ministry of Economic Development has just launched its policy brief on
startups and wants to hear from stakeholders and the public before final revisions
(40 minutes)
GROUP WORK
Engagement
in the Digital Age
1.2
E-Participation Dilemmas
“VOICES FAILING TO BE HEARD” (Keen, 2007; Hindman, 2009)
“LARGELY UNCHANGED HABITS” (Bimber, 2003, 2009)
“PSEUDO PARTICIPATION” (Noveck, 2004)
“THICK COMPETITIVE ELITISM” (Davis, 2011)
“SLACKTIVISM” (Morozov, Gladwell)
“CYBERPOLARIZATION” (Sunstein, Dahlberg)
Online consultations, “no longer an exotic experience” (Shane, 2012)
BUT: failure to deliver (various scholars, at various stages, 2005-2014)
Two recurring problems:
“[...] few online forums for political expression are tied to in any ascertainable, accountable way to actual governmental
policy making” (Shane, 2012).
“most most exercises in online deliberation attract relatively small numbers of participants” (Shane, 2012)
A negative spiral
Weak link to policy
Low numbers
Low impact in policy
Low trust, apathy
Low attention from polity & policy
Lower trust, numbers “A recessive spiral”
E-participation Dilemmas
E-participation Dilemmas
Case Study:
PUBLIC CONSULTATIONS

in Italy (2012-2015)
1.3
The “Attempts” Phase
OGP - Action Plan
Numbers: very low,“usual suspects”
Impact: minimal
low diffusion for the theme
a detailed report
Main Issues: lack of debate, closed networks,
numbers not sufficient to legitimate the policy
Spending Review
Numbers: very high, but mostly useless
Impact: very low (“complaint box”)

not demonstrable, low accountability
negative on tools
Main Issues: the tools used, too simplistic, and low
accountability
Valore Legale Titolo di Studio
(Legal value of degrees)
Numbers: high, but negative debate, and results
Impact:“unfortunately” for the Gov, very high:
Activism from various groups

Policy was interrupted and Gov “lost”

No accountability on the process
Main Issues: how the debate was managed, the
relationship between tools and objectives
35.335 questionnaires in 30 days 550.000 messages in 28 days few dozens of comments
The “Tools” Phase
HIT2020: Horizon 2020 Italy - 2012
Numbers: good, but partisanship and lack of
attention from non-research world
Impact:
Over the policy drafing
Rich analysis (report)
Higher participation than EU equivalent
Clarity of the process
Main issues: partisanship, lack of attention from
non-research world
Italian position on Internet General
Principles (IGF) - 2012
Numbers: decent, but, low engagement across
networks besides info-tech world
Impact:
co-drafting
(partially) international credibility
issue awareness
good value of physical workshops
Main Issues: tools, lack of literacy, timing, short
policy window
Digital Agenda (AdiSocial) - 2012
Numbers: decent, but lack of communication
Impact: multiple
Influence over working groups
Leveraging diversity
Consistency with auditions
First innovations with tools

A rich report on the process
Main Issues: lack of time, low inter-ministerial
coordination, communication, accessibility
3000 users, 343 ideas, 1967 comments,
11.000 votes in 35 days
760 users, 159 ideas, 480 comments

3500 votes in 44 days
4272 questionnaires + 3500 users, 133
ideas, 500 comments, 7500 votes in 35 days
The “Paths” Phase
Destination Italy
Numbers: decent, but negative agenda
Impact:
very direct: policy was “adjusted” in various parts
clear priorities from participants
stakeholder engagement (e.g. think tank)
Main Issues: political instability, lack of debate
PartecipaGov: Constitutional Reforms
Numbers: very high (largest in Europe)
Impact: debatable, ongoing, soft, DELAYED
Keeping constitutional reforms high in the agenda;
educational, knowledge development; very detailed
report; very clear findings from citizens
Main Issues: political instability, limited offline
debate
Social Innovation Agenda co-design
Numbers: low, but significant stakeholder
network
Impact: limited, but high intangible value
Co-drafting of the agenda; Institutional working
groups launched and few projects launched;
International attention; Cultural impact
Main Issues: political instability
85 stakeholders involved,
250 inputs in 5 areas, 1 month
131.676 Q1 + 71.385 Q2 = 214.000 contributions

77000 textual comments, 595 ideas, 1763 comments

475.000 visits, 9:34 minutes per visit, 3 months
278 comments , 369 questionnaires, 167 ideas, 23 position
papers, 30.000 participants, 2 months
Case Study:
PartecipaGov
public consultation
on constitutional reforms
PartecipaGov: designing the participation process
200k people involved
at the time: largest online consultation by a gov in europe
PartecipaGov (Public Consultation on Constitutional Reforms) has been
organized around a multi-phase process designed through a range of
participation means, media campaigns and engagement occasions.
PartecipaGov: designing the participation process
PartecipaGov: participation paths
Enabling different
“layers” of
engagement
Having the highest
participation possible for a
Government consultation
“Respecting” the subject:
constitutional reforms.
Qualifying engagement
progressively: from Q1
to Q2 to public debates
Putting pressure on
institutions
Providing clear indications
for constitutional reforms
Consulting ex-ante to
avoid ex-post failure
(referendum)
PartecipaGov: QUESTIONNAIRE #1
PartecipaGov: QUESTIONNAIRE #2
PartecipaGov: Public debates
PartecipaGov: COMMUNICATION STRATEGY
Partecipa alla Consultazione Pubblica online indetta dal
Governo per conoscere il parere dei cittadini sulle riforme della
Costituzione. Potrai esprimere la tua opinione su temi chiave
per l’assetto e il funzionamento del nostro Paese. Partecipare
è semplice: basta collegarsi al sito www.partecipa.gov.it e compilare
due veloci questionari entro l’8 ottobre. Un’occasione unica
per costruire, tutti insieme, un Paese più moderno ed efficiente.
PartecipaGov: ENGAGEMENT (MEDIA CAMPAIGNS)
- Spike of users: + 50%, +100%, +200% depending on timing
- Spike of mobile users: from 5% to 30-40%
- Participation slows in 10 minutes (mobile especially)
- Participation increases again (more desktop users + social)
- Campaigns contribution steady
Tv spikes Vs Web spikes
TG2 (20)
UnoMattina (7am) + start campaignsIlPost (11am)
Re-launch + TG5 (13)
Ad campaign
Web = fragmented, apart from social PA campaigns + institutional
websites = lower but constant
contributionMedia necessary, debate necessary
PartecipaGov: GENERAL ENGAGEMENT METRICS
PartecipaGov: ONLINE ENGAGEMENT METRICS
200k people involved
largest online consultation by a gov in europe
PartecipaGov (Public Consultation on Constitutional Reforms) has
been organized around a multi-phase process designed through a range
of participation means, media campaigns and engagement occasions.
Conversion Rates
Desktop: 29,3% (n=80.976)
Tablet: 25,22% (n=7.638)
Mobile: 16,3% (n=11.295)
PartecipaGov: PARTICIPANTS’ DEMOGRAPHICS
Q1 Q2
PartecipaGov: CONVERSION RATES
TermometroPolitico.it: 48% (n=203)
TiConsiglio.com: 43,4% (n=618)
Governo.it: 39% (n=3.271)
Direct: 31,3% (n=40.062)
ACI Banner: 31,3% (n=1.374)
IlPost: 30,5% (n=269)
INPS Banner: 30,1% (n=2.916)
Total: 27,5%
Facebook web: 25,5% (n=5.379)
Province websites: 24,1% (n=1.058)
All Campaigns: 23% (n=11.966)
Comuni websites: 22,5% (n=1.521)
Twitter: 19% (n=985)
All referrals: 19,9% (n=35.291)
Facebook mobile: 11% (n=3.186)
- Social media lower conversion rate (influenced by mobile)
- Tablet higher conversion than mobile, but lower than
desktop

- .Gov websites (+Governo.it) effective with 39% conversion

- Web-zines also effective, though lower absolute numbers
Case Study:
La Buona Scuola

Public consultation on education reform
La Buona Scuola
La Buona Scuola: designing the participation process
La Buona Scuola (a comprehensive
school reform proposal +
engagement plan) involved the design
of a 6-months policy process
including expert groups, a public
consultation, a national tour, a
communication and media strategy.
La Buona Scuola (a comprehensive school reform proposal) consultation involved 3 main participation “paths”:
A 7-section questionnaires, 16 co-design themes and a strategy for live debating.
La Buona Scuola: participation paths
La Buona Scuola consultation: every participation path underlies a thick organizational process, including administrative regional offices,
stakeholders’ engagement and political liaising
La Buona Scuola: offline events as key strategy
1.8M people involved
DEBATESTOUR STAGES

300 people per debate POSITION PAPERS
Rapporti degli 

Uffici Scolastici Regionali
207k
1.3 M
20 115204040
200k
documented online
1.5 M
reached
La Buona Scuola: consultation final numbers
A Learning Curve
• Innovation/expansion in tools
• A shift from tools to processes
• A wider variety of processes put in place
• More “organizational work”
• Stronger, more directed impact
• Much more variables involved in design
• Demonstrating that Government can handle participation
• A (mildly) positive public debate (or at least a debate)
A FRAMEWORKFOR 

DESIGNING (AND ASSESSING)
PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT
1.4
Why A Framework?
• Too much focus on technologies (technocratic approach) and on designing “the perfect
software for the perfect citizen”
• Too little focus on organizational and institutional aspects, need for more “inside the box”
approaches (Chadwick, 2011)
• Need a better focus on information dynamics (i.e. attention scarcity)
• Inability to locate e-participation within a wider social context, too much focus on “online
interactions”
• A need to fill the e-democracy from below and above mismatch by better understanding the
many dimensions of civic engagement
• Need for multi-dimensional, context-aware and staged approaches
• Multi-disciplinarity (Dawes, 2009)
• Raising the bar (practice), enriching the debate (intellectual)
• Designing for impact (thus, innovation?)
A Framework for designing engagement
outcomes and externalities
outputs
media and symbolic space
modelling and organizational dimension, participation process
pre-conditions to participation and motivations
participation
culture
digital
culture
social needs
and interests
trustinformation
organizational and institutional fitnessreachlivenessrichness
activism and
advocacy
occasions 

& eventsdebate
1
2
3
4
A Framework for designing engagement
1 pre-conditions to participation and motivations
participation
culture
digital culture
social needs
and interests
trust
information
dialogue 

democratic behavior
netiquette
access to relevant information

content clarity

clear explanation of the process

clear link to facts, sources and
policy contents
participatory pact 

(static or dynamic)

clear link to policy cycle

centrality in policy

security of the platform

Information management

openness to challenge
relevance

urgency

link to current debate

opportunity
framing processes

identities
e-skills

digital divide

netiquette
a pilot model - 1
A Framework for designing engagement
1 pre-conditions to participation and motivations
information
access to relevant information

content clarity

clear explanation of the process

clear link to facts, sources and
policy contents
a pilot model - 1
clear link to facts, sources access to 

relevant
information
content clarity
A Framework for designing engagement
1 pre-conditions to participation and motivations
a pilot model - 1
trust
participatory pact 

(static or dynamic)

clear link to policy cycle

centrality in policy

security of the platform

Information management

openness to challenge
participatory pact / social trust
technical trust / security
centrality in policyinformation
management
netiquette
A Framework for designing engagement
1 pre-conditions to participation and motivations
a pilot model - 1
participation
culture
dialogue 

democratic behavior
netiquette“participation day”
rewarding democratic behavior
rewarding democratic behavior
A Framework for designing engagement
1 pre-conditions to participation and motivations
a pilot model - 1
digital culture
e-skills

digital divide

netiquette
digital divide
digital literacy
A Framework for designing engagement
2 modelling participation and organizational dimension
a pilot model - 2
organizational and institutional fitness
reach
liveness
organizational micro-politics

boundary work

partnering
richness
enhancing participation styles

ladder of engagement

flexibility of participation paths

customization

social technographics
ability to produce 

step-goods, remix,
transcoding
communication efforts

virality and diffusion
mechanism, partnering

appeal

storytelling

media presence
A Framework for designing engagement
2 modelling participation and organizational dimension
a pilot model - 2
The digital economy moved the richness/reach (quality/quantity)
threshold, but attention scarcity keeps it relevant
A Framework for designing engagement
2 modelling participation and organizational dimension
richness
enhancing participation styles

building ladders of engagement

flexibility of participation paths

customization

social technographics
54% of respondents
to Q1 (8 questions)

also completed Q2
(24 questions)
Building ladders of engagement
light weight v. heavy weight
production models
Flexibility of participation paths
a pilot model - 2
A Framework for designing engagement
2 modelling participation and organizational dimension
communication efforts

virality
partnering

appeal

storytelling

media presence
mobile
tablet
Desktop
designing for
mobility
partnering
reach
communication
efforts
a pilot model - 2
A Framework for designing engagement
2 modelling participation and organizational dimension
liveness
ability to produce 

step-goods, remix,
transcoding
GOV.UK/performance
analytics dashboard
participation 

mapping
semantics and argument
visualization
debate mapping
a pilot model - 2
A Framework for designing engagement
2 modelling participation and organizational dimension
liveness
ability to produce 

step-goods, remix,
transcoding
a pilot model - 2
A Framework for designing engagement
2 modelling participation and organizational dimension
Main reasons for e-participation failure

(Chadwick, 2011)
Budget Constraints and Organizational
Instability
Policy Shifts
Political Ambivalence
Legal Risks and Depoliticization
Outsourcing / Insourcing
organizational and institutional fitness
organizational micro-politics / hierarchies

boundary work

institutional and political partnering
understand the
organization
budget
constraints
political
ambivalence
a pilot model - 2
A Framework for designing engagement
3 media and symbolic dimension
a pilot model - 3
activism and
advocacy
occasions 

& events
debate
contribution from public debate
fostering democratic
occasions

design thinking

social innovation
agonistic dimension
A Framework for designing engagement
3 media and symbolic dimension
a pilot model - 3
debate
contribution from public
debate
A Framework for designing engagement
3 media and symbolic dimension
a pilot model - 3
occasions 

& events
fostering democratic
occasions
accreditation

design thinking

social innovation
Social Innovation Agenda 2013
IBAC 2014 (Destinazione Italia)
Design jams as goal-setter
A Framework for designing engagement
3 media and symbolic dimension
a pilot model - 3
activism and
advocacy
leveraging the agonistic
dimension
A Framework for designing engagement
4 outputs, outcomes and externalities
a pilot model - 4
outcomes and externalities
accountability efficiency legitimacy
awareness identityconflictsheterogeneity social justicetrust
A Framework for designing engagement
4 outputs, outcomes and externalities
a pilot model - 4
outcomes and externalities
accountability efficiency legitimacy
awareness identityconflictsheterogeneity social justicetrust
quantity vs quality of debate
who is saying what/how groups behave
turning noise into meaning
cost-effectiveness,
completion rates, user satisfaction
actual feedbacks
A Framework for designing engagement
4 outputs, outcomes and externalities
a pilot model - 4
outcomes and externalities
accountability efficiency legitimacy
awareness identityconflictsheterogeneity social justicetrust
conversion rates
- Direct + Search = 62% of total Q1 completed
- Campaigns + Referrals = 38% of total Q1 completed
- Mobile + Tablet contributes for 14% of Q1 completed
- Facebook + Twitter = 7% of of Q1 completed
- Main institutional websites = 18,4% of Q1 completed
11%
1%1%1%1%1%
1%
2%
4%
4%
4%
6%
17%
45%
Direct Google Facebook
Agenzia Entrate Governo.it INPS
ACI Comuni MIT
TiConsiglio.com Province INAIL
Twitter Other
capturing moments
stickiness
GROUP WORK
APPLYING THE FRAMEWORK
GROUP 1 & 2: The Government wants to raise awareness about European
citizenship in the context of the celebration of the 60th anniversary of the
signing of the “Rome Treaty”.
Framework conditions: high euro skepticism (varying degrees by country), revision of EU general
budget, Brexit referendum by October 2016

Possible Subjects: the “four freedoms” of European Union: people circulation (Research,Tourism,
Workers), Goods circulation (Duties and taxation), Services (e.g. unified mobile roaming, Internet
purchases, Digital single market) and Capital circulation (e.g. Monetary union, the Banking system).
What you need to do: Prepare a timeline for organizing engagement between now and
March 25th 2017 (when a celebration with all EU Ministers for a new declaration will be
held).
Details required:Timeline, tools & techniques used, partners involved, barriers to overcome,
incentives to be leveraged, participation phases, communication strategy, outputs and outcomes
expected
Part 2
Living Policy
design
Part 2: Lesson plan
“LIVING POLICY” DESIGN
GW - GROUP-WORK PITCH FROM PART 1 & DISCUSSION
2.1 - COMPLETINGTHE FRAMEWORK:THE POLICY CYCLE
2.2 - INNOVATIONS IN POLICY DESIGN: STATE OFTHE ART
2.3 - FROM OPEN POLICYTO LIVING POLICY-MAKING
GW APPLIED LIVING POLICY CHALLENGE & FINAL DISCUSSION
GROUP-WORK
APPLYING THE FRAMEWORK
Context: The EU is celebrating the 60th anniversary of the Treaty of Rome.
The EU bodies and Member States intends to raise awareness about
European citizenship.
Framework conditions: high euro
skepticism (varying degrees by
country), revision of EU general
budget, Brexit referendum by
October 2016.The celebration with
all EU Prime Ministers will include a
new declaration.
Possible Subjects: the “four freedoms” of
European Union: people circulation (Students,
Research,Tourism,Workers), Goods
circulation (Duties and taxation), Services (e.g.
unified mobile roaming, Internet purchases,
Digital single market) and Capital circulation
(e.g. Monetary union, Banking system).
What you need to do: Prepare a timeline of events for organizing
engagement between now and March 25th 2017.
Details required:Timeline, tools & techniques used, partners involved, barriers
to overcome, incentives to be leveraged, participation phases, communication
strategy, outputs and outcomes expected
GROUP-WORK examples
GROUP-WORK examples
GROUP-WORK
PITCH FROM PART 1 

FINAL GROUP WORK

--

DISCUSSION
(40 minutes)
The Legal 

roots of
Engagement
2.1
CONTEXT
• OpenGovernment policy: pro-active disclosure of information and for engagement with citizens and
stakeholders.
• Stated goals: strengthen accountability of institutions, increasing legitimacy and efficiency of decision and policy
making
• sought externalities: filling the democratic gap, reinforce social identity and attain social justice
PLANS AND PRINCIPLES
• US OpenGovernment Directive and the Memorandum for the OpenGovernment initiative (Obama, Feb 2009)
• EUTowards a reinforced culture of consultation and dialogue (2002), PlanD for Democracy (2005), Better
Regulation initiative (2005) and Smart regulation (2012).
BY SUBJECT AND INITIATIVES
• environment: [1991] ESPOO Convention on Environmental Impact assessment in a transboundary context;
[1992] RIO Declaration on Environment and Development; 1998 Aarhus Convention on Access to
Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters; 2000
European Landscape Convention
• constitution-making: India [1950], Bosnia-Herzegovina [1995], Uganda [1995], Poland [1997],Timor-Leste
[2002],Afghanistan [2004], Bolivia [2009], Kenya [2005; 2010]
• Peer-to-patent: remedying the information deficit of Patent Offices, such as in the case of establishing prior art
which is central to the quality of an examined patent.The peer-to-patent projects show that the Patent
community - a relatively clear and competent community with a critical view on the development of the patent
system - is capable of supporting the process (Noveck 2006)
The Legal Roots of Open Government / 1
12.04.2013 

First document
of the “wisemen”
2013
17.10.2003
Draft Legislation
2006
25-26.06.2006 

Referendum
18.11.2005 

Legislation
published
25.03/15.10.2005

Final version
approved
Reform Part II of the Italian Constitution
06.2013 

extra-
parliamentary
working group
08.07.2013 

Public
Consultation
opens
08.10.2013 

Public
Consultation
closes
12.11.2013 

Report to the
Parliament
turnout 52% 

Yes 39%

No 61%
Reform Part II of the Constitution
--.--.20-- 

Referendum
18.07.2003 

DraftTreaty
establishing a
Constitution
for Europe
2006
Consultative Referendum29.10.2004 

Treaty signed in
Rome
04.10.2003

[IGC]

InterGovernmental
Conference starts
Constitution for Europe
Yes Spain, Luxembourg 

No France,The Netherlands
15.12.2001 

Laeken
Declaration
European Convention for the Future of Europe
Ratification period [by October 2006]
Lithuania, Hungary, Slovenia,
Italy,Austria, Greece, Malta,
Cyprus, Latvia, Belgium,
Estonia, Bulgaria, Romania,
Slovakia, Germany, Finland
Ratification
suspended: Czech Republic,
Denmark, Ireland, Poland, Portugal,
Sweden, UK
COM(2005)494 final
Plan D

for Democracy
Dialogue Debate 

Failures and Debates
Devolution - Reform of TitleV
12.04.2013 

First document
of the “wisemen”
2013
2001
20.01.1998 

Draft legislation
18.10.2001 

Legge Costituzionale 

n. 3/2001
26.09.2000 

Unified text
approved
08.03.2001 

Final version
approved
07.10.2001 

Referendum
turnout 34% 

Yes 62%

No 36%
25.06.1944 Norm to call for a
consultation at the end of the war on
the form of government and to elect a
Constitution Assembly
02.06.1946 

Referendum “Istituzionale” 

[Monarchy v. Republic]

Election of the Constitution Assembly
31.01.1948 

Publication of the 

Italian Constitution
Monarchy v. Republic
Constitutional Assembly
1948
17.10.2003
Draft Legislation
2006
25-26.06.2006 

Referendum
18.11.2005 

Legislation
published
25.03/15.10.2005

Final version
approved
Part II of the Constitution
06.2013 

extra-
parliamentary
working group
08.07.2013 

Public
Consultation
opens
08.10.2013 

Public
Consultation
closes
12.11.2013 

Report to the
Parliament
turnout 52% 

Yes 39%

No 61%
Part II of the Constitution
Italian Constitutional Reforms
— STATED GOALS
• ACCOUNTABILITY “The Governments will be forced
to act according to justice only if their actions could be
constantly challenged through the publicity: there won’t be
any justice if the political action cannot be publicly known”
Immanuel Kant,“Perpetual Peace.A philosophical
sketch” (1795).
• EFFICIENCY make use of shared and local knowledge,
well adapted and needed decisions and rules
• LEGITIMACY increased acceptance and respect of the
final decision/rule
The Legal Roots of Open Government / 2
—SOUGHT EXTERNALITIES
• Reinforcement of local identity
• Promote timely disclosure of relevant information
• Make use of place-specific knowledge and social norms
• Learning and improving the quality of debate
• Create trust, strengthen institutional legitimacy and face democratic
deficit
• Support in tackling conflicts
• Representing heterogeneity and attaining social justice 

—ENABLING FACTORS
• ICT evolution has opened a useful array of sources and tools
• Institutions recognize the need to involve iteratively interested
parties and groups
• Citizens manifest increasing expectations from the dialogue with
the institutions
The Legal Roots of Open Government / 2
Completing the framework
The Policy Cycle
2.1
The Policy Cycle
long term
decision & policy 

cycle
action for 

change or improvement
drafting
decision
adoption
deployment
implementation
evaluation
review
impact 

assessment
A Framework for designing engagement
decision & policy 

cycle
case for change
deployment
evaluation
decision
implementation
A Framework for designing engagement
exante
decision & policy 

cycle
action for change 

or improvement
drafting
decision
adoption
solutions
issues
identification
ex ante impact
assessment
resources
allocation
co-design
e-deliberation
petitions
advocacy
A Framework for designing engagement
decision & policy 

cycle
adoption
deployment
implementation
endorsement
buy - in
ecosystems &
communities
innovative
procurement
awareness
agile policy
making
A Framework for designing engagement
evaluation
impact 

assessment
decision & policy 

cycle
monitoring
sustainability
deployment
co-management
pay-for-success
gathering data
for quality and
quantitative
assessment
accelerators
watch-dog
action for 

change or improvement
A Framework for designing engagement
decision & policy 

cycle
ex post impact
assessment
emerging
societal needs
feedback-
gathering
e-
deliberation
evaluation
review
Outputs , Outcomes and Externalities
implementation
design
evaluation
adoption
endorsement
monitoring
solutions
issues
identification
ex ante impact
assessment
ex post impact
assessment
resources
allocation
emerging
societal needs
drafting
co-design
e-deliberation
sustainability
buy-in
visualization
feedback-
gathering
e-deliberation
decision & policy 

cycle
A Framework for engagement
outputs
citizens’ input
expected impact

in the policy cycle
weak
strong
type of input
simple
complex
co-management
co-design

resource allocation
e-deliberation
endorsement
feedback gathering
information - awareness
outcomes and externalities
accountability efficiency legitimacy
awareness identityconflictsheterogeneity social justicetrust
Innovations in
Policy Design
2.2
1.POLICY DRAFTING
1.PARTICIPATION & GOOD GOVERNANCE
2.EFFICIENCY & EVIDENCE-BASED
3.SIMPLIFICATION & NUDGING
2.INNOVATION TEAMS
3.PROCUREMENT OF SOLUTIONS
INNOVATIONS IN POLICY DESIGN
A. POLICY
DRAFTING
INNOVATIONS IN POLICY DESIGN
1. PARTICIPATION
- political polarization
- democracy dilemmas
- process foul
- internal decisions: specialized
information held by diverse people
within the executive branch
- public comment: draft rules
undergoing analysis and feedback
from other levels of gov, businesses,
interest groups
- substantive, technical, non political,
agreeable
good governance practice (not compulsory)
OPEN GOV
INNOVATIONS IN POLICY DESIGN
2. EFFICIENCY
EVIDENCE BASED POLICY-MAKING
Test, Learn,Adapt: Developing Public
Policy with Randomised Controlled
Trials (9 steps)
- short terms costs vs major long term
benefits
- Moneyball regulations: substituting
empirical data for long-standing
dogmas, intuitions, anedocte-driven
judgements
DATA-DRIVEN
INNOVATIONS IN POLICY DESIGN
3. SIMPLIFICATION
NUDGES, PATHS, FRAMING
BEHAVIOURAL
SCIENCESChoice Architecture: 

default rules vs active choice
information on consequences together
with clear, explicit and actionable
instructions
[Sunstein-Thaler] Positive reinforcement
and indirect suggestions to try to achieve
non forced compliance
INNOVATIONS IN POLICY DESIGN
CASE STUDY:
#GOODLAW
INNOVATIONS IN POLICY DESIGN
#Good law Participation Efficiency Simplification
INNOVATIONS IN POLICY DESIGN
Participation

Efficiency

Simplification

Improving Parliamentary and public scrutiny of
legislation has been a government objective in
recent years, seeking to improve both
democratic engagement and legislative quality.
Setting out policy targets in legislation can be
“a low-cost way for governments to give the
appearance of vigorous action” and a way to
strategically influence (or limit) the decision-
making of future governments
consultation and engagement are important. But traditional
consultation exercises can feel burdensome and
unrewarding; and generic questions asked in a consultation
may generate cluttered feedback that is difficult to analyse
and to integrate into the policy or the draft bill.
In an increasingly complicated policy- making context,
consultations that are not predominantly reactive
often work better than the traditional model.
- Volume (number and length of statutes and
regulations)

- Quality (addressing political and social
objectives, harmonious, clear and well-integrated,
in time and efficiently

- Perception of disproportionate complexity
(layered and heavily amended, ambiguous or
contradictory provisions)
- unnecessary (target unachievable, redundant,
unnecessary burdens)

- ineffective (it does not achieve intended
objectives, fragmented or problematic
implementation, substantial negative outcomes) 

- inaccessible (difficult to identify and access
up-to-date versions, language and style, lack of
guidance)
#Good law
necessary, effective, clear, coherent and accessible legislation
It is about the content of law, its architecture, its language and its accessibility – and about the links
between those things.

INNOVATIONS IN POLICY DESIGN
#Legislate?!
The Cabinet Office has brought out a board game "Legislate?!": 

a fun way to learn about the passage of laws from Bill to Act
INNOVATIONS IN POLICY DESIGN
CASE STUDY:
DYI
INNOVATIONS IN POLICY DESIGN
INNOVATIONS IN POLICY DESIGN
B. INNOVATION
TEAMS
INNOVATIONS IN POLICY DESIGN
Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs - US
The Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA) is located within the Office of
Management and Budget and was created by Congress with the enactment of the
Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980 (PRA). OIRA carries out several important functions,
including reviewing Federal regulations, reducing paperwork burdens, and overseeing
policies relating to privacy, information quality, and statistical programs.
Behavioural Insights Team - UK
The Behavioural InsightsTeam, often called the ‘Nudge Unit’, applies insights from
academic research in behavioural economics and psychology to public policy and services.
In addition to working with almost every government department, we work with local
authorities, charities, NGOs, private sector partners and foreign government, developing
proposals and testing them empirically across the full spectrum of government policy.
The Presidential Innovation Fellows (PIF) program pairs top
innovators from the private sector, non-profits, and academia with top
innovators in government to collaborate during focused 6-13 month
“tours of duty” to develop solutions that can save lives, save taxpayer
money, and fuel job creation. Each team of innovators is supported by a
broader community of interested citizens throughout the country.
Independent charity that works to increase the innovation capacity of the UK.
The organisation acts through a combination of practical programmes,
investment, policy and research, and the formation of partnerships to promote
innovation across a broad range of sectors.
Originally funded by a £250 million endowment from the UK National Lottery,
now kept in trust, and its interests are used to meet charitable objects and to
fund and support projects.
C.
PROCUREMENT
OF SOLUTIONS
INNOVATIONS IN POLICY DESIGN
CHALLENGE PRIZES
INNOVATIONS IN POLICY DESIGN
INNOVATIONS IN POLICY DESIGN
•Pay only for success and establish an ambitious goal
without having to predict which team or approach is most
likely to succeed.

•Reach beyond the “usual suspects” to increase the
number of citizen solvers and entrepreneurs tackling a
problem.

•Bring out-of-discipline perspectives to bear.

•Increase cost-effectiveness to maximize the return on
taxpayer contributions.

•Inspire risk-taking by offering a level playing field through
credible rules and robust judging mechanisms.
challenge prizes
INNOVATIONS IN POLICY DESIGN
challenge prizes
INNOVATIONS IN POLICY DESIGN
INNOVATIVE
& Pre-Commercial
PROCUREMENT
INNOVATIONS IN POLICY DESIGN
INNOVATIONS IN POLICY DESIGN
INNOVATIONS IN POLICY DESIGN
PAY-FOR-SUCCESS
SCHEMES
INNOVATIONS IN POLICY DESIGN
INNOVATIONS IN POLICY DESIGN
Principles for
LIVING
POLICY-MAKING
2.3
Living Policy-Making
1.DESIGNING IMPACT-DRIVEN
ACTIONS
2.DESIGNING FOR AGILITY
3.FROM RULES TO COMMUNITIES
4.FROM PROJECTS TO ECOSYSTEMS
5.ACCELERATORS
EXAMPLES: SOCIAL IMPACT BONDS, PAY FOR SUCCESS SCHEMES
Financial schemes that
reward the social impact
generated by a publicly-
funded program (pay for
success) or repay private
funding (a “social impact”
bond issued by the public)
through savings
• DESIGNING IMPACT-DRIVEN ACTIONS
Living Policy-Making
• From courses to learning experiences
• From certification to continuous
assessment and badging
• From funding for courses to “pay for
success”
• Training as professional development,
rather than an obligation
Example: shaping teachers’ training
• Very little impact from courses across time
and countries
• Certification increasingly less relevant
• Italian teachers more in need than their
peers around the globe
• The age factor
• The “fear” factor (low skills-low motivation)
• DESIGNING IMPACT DRIVEN ACTIONS
Living Policy-Making
Example: the school curriculum
• “National indications” are a rigid and ineffective
policy tool
• Teachers training ineffective, especially for
“new” skills (e.g. digital literacy)
• Students demotivated by traditional didactics
• FROM RULES TO COMMUNITIES
Living Policy-Making
Example: innovating the school curriculum
• Turning classroom activities into national & global communities
• Teachers become facilitators, students as project managers
• Gamification + “Format work” (e.g. Data expedition, role-playing)
• FROM RULES TO COMMUNITIES
Living Policy-Making
Innovating the school curriculum
• Every classroom projects becomes a community project: the final
step requires a strategy for local engagement
• FROM RULES TO COMMUNITIES
Living Policy-Making
School curriculum as national partnership
code.org + Programma il Futuro: a national partnership
between MIUR, Italian Informatics professors andTech
companies to bring coding classes to every Italian student
• FROM RULES TO COMMUNITIES
Living Policy-Making
• FROM RULES TO COMMUNITIES
Sustaining the policy by leveraging a
community of tinkerers.The format
“instruction” becomes common standard
Living Policy-Making
Every student gets engaged in the “Olympics of entreprenership”
AN ENTRY-LEVEL CURRICULUM 

FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP
IN EVERY SCHOOL
A CONTEST, HACKATHON, CAMP,
TECH GARAGE IN EVERY REGION
1,000 STUDENTS WIN
“ACCELERATION”
• FROM PROJECTS to ECOSYSTEMS
Living Policy-Making
• ACCELERATORS
Schoolkits
Living Policy-Making
• ACCELERATORS
challenges for models of labs and spaces

to spur innovation in learning environments
Living Policy-Making
• ACCELERATORS
A “Digital ambassador” in every school to:
• Organize internal training for teachers and
motivate those more resistant to change
• Develop and share innovative and effective
digital practice
• Engage communities for digital innovation (e.g.
local communities, parents) and spur student-led
innovation
Living Policy-Making
CASE STUDY:
THE NATIONAL PLAN
FOR DIGITAL
SCHOOLS (2015)
WHERE WE COME FROM
1st phase (2007-2012)
classrooms as labs, 

rather than in labs
• Classrooms 2.0: 416
• Schools 2.0: 14 schools
• Interactive whiteboards:
35.000
• Digital publishing: 20 schools
2nd phase (2012-2014)
• Classrooms 2.0: 905
• Schools 2.0: 21 schools
• Interactive whiteboards: 1.931
• Plan for “Isolated schools”: 45
• 38 “digital training centers”
created
• Wi-fi in school
In total…
• Roughly 130M investments + 20M
from Regions
• 90,000 teachers trained
• 25% of secondary schools with fast
broadband (15% of primary schools)
• 78% of labs connected, 56% with LIM
• 46% of rooms connected (32% with
LIM)
• 58% of electronic registers
WHERE WE COME FROM
Starting point: 

a critical analysis of the context
• We trained 90,000 teachers, but
don’t know about impact (and
snowballing effects)
• Inconsistent policies over time
• Lack of systemic vision and,
especially, impact
• Hard technology rather than soft
• No support for school (cultural
issues)
This means:
• Our training schemes weren’t
effective
• The “classroom as labs” vision
proved too tech-centered, and
too expensive
• Teachers tried to absorb
innovation, but mostly couldn’t
deliver to students
• Skills policy mostly linked to tech
rather than a comprehensive
vision on literacy
• Fragmented projects, low impact:
what to incubate?
WHERE WE NEED TO GO
1. Not true that digital natives know it all: digital literacy is broadening, and formats are (e.g.
MOOC). We need to develop a strategy/service to involve the private sector, civil society and
creatives to leverage the “engagement as format work” path.
2. Teachers’ training needs to become permanent and structural: it needs to regard almost
800,000 teachers. How do we organize it, leveraging innovative schools and teachers.
3. We need to create a link between digital skills and the kind of careers they produce
(entrepreneurship, emerging jobs, science, research).
4. We need to develop schemes that leverage public + private investments in school
infrastructures, connectivity in particular
5. We need to modernize school labs and school spaces, and change the way we think of them
as linked to digital education
Studenti Docenti
Longitudinalità
Poli e snodi formativi
I poli (scuole capofila di rete) e gli snodi (sedi di corso) sono individuati mediante
tre diversi bandi. I poli per la formazione degli animatori digitali (DM 435/15) e per
il team per l’innovazione (DM 762/14) sono già stati individuati e visibili al seguente
indirizzo: https://goo.gl/WgjQhH.
Fino al 23 febbraio è possibile candidarsi come snodo formativo per i percorsi destinati
al Personale scolastico e finanziati attraverso le risorse del PON 2014-2020
D.M. 

762/2014
PON 

2014/20
D.M. 

435/2015
Animatori 

digitali
Team per 

l’innovazione
Personale
scolastico
cliccare per ingrandire
how institutions approach innovation in policy design
GROUP WORK
APPLIED 

“LIVING” POLICY-MAKING
GROUP 1
The Ministry of education
needs to improve the ways
to talk to, listen to, empower
and enable innovation from
“Digital School
Ambassadors” (8,300
people, 1.000 Eur minimum
budget, every school grade).
GROUP 2
The recent school reform has
introduced 200-300 hours of
VocationalTraining experiences
during last 3 years of Upper
Secondary school. Resources
are100 Mln/year, to be used
mainly by schools directly and,
in a percentage, to mentor and
coordinateVET projects.
THANK YOU!

@damienlanfrey

damien.lanfrey@istruzione.it
@dskutz
donatella.soldakutzmann@istruzione.it

Weitere ähnliche Inhalte

Was ist angesagt?

Discourse Centric Collective Intelligence for the Common Good
Discourse Centric Collective Intelligence for the Common GoodDiscourse Centric Collective Intelligence for the Common Good
Discourse Centric Collective Intelligence for the Common GoodAnna De Liddo
 
De liddo seminar-oct2021-fin
De liddo seminar-oct2021-finDe liddo seminar-oct2021-fin
De liddo seminar-oct2021-finAnna De Liddo
 
Lecture Polimi April2021
Lecture Polimi April2021Lecture Polimi April2021
Lecture Polimi April2021Anna De Liddo
 
Towards Leeds Declaration
Towards Leeds DeclarationTowards Leeds Declaration
Towards Leeds DeclarationDouglas Schuler
 
Discourse Centered Collective Intelligence Platforms for Social Innovation
Discourse Centered Collective Intelligence Platforms for Social InnovationDiscourse Centered Collective Intelligence Platforms for Social Innovation
Discourse Centered Collective Intelligence Platforms for Social InnovationAnna De Liddo
 
The social capital of online influencers: evidence from the food industries
The social capital of online influencers: evidence from the food industriesThe social capital of online influencers: evidence from the food industries
The social capital of online influencers: evidence from the food industriesIvana Pais
 
De Liddo & Buckingham Shum ipp2014
De Liddo & Buckingham Shum ipp2014De Liddo & Buckingham Shum ipp2014
De Liddo & Buckingham Shum ipp2014Anna De Liddo
 
Final Conference Workshop 1: Practices - Facilitator: Guntram Geser
Final Conference Workshop 1: Practices  - Facilitator: Guntram GeserFinal Conference Workshop 1: Practices  - Facilitator: Guntram Geser
Final Conference Workshop 1: Practices - Facilitator: Guntram GeserLinks-up
 
Community detection from a computational social science perspective
Community detection from a computational social science perspectiveCommunity detection from a computational social science perspective
Community detection from a computational social science perspectiveDavide Bennato
 
Design (and Design schools) for Social Innovation, By Ezio Manzini, DESIS Net...
Design (and Design schools) for Social Innovation, By Ezio Manzini, DESIS Net...Design (and Design schools) for Social Innovation, By Ezio Manzini, DESIS Net...
Design (and Design schools) for Social Innovation, By Ezio Manzini, DESIS Net...desis_uk
 
Collective and cumulative - some strategies of everyday design-in-use
Collective and cumulative - some strategies of everyday design-in-useCollective and cumulative - some strategies of everyday design-in-use
Collective and cumulative - some strategies of everyday design-in-useinuseproject
 
Virtual Communities of Practice – does technology make a difference?
Virtual Communities of Practice – does technology make a difference?Virtual Communities of Practice – does technology make a difference?
Virtual Communities of Practice – does technology make a difference?Paul Penfold
 
4.2 system design for social equity vezzoli 13-14
4.2 system design for social equity vezzoli 13-14 4.2 system design for social equity vezzoli 13-14
4.2 system design for social equity vezzoli 13-14 LeNS_slide
 
Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper)
Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper)Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper)
Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper)Andrei Ciortea
 
Somus – An Open Research Group Work Case Presentation 0511 2009
Somus – An Open Research Group Work Case Presentation 0511 2009Somus – An Open Research Group Work Case Presentation 0511 2009
Somus – An Open Research Group Work Case Presentation 0511 2009Teemu Ropponen
 
De liddo & Buckingham Shum jurix2012
De liddo & Buckingham Shum jurix2012De liddo & Buckingham Shum jurix2012
De liddo & Buckingham Shum jurix2012Anna De Liddo
 

Was ist angesagt? (17)

Discourse Centric Collective Intelligence for the Common Good
Discourse Centric Collective Intelligence for the Common GoodDiscourse Centric Collective Intelligence for the Common Good
Discourse Centric Collective Intelligence for the Common Good
 
De liddo seminar-oct2021-fin
De liddo seminar-oct2021-finDe liddo seminar-oct2021-fin
De liddo seminar-oct2021-fin
 
Lecture Polimi April2021
Lecture Polimi April2021Lecture Polimi April2021
Lecture Polimi April2021
 
Onlie platforms 2017/06
Onlie platforms 2017/06Onlie platforms 2017/06
Onlie platforms 2017/06
 
Towards Leeds Declaration
Towards Leeds DeclarationTowards Leeds Declaration
Towards Leeds Declaration
 
Discourse Centered Collective Intelligence Platforms for Social Innovation
Discourse Centered Collective Intelligence Platforms for Social InnovationDiscourse Centered Collective Intelligence Platforms for Social Innovation
Discourse Centered Collective Intelligence Platforms for Social Innovation
 
The social capital of online influencers: evidence from the food industries
The social capital of online influencers: evidence from the food industriesThe social capital of online influencers: evidence from the food industries
The social capital of online influencers: evidence from the food industries
 
De Liddo & Buckingham Shum ipp2014
De Liddo & Buckingham Shum ipp2014De Liddo & Buckingham Shum ipp2014
De Liddo & Buckingham Shum ipp2014
 
Final Conference Workshop 1: Practices - Facilitator: Guntram Geser
Final Conference Workshop 1: Practices  - Facilitator: Guntram GeserFinal Conference Workshop 1: Practices  - Facilitator: Guntram Geser
Final Conference Workshop 1: Practices - Facilitator: Guntram Geser
 
Community detection from a computational social science perspective
Community detection from a computational social science perspectiveCommunity detection from a computational social science perspective
Community detection from a computational social science perspective
 
Design (and Design schools) for Social Innovation, By Ezio Manzini, DESIS Net...
Design (and Design schools) for Social Innovation, By Ezio Manzini, DESIS Net...Design (and Design schools) for Social Innovation, By Ezio Manzini, DESIS Net...
Design (and Design schools) for Social Innovation, By Ezio Manzini, DESIS Net...
 
Collective and cumulative - some strategies of everyday design-in-use
Collective and cumulative - some strategies of everyday design-in-useCollective and cumulative - some strategies of everyday design-in-use
Collective and cumulative - some strategies of everyday design-in-use
 
Virtual Communities of Practice – does technology make a difference?
Virtual Communities of Practice – does technology make a difference?Virtual Communities of Practice – does technology make a difference?
Virtual Communities of Practice – does technology make a difference?
 
4.2 system design for social equity vezzoli 13-14
4.2 system design for social equity vezzoli 13-14 4.2 system design for social equity vezzoli 13-14
4.2 system design for social equity vezzoli 13-14
 
Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper)
Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper)Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper)
Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper)
 
Somus – An Open Research Group Work Case Presentation 0511 2009
Somus – An Open Research Group Work Case Presentation 0511 2009Somus – An Open Research Group Work Case Presentation 0511 2009
Somus – An Open Research Group Work Case Presentation 0511 2009
 
De liddo & Buckingham Shum jurix2012
De liddo & Buckingham Shum jurix2012De liddo & Buckingham Shum jurix2012
De liddo & Buckingham Shum jurix2012
 

Andere mochten auch

Les 138 hh getalbegrip tot 100
Les 138 hh getalbegrip tot 100Les 138 hh getalbegrip tot 100
Les 138 hh getalbegrip tot 100nathaliekrol
 
агентство по контролю промышленных отходов + предприниматели
агентство по контролю промышленных отходов + предпринимателиагентство по контролю промышленных отходов + предприниматели
агентство по контролю промышленных отходов + предпринимателиBinazir Isenova
 
Mobile learning Zirve University ELT Department" & "ingilizce Öğretmenliği"
Mobile learning Zirve University ELT Department" & "ingilizce Öğretmenliği"Mobile learning Zirve University ELT Department" & "ingilizce Öğretmenliği"
Mobile learning Zirve University ELT Department" & "ingilizce Öğretmenliği"Mesut Cura
 
Maryland Water Safety
Maryland Water Safety Maryland Water Safety
Maryland Water Safety Steve Heisler
 
出口目標市場潛力指標資料庫簡介(更新版)
出口目標市場潛力指標資料庫簡介(更新版)出口目標市場潛力指標資料庫簡介(更新版)
出口目標市場潛力指標資料庫簡介(更新版)Ann Chen
 
Driving Safely in Maryland: Teens & Seniors
Driving Safely in Maryland: Teens & SeniorsDriving Safely in Maryland: Teens & Seniors
Driving Safely in Maryland: Teens & SeniorsSteve Heisler
 
Distracted Driving in Maryland
Distracted Driving in MarylandDistracted Driving in Maryland
Distracted Driving in MarylandSteve Heisler
 
Les 143 HH alle tafels
Les 143 HH alle tafelsLes 143 HH alle tafels
Les 143 HH alle tafelsnathaliekrol
 
woordpakket 20 aanbreng
woordpakket 20 aanbrengwoordpakket 20 aanbreng
woordpakket 20 aanbrengnathaliekrol
 
агентство переводов онлайн + переводчики
агентство переводов онлайн + переводчикиагентство переводов онлайн + переводчики
агентство переводов онлайн + переводчикиBinazir Isenova
 
Havenman van het jaar Raymond Riemen - Young potentials bijeenkomst
Havenman van het jaar Raymond Riemen - Young potentials bijeenkomstHavenman van het jaar Raymond Riemen - Young potentials bijeenkomst
Havenman van het jaar Raymond Riemen - Young potentials bijeenkomstBroekman Logistics
 

Andere mochten auch (20)

Les 138 hh getalbegrip tot 100
Les 138 hh getalbegrip tot 100Les 138 hh getalbegrip tot 100
Les 138 hh getalbegrip tot 100
 
Thema 10 les 9
Thema 10 les 9Thema 10 les 9
Thema 10 les 9
 
ManalCV1
ManalCV1ManalCV1
ManalCV1
 
агентство по контролю промышленных отходов + предприниматели
агентство по контролю промышленных отходов + предпринимателиагентство по контролю промышленных отходов + предприниматели
агентство по контролю промышленных отходов + предприниматели
 
s
s s
s
 
Thema 9 les 6
Thema 9 les 6Thema 9 les 6
Thema 9 les 6
 
Mobile learning Zirve University ELT Department" & "ingilizce Öğretmenliği"
Mobile learning Zirve University ELT Department" & "ingilizce Öğretmenliği"Mobile learning Zirve University ELT Department" & "ingilizce Öğretmenliği"
Mobile learning Zirve University ELT Department" & "ingilizce Öğretmenliği"
 
Maryland Water Safety
Maryland Water Safety Maryland Water Safety
Maryland Water Safety
 
Les 129 breuken
Les 129 breukenLes 129 breuken
Les 129 breuken
 
出口目標市場潛力指標資料庫簡介(更新版)
出口目標市場潛力指標資料庫簡介(更新版)出口目標市場潛力指標資料庫簡介(更新版)
出口目標市場潛力指標資料庫簡介(更新版)
 
Schoolagenda
SchoolagendaSchoolagenda
Schoolagenda
 
Driving Safely in Maryland: Teens & Seniors
Driving Safely in Maryland: Teens & SeniorsDriving Safely in Maryland: Teens & Seniors
Driving Safely in Maryland: Teens & Seniors
 
Distracted Driving in Maryland
Distracted Driving in MarylandDistracted Driving in Maryland
Distracted Driving in Maryland
 
Les 143 HH alle tafels
Les 143 HH alle tafelsLes 143 HH alle tafels
Les 143 HH alle tafels
 
Are you into software development?
Are you into software development?Are you into software development?
Are you into software development?
 
woordpakket 20 aanbreng
woordpakket 20 aanbrengwoordpakket 20 aanbreng
woordpakket 20 aanbreng
 
thema 10 les 3
thema 10 les 3thema 10 les 3
thema 10 les 3
 
агентство переводов онлайн + переводчики
агентство переводов онлайн + переводчикиагентство переводов онлайн + переводчики
агентство переводов онлайн + переводчики
 
Havenman van het jaar Raymond Riemen - Young potentials bijeenkomst
Havenman van het jaar Raymond Riemen - Young potentials bijeenkomstHavenman van het jaar Raymond Riemen - Young potentials bijeenkomst
Havenman van het jaar Raymond Riemen - Young potentials bijeenkomst
 
Getallenrij
GetallenrijGetallenrij
Getallenrij
 

Ähnlich wie From Open Government to Living Policy Making

Designing effective participatory policy-making
Designing effective participatory policy-makingDesigning effective participatory policy-making
Designing effective participatory policy-makingDamienDonatella
 
Osimo crossover-roadmap
Osimo crossover-roadmapOsimo crossover-roadmap
Osimo crossover-roadmaposimod
 
Ipp2014
Ipp2014Ipp2014
Ipp2014osimod
 
LSE media policy project_Launch sept27
LSE media policy project_Launch sept27LSE media policy project_Launch sept27
LSE media policy project_Launch sept27LSEMediaPolicy
 
From Open Government to Living Policy Making - 2017 update
From Open Government to Living Policy Making - 2017 updateFrom Open Government to Living Policy Making - 2017 update
From Open Government to Living Policy Making - 2017 updateDamien Lanfrey
 
Using online tools queensland slides
Using online tools   queensland slidesUsing online tools   queensland slides
Using online tools queensland slidesMatt Leighninger
 
Media technology and the transformation of the public sphere: a media / socia...
Media technology and the transformation of the public sphere: a media / socia...Media technology and the transformation of the public sphere: a media / socia...
Media technology and the transformation of the public sphere: a media / socia...Marcus Leaning
 
Convergence, Computation and Continuity: Challenges for PR in the 21st Century
Convergence, Computation and Continuity: Challenges for PR in the 21st CenturyConvergence, Computation and Continuity: Challenges for PR in the 21st Century
Convergence, Computation and Continuity: Challenges for PR in the 21st CenturySimon Collister & Associates
 
Evaluating Impact: NLab, Amplified Leicester, and creative innovation via soc...
Evaluating Impact: NLab, Amplified Leicester, and creative innovation via soc...Evaluating Impact: NLab, Amplified Leicester, and creative innovation via soc...
Evaluating Impact: NLab, Amplified Leicester, and creative innovation via soc...Dr Sue Thomas
 
The Collaboration Project: Building Open, Participatory and Collaborative Gov...
The Collaboration Project: Building Open, Participatory and Collaborative Gov...The Collaboration Project: Building Open, Participatory and Collaborative Gov...
The Collaboration Project: Building Open, Participatory and Collaborative Gov...Franciel
 
NYC civic engagement thought leaders forum
NYC civic engagement thought leaders forumNYC civic engagement thought leaders forum
NYC civic engagement thought leaders forumMatt Leighninger
 
Osimo policy 20odessa
Osimo policy 20odessaOsimo policy 20odessa
Osimo policy 20odessaosimod
 
Meeting cuts&big society_challenge
Meeting cuts&big society_challengeMeeting cuts&big society_challenge
Meeting cuts&big society_challengeIzwe
 
The Finnish e-participation environment - IIEP IJW2011
The Finnish e-participation environment - IIEP IJW2011The Finnish e-participation environment - IIEP IJW2011
The Finnish e-participation environment - IIEP IJW2011Teemu Ropponen
 

Ähnlich wie From Open Government to Living Policy Making (20)

Designing effective participatory policy-making
Designing effective participatory policy-makingDesigning effective participatory policy-making
Designing effective participatory policy-making
 
Osimo crossover-roadmap
Osimo crossover-roadmapOsimo crossover-roadmap
Osimo crossover-roadmap
 
Keynote Delhi Svensson Schossboeck
Keynote Delhi Svensson SchossboeckKeynote Delhi Svensson Schossboeck
Keynote Delhi Svensson Schossboeck
 
Ipp2014
Ipp2014Ipp2014
Ipp2014
 
LSE media policy project_Launch sept27
LSE media policy project_Launch sept27LSE media policy project_Launch sept27
LSE media policy project_Launch sept27
 
NationalMasterPlan
NationalMasterPlanNationalMasterPlan
NationalMasterPlan
 
From Open Government to Living Policy Making - 2017 update
From Open Government to Living Policy Making - 2017 updateFrom Open Government to Living Policy Making - 2017 update
From Open Government to Living Policy Making - 2017 update
 
Using online tools queensland slides
Using online tools   queensland slidesUsing online tools   queensland slides
Using online tools queensland slides
 
Media technology and the transformation of the public sphere: a media / socia...
Media technology and the transformation of the public sphere: a media / socia...Media technology and the transformation of the public sphere: a media / socia...
Media technology and the transformation of the public sphere: a media / socia...
 
ECI board july2010
ECI board july2010ECI board july2010
ECI board july2010
 
E-Governance – Some Challenges Ahead: Social Media Spurring Participation
E-Governance – Some Challenges Ahead: Social Media Spurring ParticipationE-Governance – Some Challenges Ahead: Social Media Spurring Participation
E-Governance – Some Challenges Ahead: Social Media Spurring Participation
 
Convergence, Computation and Continuity: Challenges for PR in the 21st Century
Convergence, Computation and Continuity: Challenges for PR in the 21st CenturyConvergence, Computation and Continuity: Challenges for PR in the 21st Century
Convergence, Computation and Continuity: Challenges for PR in the 21st Century
 
Evaluating Impact: NLab, Amplified Leicester, and creative innovation via soc...
Evaluating Impact: NLab, Amplified Leicester, and creative innovation via soc...Evaluating Impact: NLab, Amplified Leicester, and creative innovation via soc...
Evaluating Impact: NLab, Amplified Leicester, and creative innovation via soc...
 
The Collaboration Project: Building Open, Participatory and Collaborative Gov...
The Collaboration Project: Building Open, Participatory and Collaborative Gov...The Collaboration Project: Building Open, Participatory and Collaborative Gov...
The Collaboration Project: Building Open, Participatory and Collaborative Gov...
 
SmartCity David Osimo
SmartCity David OsimoSmartCity David Osimo
SmartCity David Osimo
 
Techno-politics. Hacking for positive social change
Techno-politics. Hacking for positive social changeTechno-politics. Hacking for positive social change
Techno-politics. Hacking for positive social change
 
NYC civic engagement thought leaders forum
NYC civic engagement thought leaders forumNYC civic engagement thought leaders forum
NYC civic engagement thought leaders forum
 
Osimo policy 20odessa
Osimo policy 20odessaOsimo policy 20odessa
Osimo policy 20odessa
 
Meeting cuts&big society_challenge
Meeting cuts&big society_challengeMeeting cuts&big society_challenge
Meeting cuts&big society_challenge
 
The Finnish e-participation environment - IIEP IJW2011
The Finnish e-participation environment - IIEP IJW2011The Finnish e-participation environment - IIEP IJW2011
The Finnish e-participation environment - IIEP IJW2011
 

Kürzlich hochgeladen

How to design healthy team dynamics to deliver successful digital projects.pptx
How to design healthy team dynamics to deliver successful digital projects.pptxHow to design healthy team dynamics to deliver successful digital projects.pptx
How to design healthy team dynamics to deliver successful digital projects.pptxTechSoupConnectLondo
 
PETTY CASH FUND - GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTING.pptx
PETTY CASH FUND - GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTING.pptxPETTY CASH FUND - GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTING.pptx
PETTY CASH FUND - GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTING.pptxCrisAnnBusilan
 
NL-FR Partnership - Water management roundtable 20240403.pdf
NL-FR Partnership - Water management roundtable 20240403.pdfNL-FR Partnership - Water management roundtable 20240403.pdf
NL-FR Partnership - Water management roundtable 20240403.pdfBertrand Coppin
 
Build Tomorrow’s India Today By Making Charity For Poor Students
Build Tomorrow’s India Today By Making Charity For Poor StudentsBuild Tomorrow’s India Today By Making Charity For Poor Students
Build Tomorrow’s India Today By Making Charity For Poor StudentsSERUDS INDIA
 
call girls in Laxmi Nagar DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️
call girls in Laxmi Nagar DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️call girls in Laxmi Nagar DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️
call girls in Laxmi Nagar DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️saminamagar
 
Start Donating your Old Clothes to Poor People
Start Donating your Old Clothes to Poor PeopleStart Donating your Old Clothes to Poor People
Start Donating your Old Clothes to Poor PeopleSERUDS INDIA
 
2023 Ecological Profile of Ilocos Norte.pdf
2023 Ecological Profile of Ilocos Norte.pdf2023 Ecological Profile of Ilocos Norte.pdf
2023 Ecological Profile of Ilocos Norte.pdfilocosnortegovph
 
Digital Transformation of the Heritage Sector and its Practical Implications
Digital Transformation of the Heritage Sector and its Practical ImplicationsDigital Transformation of the Heritage Sector and its Practical Implications
Digital Transformation of the Heritage Sector and its Practical ImplicationsBeat Estermann
 
Nietzsche on "Will To Power" and "Superman"Layout
Nietzsche on "Will To Power" and "Superman"LayoutNietzsche on "Will To Power" and "Superman"Layout
Nietzsche on "Will To Power" and "Superman"LayoutMoamine3
 
call girls in Tilak Nagar DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️
call girls in Tilak Nagar DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️call girls in Tilak Nagar DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️
call girls in Tilak Nagar DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️saminamagar
 
RPT ENGLISH YEAR 2 (SK) 2024-2025 by RozayusAcademy.docx
RPT ENGLISH YEAR 2 (SK) 2024-2025 by RozayusAcademy.docxRPT ENGLISH YEAR 2 (SK) 2024-2025 by RozayusAcademy.docx
RPT ENGLISH YEAR 2 (SK) 2024-2025 by RozayusAcademy.docxg63394294
 
ECOSOC YOUTH FORUM 2024 Side Events Schedule-18 April.
ECOSOC YOUTH FORUM 2024 Side Events Schedule-18 April.ECOSOC YOUTH FORUM 2024 Side Events Schedule-18 April.
ECOSOC YOUTH FORUM 2024 Side Events Schedule-18 April.Christina Parmionova
 
UN DESA: Finance for Development 2024 Report
UN DESA: Finance for Development 2024 ReportUN DESA: Finance for Development 2024 Report
UN DESA: Finance for Development 2024 ReportEnergy for One World
 
In credit? Assessing where Universal Credit’s long rollout has left the benef...
In credit? Assessing where Universal Credit’s long rollout has left the benef...In credit? Assessing where Universal Credit’s long rollout has left the benef...
In credit? Assessing where Universal Credit’s long rollout has left the benef...ResolutionFoundation
 
澳洲UTS学位证,悉尼科技大学毕业证书1:1制作
澳洲UTS学位证,悉尼科技大学毕业证书1:1制作澳洲UTS学位证,悉尼科技大学毕业证书1:1制作
澳洲UTS学位证,悉尼科技大学毕业证书1:1制作aecnsnzk
 
NO1 Certified Best vashikaran specialist in UK USA UAE London Dubai Canada Am...
NO1 Certified Best vashikaran specialist in UK USA UAE London Dubai Canada Am...NO1 Certified Best vashikaran specialist in UK USA UAE London Dubai Canada Am...
NO1 Certified Best vashikaran specialist in UK USA UAE London Dubai Canada Am...Amil Baba Dawood bangali
 
Professional Conduct and ethics lecture.pptx
Professional Conduct and ethics lecture.pptxProfessional Conduct and ethics lecture.pptx
Professional Conduct and ethics lecture.pptxjennysansano2
 
Republic Act 11032 (Ease of Doing Business and Efficient Government Service D...
Republic Act 11032 (Ease of Doing Business and Efficient Government Service D...Republic Act 11032 (Ease of Doing Business and Efficient Government Service D...
Republic Act 11032 (Ease of Doing Business and Efficient Government Service D...MartMantilla1
 
Yellow is My Favorite Color By Annabelle.pdf
Yellow is My Favorite Color By Annabelle.pdfYellow is My Favorite Color By Annabelle.pdf
Yellow is My Favorite Color By Annabelle.pdfAmir Saranga
 

Kürzlich hochgeladen (20)

How to design healthy team dynamics to deliver successful digital projects.pptx
How to design healthy team dynamics to deliver successful digital projects.pptxHow to design healthy team dynamics to deliver successful digital projects.pptx
How to design healthy team dynamics to deliver successful digital projects.pptx
 
PETTY CASH FUND - GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTING.pptx
PETTY CASH FUND - GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTING.pptxPETTY CASH FUND - GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTING.pptx
PETTY CASH FUND - GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTING.pptx
 
NL-FR Partnership - Water management roundtable 20240403.pdf
NL-FR Partnership - Water management roundtable 20240403.pdfNL-FR Partnership - Water management roundtable 20240403.pdf
NL-FR Partnership - Water management roundtable 20240403.pdf
 
Build Tomorrow’s India Today By Making Charity For Poor Students
Build Tomorrow’s India Today By Making Charity For Poor StudentsBuild Tomorrow’s India Today By Making Charity For Poor Students
Build Tomorrow’s India Today By Making Charity For Poor Students
 
call girls in Laxmi Nagar DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️
call girls in Laxmi Nagar DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️call girls in Laxmi Nagar DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️
call girls in Laxmi Nagar DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️
 
Housing For All - Fair Housing Choice Report
Housing For All - Fair Housing Choice ReportHousing For All - Fair Housing Choice Report
Housing For All - Fair Housing Choice Report
 
Start Donating your Old Clothes to Poor People
Start Donating your Old Clothes to Poor PeopleStart Donating your Old Clothes to Poor People
Start Donating your Old Clothes to Poor People
 
2023 Ecological Profile of Ilocos Norte.pdf
2023 Ecological Profile of Ilocos Norte.pdf2023 Ecological Profile of Ilocos Norte.pdf
2023 Ecological Profile of Ilocos Norte.pdf
 
Digital Transformation of the Heritage Sector and its Practical Implications
Digital Transformation of the Heritage Sector and its Practical ImplicationsDigital Transformation of the Heritage Sector and its Practical Implications
Digital Transformation of the Heritage Sector and its Practical Implications
 
Nietzsche on "Will To Power" and "Superman"Layout
Nietzsche on "Will To Power" and "Superman"LayoutNietzsche on "Will To Power" and "Superman"Layout
Nietzsche on "Will To Power" and "Superman"Layout
 
call girls in Tilak Nagar DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️
call girls in Tilak Nagar DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️call girls in Tilak Nagar DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️
call girls in Tilak Nagar DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️
 
RPT ENGLISH YEAR 2 (SK) 2024-2025 by RozayusAcademy.docx
RPT ENGLISH YEAR 2 (SK) 2024-2025 by RozayusAcademy.docxRPT ENGLISH YEAR 2 (SK) 2024-2025 by RozayusAcademy.docx
RPT ENGLISH YEAR 2 (SK) 2024-2025 by RozayusAcademy.docx
 
ECOSOC YOUTH FORUM 2024 Side Events Schedule-18 April.
ECOSOC YOUTH FORUM 2024 Side Events Schedule-18 April.ECOSOC YOUTH FORUM 2024 Side Events Schedule-18 April.
ECOSOC YOUTH FORUM 2024 Side Events Schedule-18 April.
 
UN DESA: Finance for Development 2024 Report
UN DESA: Finance for Development 2024 ReportUN DESA: Finance for Development 2024 Report
UN DESA: Finance for Development 2024 Report
 
In credit? Assessing where Universal Credit’s long rollout has left the benef...
In credit? Assessing where Universal Credit’s long rollout has left the benef...In credit? Assessing where Universal Credit’s long rollout has left the benef...
In credit? Assessing where Universal Credit’s long rollout has left the benef...
 
澳洲UTS学位证,悉尼科技大学毕业证书1:1制作
澳洲UTS学位证,悉尼科技大学毕业证书1:1制作澳洲UTS学位证,悉尼科技大学毕业证书1:1制作
澳洲UTS学位证,悉尼科技大学毕业证书1:1制作
 
NO1 Certified Best vashikaran specialist in UK USA UAE London Dubai Canada Am...
NO1 Certified Best vashikaran specialist in UK USA UAE London Dubai Canada Am...NO1 Certified Best vashikaran specialist in UK USA UAE London Dubai Canada Am...
NO1 Certified Best vashikaran specialist in UK USA UAE London Dubai Canada Am...
 
Professional Conduct and ethics lecture.pptx
Professional Conduct and ethics lecture.pptxProfessional Conduct and ethics lecture.pptx
Professional Conduct and ethics lecture.pptx
 
Republic Act 11032 (Ease of Doing Business and Efficient Government Service D...
Republic Act 11032 (Ease of Doing Business and Efficient Government Service D...Republic Act 11032 (Ease of Doing Business and Efficient Government Service D...
Republic Act 11032 (Ease of Doing Business and Efficient Government Service D...
 
Yellow is My Favorite Color By Annabelle.pdf
Yellow is My Favorite Color By Annabelle.pdfYellow is My Favorite Color By Annabelle.pdf
Yellow is My Favorite Color By Annabelle.pdf
 

From Open Government to Living Policy Making

  • 1. From Open Government to Living Policy making Damien Lanfrey + Donatella Solda Policy Advisors, Ministry of Education, University and Research, Italy
  • 2. Part 1: Lesson plan DESIGNING ENGAGEMENT FOR POLICY (AKA OPEN GOVERNMENT) 1.1THE MANY CONCEPTUAL ROOTS OF ENGAGEMENT GW. IDENTIFYING A TOOL FOR MANAGING ENGAGEMENT 1.2 SOME CHALLENGES OF ENGAGEMENT IN THE DIGITAL AGE 1.3 CASE STUDIES FROM OPEN GOVERNMENT DESIGN: PUBLIC CONSULTATIONS 1.4 A FRAMEWORK FOR DESIGNING PARTICIPATORY POLICY-MAKING GW. GROUP-WORK CHALLENGE: APPLYING THE FRAMEWORK
  • 3. Part 2: Lesson plan LIVING POLICY MAKING GW. PART 1 GROUP-WORK PITCH AND DISCUSSION 2.1 COMPLETING THE FRAMEWORK: THE POLICY CYCLE 2.2 INNOVATIONS IN POLICY DESIGN: STATE OF THE ART 2.3 FROM OPEN POLICY TO LIVING POLICY-MAKING GW. APPLIED LIVING POLICY MAKING & FINAL DISCUSSION
  • 5. Is it possible to design impactful engagement towards policy ? CHALLENGES / 1
  • 6. CHALLENGES / 2 Is it possibile to model a theory on Engagement ?
  • 7. SOME PILLARS FOR THE DAY there is no such thing as “participation for 
 participation’s sake”
  • 8. SOME PILLARS FOR THE DAY enough with the “idealized citizen”
  • 9. SOME PILLARS FOR THE DAY when it comes to government (policy & politics) scale makes a difference
  • 11. The Many Conceptual Roots of Engagement
  • 12. The Many Conceptual Roots of Engagement Politics Advocacy Governance mobilization Design (Experience/Service/ Process/System) Law-Making [Sunstein, Thaler] Community Organizing [Alinsky] Communication / Information Systems [tech-makers themselves] Education (pedagogy, skills, learning patterns) Citizenship +
  • 13. The Many Conceptual Roots of Engagement Political roots [Bennett, Coleman]: Participation as emerging forms of citizenship Communication roots [Bimber, Shirky]: Every bit counts, communication = collective action Organizational roots [Bennett, Earl & Kimport, Chadwick]: Collective action as organizational change Philanthropic roots filantropiche [Fine, Kanter]: Reimagining our links to social causes Conflictual and symbolic roots [Diani, Della Porta]: Social movement theories, alternative spaces in society, framing processes, mobilizing structures, political opportunities Macro-theories [Benkler, Castells]: Collective action as power-shifting (communicative and economic) Techno-Legal roots [Bollier, Lessig]: Code as law, power of digital architectures/artifacts, remix New media roots [Loader and Mercea, Manovich]: Social media, new modes of engagement, narratives, genres, new media theories Design roots [various]: open design, p2p design, user-centred design, service design, design for policy (Social) Innovation roots [Mulgan et al]: hybridity, iteration, social impact
  • 14. The Many Conceptual Roots of Engagement As “ladder” of activities
  • 15. The Many Conceptual Roots of Engagement As “ladder” of activities Source: Forrester
  • 16. The Many Conceptual Roots of Engagement As “ladder” of activities Source: Forrester
  • 17. The Many Conceptual Roots of Engagement As “ladder” of activities Credits: Beth Kanter
  • 18. The Many Conceptual Roots of Engagement By Mode of Production Crowds Communities
  • 19. The Many Conceptual Roots of Engagement By Mode of Production Crowds Communities Credits: Haythornthwaite
  • 20. The Many Conceptual Roots of Engagement Crowds and Communities Credits: Pew Research Centre
  • 21. The Many Conceptual Roots of Engagement As Citizenship practice Credits: Nathaniel Heller
  • 22. The Many Conceptual Roots of Engagement As Civic Tech Categories As emerging “fields” of the civic tech sector, defined by the proliferation of tools (Credits: Young Foundation)
  • 23. The Many Conceptual Roots of Engagement As Civic Tech Categories
  • 24. The Many Conceptual Roots of Engagement As Civic Tech Categories
  • 25. The Many Conceptual Roots of Engagement By Impact over the system Melucci's (1996)framework categorizes all forms of collective action
  • 26. The Many Conceptual Roots of Engagement Sifry's (2014) summary of debates on categorizing public engagement By Impact over System Vs Mode of Production
  • 27. The Many Conceptual Roots of Engagement As “format work” A Scuola di OpenCoesione, a 6-step lesson plan for engaging students through open data in civic monitoring of cohesion funds expenditure
  • 28. The Many Conceptual Roots of Engagement Leveraging Participation “Styles” Take the example of kiva.org, the online social lending platform. It is way more than the lending practice, leveraging many “engagement paths”
  • 29. The Many Conceptual Roots of Engagement Leveraging Participation “Styles” The “tight community” path
  • 30. The Many Conceptual Roots of Engagement Leveraging Participation “Styles” The “community” path
  • 31. The Many Conceptual Roots of Engagement Leveraging Participation “Styles” Leveraging existing communities
  • 32. The Many Conceptual Roots of Engagement Leveraging Participation “Styles” Communities as distributed governance
  • 33. The Many Conceptual Roots of Engagement Leveraging Participation “Styles” The Education Path
  • 34. The Many Conceptual Roots of Engagement Leveraging Participation “Styles” The “instrumental” Path
  • 35. The Many Conceptual Roots of Engagement Leveraging Participation “Styles” The individual/utilitarian Path
  • 36. The Many Conceptual Roots of Engagement Leveraging Participation “Styles” The “Ambassador” Path
  • 37. The Many Conceptual Roots of Engagement Leveraging Participation “Styles” The “every bit counts” Path
  • 38. The Many Conceptual Roots of Engagement Leveraging Participation “Styles” The “Generative” Path Case 1: Poverty2Prosperity Created by Scott, KivaFriends member Allows other Kiva users to make loans 
 automatically to safe funds Fosters non-generative, simplified engagement Case 2: 101 Cookbooks Blog Created by Heidi , author of the Cookbooks blog Posted on September 3rd, 2008 + instructions 763 lenders, 38,000$ in loans
  • 39. The Many Conceptual Roots of Engagement Leveraging Participation “Styles” kiva.org, the online 
 social lending platform, is way more than the lending practice. it leverages many “engagement paths”
  • 40. So, engagement can be interpreted in many ways “Ladder” of activities Mode of production Civic tech categories Impact over the system Leveraging “participation styles” “format work”
  • 41. GROUP WORK IDENTIFYING A TOOL (or combo of up to 2 tools) FOR MANAGING ENGAGEMENT GROUP 1: the Council of Rome wants to gather opinions and ideas from citizens before drafting the next traffic plan GROUP 2: the Ministry of Economic Development has just launched its policy brief on startups and wants to hear from stakeholders and the public before final revisions (40 minutes)
  • 44. E-Participation Dilemmas “VOICES FAILING TO BE HEARD” (Keen, 2007; Hindman, 2009) “LARGELY UNCHANGED HABITS” (Bimber, 2003, 2009) “PSEUDO PARTICIPATION” (Noveck, 2004) “THICK COMPETITIVE ELITISM” (Davis, 2011) “SLACKTIVISM” (Morozov, Gladwell) “CYBERPOLARIZATION” (Sunstein, Dahlberg)
  • 45. Online consultations, “no longer an exotic experience” (Shane, 2012) BUT: failure to deliver (various scholars, at various stages, 2005-2014) Two recurring problems: “[...] few online forums for political expression are tied to in any ascertainable, accountable way to actual governmental policy making” (Shane, 2012). “most most exercises in online deliberation attract relatively small numbers of participants” (Shane, 2012) A negative spiral Weak link to policy Low numbers Low impact in policy Low trust, apathy Low attention from polity & policy Lower trust, numbers “A recessive spiral”
  • 48. Case Study: PUBLIC CONSULTATIONS
 in Italy (2012-2015) 1.3
  • 49. The “Attempts” Phase OGP - Action Plan Numbers: very low,“usual suspects” Impact: minimal low diffusion for the theme a detailed report Main Issues: lack of debate, closed networks, numbers not sufficient to legitimate the policy Spending Review Numbers: very high, but mostly useless Impact: very low (“complaint box”)
 not demonstrable, low accountability negative on tools Main Issues: the tools used, too simplistic, and low accountability Valore Legale Titolo di Studio (Legal value of degrees) Numbers: high, but negative debate, and results Impact:“unfortunately” for the Gov, very high: Activism from various groups
 Policy was interrupted and Gov “lost”
 No accountability on the process Main Issues: how the debate was managed, the relationship between tools and objectives 35.335 questionnaires in 30 days 550.000 messages in 28 days few dozens of comments
  • 50. The “Tools” Phase HIT2020: Horizon 2020 Italy - 2012 Numbers: good, but partisanship and lack of attention from non-research world Impact: Over the policy drafing Rich analysis (report) Higher participation than EU equivalent Clarity of the process Main issues: partisanship, lack of attention from non-research world Italian position on Internet General Principles (IGF) - 2012 Numbers: decent, but, low engagement across networks besides info-tech world Impact: co-drafting (partially) international credibility issue awareness good value of physical workshops Main Issues: tools, lack of literacy, timing, short policy window Digital Agenda (AdiSocial) - 2012 Numbers: decent, but lack of communication Impact: multiple Influence over working groups Leveraging diversity Consistency with auditions First innovations with tools
 A rich report on the process Main Issues: lack of time, low inter-ministerial coordination, communication, accessibility 3000 users, 343 ideas, 1967 comments, 11.000 votes in 35 days 760 users, 159 ideas, 480 comments
 3500 votes in 44 days 4272 questionnaires + 3500 users, 133 ideas, 500 comments, 7500 votes in 35 days
  • 51. The “Paths” Phase Destination Italy Numbers: decent, but negative agenda Impact: very direct: policy was “adjusted” in various parts clear priorities from participants stakeholder engagement (e.g. think tank) Main Issues: political instability, lack of debate PartecipaGov: Constitutional Reforms Numbers: very high (largest in Europe) Impact: debatable, ongoing, soft, DELAYED Keeping constitutional reforms high in the agenda; educational, knowledge development; very detailed report; very clear findings from citizens Main Issues: political instability, limited offline debate Social Innovation Agenda co-design Numbers: low, but significant stakeholder network Impact: limited, but high intangible value Co-drafting of the agenda; Institutional working groups launched and few projects launched; International attention; Cultural impact Main Issues: political instability 85 stakeholders involved, 250 inputs in 5 areas, 1 month 131.676 Q1 + 71.385 Q2 = 214.000 contributions
 77000 textual comments, 595 ideas, 1763 comments
 475.000 visits, 9:34 minutes per visit, 3 months 278 comments , 369 questionnaires, 167 ideas, 23 position papers, 30.000 participants, 2 months
  • 53. PartecipaGov: designing the participation process
  • 54. 200k people involved at the time: largest online consultation by a gov in europe PartecipaGov (Public Consultation on Constitutional Reforms) has been organized around a multi-phase process designed through a range of participation means, media campaigns and engagement occasions. PartecipaGov: designing the participation process
  • 55. PartecipaGov: participation paths Enabling different “layers” of engagement Having the highest participation possible for a Government consultation “Respecting” the subject: constitutional reforms. Qualifying engagement progressively: from Q1 to Q2 to public debates Putting pressure on institutions Providing clear indications for constitutional reforms Consulting ex-ante to avoid ex-post failure (referendum)
  • 59. PartecipaGov: COMMUNICATION STRATEGY Partecipa alla Consultazione Pubblica online indetta dal Governo per conoscere il parere dei cittadini sulle riforme della Costituzione. Potrai esprimere la tua opinione su temi chiave per l’assetto e il funzionamento del nostro Paese. Partecipare è semplice: basta collegarsi al sito www.partecipa.gov.it e compilare due veloci questionari entro l’8 ottobre. Un’occasione unica per costruire, tutti insieme, un Paese più moderno ed efficiente.
  • 60. PartecipaGov: ENGAGEMENT (MEDIA CAMPAIGNS) - Spike of users: + 50%, +100%, +200% depending on timing - Spike of mobile users: from 5% to 30-40% - Participation slows in 10 minutes (mobile especially) - Participation increases again (more desktop users + social) - Campaigns contribution steady
  • 61. Tv spikes Vs Web spikes TG2 (20) UnoMattina (7am) + start campaignsIlPost (11am) Re-launch + TG5 (13) Ad campaign Web = fragmented, apart from social PA campaigns + institutional websites = lower but constant contributionMedia necessary, debate necessary PartecipaGov: GENERAL ENGAGEMENT METRICS
  • 62. PartecipaGov: ONLINE ENGAGEMENT METRICS 200k people involved largest online consultation by a gov in europe PartecipaGov (Public Consultation on Constitutional Reforms) has been organized around a multi-phase process designed through a range of participation means, media campaigns and engagement occasions. Conversion Rates Desktop: 29,3% (n=80.976) Tablet: 25,22% (n=7.638) Mobile: 16,3% (n=11.295)
  • 64. PartecipaGov: CONVERSION RATES TermometroPolitico.it: 48% (n=203) TiConsiglio.com: 43,4% (n=618) Governo.it: 39% (n=3.271) Direct: 31,3% (n=40.062) ACI Banner: 31,3% (n=1.374) IlPost: 30,5% (n=269) INPS Banner: 30,1% (n=2.916) Total: 27,5% Facebook web: 25,5% (n=5.379) Province websites: 24,1% (n=1.058) All Campaigns: 23% (n=11.966) Comuni websites: 22,5% (n=1.521) Twitter: 19% (n=985) All referrals: 19,9% (n=35.291) Facebook mobile: 11% (n=3.186) - Social media lower conversion rate (influenced by mobile) - Tablet higher conversion than mobile, but lower than desktop
 - .Gov websites (+Governo.it) effective with 39% conversion
 - Web-zines also effective, though lower absolute numbers
  • 65. Case Study: La Buona Scuola
 Public consultation on education reform
  • 67. La Buona Scuola: designing the participation process La Buona Scuola (a comprehensive school reform proposal + engagement plan) involved the design of a 6-months policy process including expert groups, a public consultation, a national tour, a communication and media strategy.
  • 68. La Buona Scuola (a comprehensive school reform proposal) consultation involved 3 main participation “paths”: A 7-section questionnaires, 16 co-design themes and a strategy for live debating. La Buona Scuola: participation paths
  • 69. La Buona Scuola consultation: every participation path underlies a thick organizational process, including administrative regional offices, stakeholders’ engagement and political liaising La Buona Scuola: offline events as key strategy
  • 70. 1.8M people involved DEBATESTOUR STAGES
 300 people per debate POSITION PAPERS Rapporti degli 
 Uffici Scolastici Regionali 207k 1.3 M 20 115204040 200k documented online 1.5 M reached La Buona Scuola: consultation final numbers
  • 71. A Learning Curve • Innovation/expansion in tools • A shift from tools to processes • A wider variety of processes put in place • More “organizational work” • Stronger, more directed impact • Much more variables involved in design • Demonstrating that Government can handle participation • A (mildly) positive public debate (or at least a debate)
  • 72. A FRAMEWORKFOR 
 DESIGNING (AND ASSESSING) PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT 1.4
  • 73. Why A Framework? • Too much focus on technologies (technocratic approach) and on designing “the perfect software for the perfect citizen” • Too little focus on organizational and institutional aspects, need for more “inside the box” approaches (Chadwick, 2011) • Need a better focus on information dynamics (i.e. attention scarcity) • Inability to locate e-participation within a wider social context, too much focus on “online interactions” • A need to fill the e-democracy from below and above mismatch by better understanding the many dimensions of civic engagement • Need for multi-dimensional, context-aware and staged approaches • Multi-disciplinarity (Dawes, 2009) • Raising the bar (practice), enriching the debate (intellectual) • Designing for impact (thus, innovation?)
  • 74. A Framework for designing engagement outcomes and externalities outputs media and symbolic space modelling and organizational dimension, participation process pre-conditions to participation and motivations participation culture digital culture social needs and interests trustinformation organizational and institutional fitnessreachlivenessrichness activism and advocacy occasions 
 & eventsdebate 1 2 3 4
  • 75. A Framework for designing engagement 1 pre-conditions to participation and motivations participation culture digital culture social needs and interests trust information dialogue 
 democratic behavior netiquette access to relevant information
 content clarity
 clear explanation of the process
 clear link to facts, sources and policy contents participatory pact 
 (static or dynamic)
 clear link to policy cycle
 centrality in policy
 security of the platform
 Information management
 openness to challenge relevance
 urgency
 link to current debate
 opportunity framing processes
 identities e-skills
 digital divide
 netiquette a pilot model - 1
  • 76. A Framework for designing engagement 1 pre-conditions to participation and motivations information access to relevant information
 content clarity
 clear explanation of the process
 clear link to facts, sources and policy contents a pilot model - 1 clear link to facts, sources access to 
 relevant information content clarity
  • 77. A Framework for designing engagement 1 pre-conditions to participation and motivations a pilot model - 1 trust participatory pact 
 (static or dynamic)
 clear link to policy cycle
 centrality in policy
 security of the platform
 Information management
 openness to challenge participatory pact / social trust technical trust / security centrality in policyinformation management
  • 78. netiquette A Framework for designing engagement 1 pre-conditions to participation and motivations a pilot model - 1 participation culture dialogue 
 democratic behavior netiquette“participation day” rewarding democratic behavior rewarding democratic behavior
  • 79. A Framework for designing engagement 1 pre-conditions to participation and motivations a pilot model - 1 digital culture e-skills
 digital divide
 netiquette digital divide digital literacy
  • 80. A Framework for designing engagement 2 modelling participation and organizational dimension a pilot model - 2 organizational and institutional fitness reach liveness organizational micro-politics
 boundary work
 partnering richness enhancing participation styles
 ladder of engagement
 flexibility of participation paths
 customization
 social technographics ability to produce 
 step-goods, remix, transcoding communication efforts
 virality and diffusion mechanism, partnering
 appeal
 storytelling
 media presence
  • 81. A Framework for designing engagement 2 modelling participation and organizational dimension a pilot model - 2 The digital economy moved the richness/reach (quality/quantity) threshold, but attention scarcity keeps it relevant
  • 82. A Framework for designing engagement 2 modelling participation and organizational dimension richness enhancing participation styles
 building ladders of engagement
 flexibility of participation paths
 customization
 social technographics 54% of respondents to Q1 (8 questions)
 also completed Q2 (24 questions) Building ladders of engagement light weight v. heavy weight production models Flexibility of participation paths a pilot model - 2
  • 83. A Framework for designing engagement 2 modelling participation and organizational dimension communication efforts
 virality partnering
 appeal
 storytelling
 media presence mobile tablet Desktop designing for mobility partnering reach communication efforts a pilot model - 2
  • 84. A Framework for designing engagement 2 modelling participation and organizational dimension liveness ability to produce 
 step-goods, remix, transcoding GOV.UK/performance analytics dashboard participation 
 mapping semantics and argument visualization debate mapping a pilot model - 2
  • 85. A Framework for designing engagement 2 modelling participation and organizational dimension liveness ability to produce 
 step-goods, remix, transcoding a pilot model - 2
  • 86. A Framework for designing engagement 2 modelling participation and organizational dimension Main reasons for e-participation failure
 (Chadwick, 2011) Budget Constraints and Organizational Instability Policy Shifts Political Ambivalence Legal Risks and Depoliticization Outsourcing / Insourcing organizational and institutional fitness organizational micro-politics / hierarchies
 boundary work
 institutional and political partnering understand the organization budget constraints political ambivalence a pilot model - 2
  • 87. A Framework for designing engagement 3 media and symbolic dimension a pilot model - 3 activism and advocacy occasions 
 & events debate contribution from public debate fostering democratic occasions
 design thinking
 social innovation agonistic dimension
  • 88. A Framework for designing engagement 3 media and symbolic dimension a pilot model - 3 debate contribution from public debate
  • 89. A Framework for designing engagement 3 media and symbolic dimension a pilot model - 3 occasions 
 & events fostering democratic occasions accreditation
 design thinking
 social innovation Social Innovation Agenda 2013 IBAC 2014 (Destinazione Italia) Design jams as goal-setter
  • 90. A Framework for designing engagement 3 media and symbolic dimension a pilot model - 3 activism and advocacy leveraging the agonistic dimension
  • 91. A Framework for designing engagement 4 outputs, outcomes and externalities a pilot model - 4 outcomes and externalities accountability efficiency legitimacy awareness identityconflictsheterogeneity social justicetrust
  • 92. A Framework for designing engagement 4 outputs, outcomes and externalities a pilot model - 4 outcomes and externalities accountability efficiency legitimacy awareness identityconflictsheterogeneity social justicetrust quantity vs quality of debate who is saying what/how groups behave turning noise into meaning cost-effectiveness, completion rates, user satisfaction actual feedbacks
  • 93. A Framework for designing engagement 4 outputs, outcomes and externalities a pilot model - 4 outcomes and externalities accountability efficiency legitimacy awareness identityconflictsheterogeneity social justicetrust conversion rates - Direct + Search = 62% of total Q1 completed - Campaigns + Referrals = 38% of total Q1 completed - Mobile + Tablet contributes for 14% of Q1 completed - Facebook + Twitter = 7% of of Q1 completed - Main institutional websites = 18,4% of Q1 completed 11% 1%1%1%1%1% 1% 2% 4% 4% 4% 6% 17% 45% Direct Google Facebook Agenzia Entrate Governo.it INPS ACI Comuni MIT TiConsiglio.com Province INAIL Twitter Other capturing moments stickiness
  • 94. GROUP WORK APPLYING THE FRAMEWORK GROUP 1 & 2: The Government wants to raise awareness about European citizenship in the context of the celebration of the 60th anniversary of the signing of the “Rome Treaty”. Framework conditions: high euro skepticism (varying degrees by country), revision of EU general budget, Brexit referendum by October 2016
 Possible Subjects: the “four freedoms” of European Union: people circulation (Research,Tourism, Workers), Goods circulation (Duties and taxation), Services (e.g. unified mobile roaming, Internet purchases, Digital single market) and Capital circulation (e.g. Monetary union, the Banking system). What you need to do: Prepare a timeline for organizing engagement between now and March 25th 2017 (when a celebration with all EU Ministers for a new declaration will be held). Details required:Timeline, tools & techniques used, partners involved, barriers to overcome, incentives to be leveraged, participation phases, communication strategy, outputs and outcomes expected
  • 96. Part 2: Lesson plan “LIVING POLICY” DESIGN GW - GROUP-WORK PITCH FROM PART 1 & DISCUSSION 2.1 - COMPLETINGTHE FRAMEWORK:THE POLICY CYCLE 2.2 - INNOVATIONS IN POLICY DESIGN: STATE OFTHE ART 2.3 - FROM OPEN POLICYTO LIVING POLICY-MAKING GW APPLIED LIVING POLICY CHALLENGE & FINAL DISCUSSION
  • 97. GROUP-WORK APPLYING THE FRAMEWORK Context: The EU is celebrating the 60th anniversary of the Treaty of Rome. The EU bodies and Member States intends to raise awareness about European citizenship. Framework conditions: high euro skepticism (varying degrees by country), revision of EU general budget, Brexit referendum by October 2016.The celebration with all EU Prime Ministers will include a new declaration. Possible Subjects: the “four freedoms” of European Union: people circulation (Students, Research,Tourism,Workers), Goods circulation (Duties and taxation), Services (e.g. unified mobile roaming, Internet purchases, Digital single market) and Capital circulation (e.g. Monetary union, Banking system). What you need to do: Prepare a timeline of events for organizing engagement between now and March 25th 2017. Details required:Timeline, tools & techniques used, partners involved, barriers to overcome, incentives to be leveraged, participation phases, communication strategy, outputs and outcomes expected
  • 100. GROUP-WORK PITCH FROM PART 1 
 FINAL GROUP WORK
 --
 DISCUSSION (40 minutes)
  • 101. The Legal 
 roots of Engagement 2.1
  • 102. CONTEXT • OpenGovernment policy: pro-active disclosure of information and for engagement with citizens and stakeholders. • Stated goals: strengthen accountability of institutions, increasing legitimacy and efficiency of decision and policy making • sought externalities: filling the democratic gap, reinforce social identity and attain social justice PLANS AND PRINCIPLES • US OpenGovernment Directive and the Memorandum for the OpenGovernment initiative (Obama, Feb 2009) • EUTowards a reinforced culture of consultation and dialogue (2002), PlanD for Democracy (2005), Better Regulation initiative (2005) and Smart regulation (2012). BY SUBJECT AND INITIATIVES • environment: [1991] ESPOO Convention on Environmental Impact assessment in a transboundary context; [1992] RIO Declaration on Environment and Development; 1998 Aarhus Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters; 2000 European Landscape Convention • constitution-making: India [1950], Bosnia-Herzegovina [1995], Uganda [1995], Poland [1997],Timor-Leste [2002],Afghanistan [2004], Bolivia [2009], Kenya [2005; 2010] • Peer-to-patent: remedying the information deficit of Patent Offices, such as in the case of establishing prior art which is central to the quality of an examined patent.The peer-to-patent projects show that the Patent community - a relatively clear and competent community with a critical view on the development of the patent system - is capable of supporting the process (Noveck 2006) The Legal Roots of Open Government / 1
  • 103. 12.04.2013 
 First document of the “wisemen” 2013 17.10.2003 Draft Legislation 2006 25-26.06.2006 
 Referendum 18.11.2005 
 Legislation published 25.03/15.10.2005
 Final version approved Reform Part II of the Italian Constitution 06.2013 
 extra- parliamentary working group 08.07.2013 
 Public Consultation opens 08.10.2013 
 Public Consultation closes 12.11.2013 
 Report to the Parliament turnout 52% 
 Yes 39%
 No 61% Reform Part II of the Constitution --.--.20-- 
 Referendum 18.07.2003 
 DraftTreaty establishing a Constitution for Europe 2006 Consultative Referendum29.10.2004 
 Treaty signed in Rome 04.10.2003
 [IGC]
 InterGovernmental Conference starts Constitution for Europe Yes Spain, Luxembourg 
 No France,The Netherlands 15.12.2001 
 Laeken Declaration European Convention for the Future of Europe Ratification period [by October 2006] Lithuania, Hungary, Slovenia, Italy,Austria, Greece, Malta, Cyprus, Latvia, Belgium, Estonia, Bulgaria, Romania, Slovakia, Germany, Finland Ratification suspended: Czech Republic, Denmark, Ireland, Poland, Portugal, Sweden, UK COM(2005)494 final Plan D
 for Democracy Dialogue Debate 
 Failures and Debates
  • 104. Devolution - Reform of TitleV 12.04.2013 
 First document of the “wisemen” 2013 2001 20.01.1998 
 Draft legislation 18.10.2001 
 Legge Costituzionale 
 n. 3/2001 26.09.2000 
 Unified text approved 08.03.2001 
 Final version approved 07.10.2001 
 Referendum turnout 34% 
 Yes 62%
 No 36% 25.06.1944 Norm to call for a consultation at the end of the war on the form of government and to elect a Constitution Assembly 02.06.1946 
 Referendum “Istituzionale” 
 [Monarchy v. Republic]
 Election of the Constitution Assembly 31.01.1948 
 Publication of the 
 Italian Constitution Monarchy v. Republic Constitutional Assembly 1948 17.10.2003 Draft Legislation 2006 25-26.06.2006 
 Referendum 18.11.2005 
 Legislation published 25.03/15.10.2005
 Final version approved Part II of the Constitution 06.2013 
 extra- parliamentary working group 08.07.2013 
 Public Consultation opens 08.10.2013 
 Public Consultation closes 12.11.2013 
 Report to the Parliament turnout 52% 
 Yes 39%
 No 61% Part II of the Constitution Italian Constitutional Reforms
  • 105. — STATED GOALS • ACCOUNTABILITY “The Governments will be forced to act according to justice only if their actions could be constantly challenged through the publicity: there won’t be any justice if the political action cannot be publicly known” Immanuel Kant,“Perpetual Peace.A philosophical sketch” (1795). • EFFICIENCY make use of shared and local knowledge, well adapted and needed decisions and rules • LEGITIMACY increased acceptance and respect of the final decision/rule The Legal Roots of Open Government / 2
  • 106. —SOUGHT EXTERNALITIES • Reinforcement of local identity • Promote timely disclosure of relevant information • Make use of place-specific knowledge and social norms • Learning and improving the quality of debate • Create trust, strengthen institutional legitimacy and face democratic deficit • Support in tackling conflicts • Representing heterogeneity and attaining social justice 
 —ENABLING FACTORS • ICT evolution has opened a useful array of sources and tools • Institutions recognize the need to involve iteratively interested parties and groups • Citizens manifest increasing expectations from the dialogue with the institutions The Legal Roots of Open Government / 2
  • 107. Completing the framework The Policy Cycle 2.1
  • 108. The Policy Cycle long term decision & policy 
 cycle action for 
 change or improvement drafting decision adoption deployment implementation evaluation review impact 
 assessment
  • 109. A Framework for designing engagement decision & policy 
 cycle case for change deployment evaluation decision implementation
  • 110. A Framework for designing engagement exante decision & policy 
 cycle action for change 
 or improvement drafting decision adoption solutions issues identification ex ante impact assessment resources allocation co-design e-deliberation petitions advocacy
  • 111. A Framework for designing engagement decision & policy 
 cycle adoption deployment implementation endorsement buy - in ecosystems & communities innovative procurement awareness agile policy making
  • 112. A Framework for designing engagement evaluation impact 
 assessment decision & policy 
 cycle monitoring sustainability deployment co-management pay-for-success gathering data for quality and quantitative assessment accelerators watch-dog
  • 113. action for 
 change or improvement A Framework for designing engagement decision & policy 
 cycle ex post impact assessment emerging societal needs feedback- gathering e- deliberation evaluation review
  • 114. Outputs , Outcomes and Externalities implementation design evaluation adoption endorsement monitoring solutions issues identification ex ante impact assessment ex post impact assessment resources allocation emerging societal needs drafting co-design e-deliberation sustainability buy-in visualization feedback- gathering e-deliberation decision & policy 
 cycle
  • 115. A Framework for engagement outputs citizens’ input expected impact
 in the policy cycle weak strong type of input simple complex co-management co-design
 resource allocation e-deliberation endorsement feedback gathering information - awareness outcomes and externalities accountability efficiency legitimacy awareness identityconflictsheterogeneity social justicetrust
  • 117. 1.POLICY DRAFTING 1.PARTICIPATION & GOOD GOVERNANCE 2.EFFICIENCY & EVIDENCE-BASED 3.SIMPLIFICATION & NUDGING 2.INNOVATION TEAMS 3.PROCUREMENT OF SOLUTIONS INNOVATIONS IN POLICY DESIGN
  • 119. 1. PARTICIPATION - political polarization - democracy dilemmas - process foul - internal decisions: specialized information held by diverse people within the executive branch - public comment: draft rules undergoing analysis and feedback from other levels of gov, businesses, interest groups - substantive, technical, non political, agreeable good governance practice (not compulsory) OPEN GOV INNOVATIONS IN POLICY DESIGN
  • 120. 2. EFFICIENCY EVIDENCE BASED POLICY-MAKING Test, Learn,Adapt: Developing Public Policy with Randomised Controlled Trials (9 steps) - short terms costs vs major long term benefits - Moneyball regulations: substituting empirical data for long-standing dogmas, intuitions, anedocte-driven judgements DATA-DRIVEN INNOVATIONS IN POLICY DESIGN
  • 121. 3. SIMPLIFICATION NUDGES, PATHS, FRAMING BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCESChoice Architecture: 
 default rules vs active choice information on consequences together with clear, explicit and actionable instructions [Sunstein-Thaler] Positive reinforcement and indirect suggestions to try to achieve non forced compliance INNOVATIONS IN POLICY DESIGN
  • 123. #Good law Participation Efficiency Simplification INNOVATIONS IN POLICY DESIGN
  • 124. Participation
 Efficiency
 Simplification
 Improving Parliamentary and public scrutiny of legislation has been a government objective in recent years, seeking to improve both democratic engagement and legislative quality. Setting out policy targets in legislation can be “a low-cost way for governments to give the appearance of vigorous action” and a way to strategically influence (or limit) the decision- making of future governments consultation and engagement are important. But traditional consultation exercises can feel burdensome and unrewarding; and generic questions asked in a consultation may generate cluttered feedback that is difficult to analyse and to integrate into the policy or the draft bill. In an increasingly complicated policy- making context, consultations that are not predominantly reactive often work better than the traditional model. - Volume (number and length of statutes and regulations)
 - Quality (addressing political and social objectives, harmonious, clear and well-integrated, in time and efficiently
 - Perception of disproportionate complexity (layered and heavily amended, ambiguous or contradictory provisions) - unnecessary (target unachievable, redundant, unnecessary burdens)
 - ineffective (it does not achieve intended objectives, fragmented or problematic implementation, substantial negative outcomes) 
 - inaccessible (difficult to identify and access up-to-date versions, language and style, lack of guidance) #Good law necessary, effective, clear, coherent and accessible legislation It is about the content of law, its architecture, its language and its accessibility – and about the links between those things.
 INNOVATIONS IN POLICY DESIGN
  • 125. #Legislate?! The Cabinet Office has brought out a board game "Legislate?!": 
 a fun way to learn about the passage of laws from Bill to Act INNOVATIONS IN POLICY DESIGN
  • 129. Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs - US The Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA) is located within the Office of Management and Budget and was created by Congress with the enactment of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980 (PRA). OIRA carries out several important functions, including reviewing Federal regulations, reducing paperwork burdens, and overseeing policies relating to privacy, information quality, and statistical programs. Behavioural Insights Team - UK The Behavioural InsightsTeam, often called the ‘Nudge Unit’, applies insights from academic research in behavioural economics and psychology to public policy and services. In addition to working with almost every government department, we work with local authorities, charities, NGOs, private sector partners and foreign government, developing proposals and testing them empirically across the full spectrum of government policy. The Presidential Innovation Fellows (PIF) program pairs top innovators from the private sector, non-profits, and academia with top innovators in government to collaborate during focused 6-13 month “tours of duty” to develop solutions that can save lives, save taxpayer money, and fuel job creation. Each team of innovators is supported by a broader community of interested citizens throughout the country. Independent charity that works to increase the innovation capacity of the UK. The organisation acts through a combination of practical programmes, investment, policy and research, and the formation of partnerships to promote innovation across a broad range of sectors. Originally funded by a £250 million endowment from the UK National Lottery, now kept in trust, and its interests are used to meet charitable objects and to fund and support projects.
  • 133. •Pay only for success and establish an ambitious goal without having to predict which team or approach is most likely to succeed.
 •Reach beyond the “usual suspects” to increase the number of citizen solvers and entrepreneurs tackling a problem.
 •Bring out-of-discipline perspectives to bear.
 •Increase cost-effectiveness to maximize the return on taxpayer contributions.
 •Inspire risk-taking by offering a level playing field through credible rules and robust judging mechanisms. challenge prizes INNOVATIONS IN POLICY DESIGN
  • 141. Living Policy-Making 1.DESIGNING IMPACT-DRIVEN ACTIONS 2.DESIGNING FOR AGILITY 3.FROM RULES TO COMMUNITIES 4.FROM PROJECTS TO ECOSYSTEMS 5.ACCELERATORS
  • 142. EXAMPLES: SOCIAL IMPACT BONDS, PAY FOR SUCCESS SCHEMES Financial schemes that reward the social impact generated by a publicly- funded program (pay for success) or repay private funding (a “social impact” bond issued by the public) through savings • DESIGNING IMPACT-DRIVEN ACTIONS Living Policy-Making
  • 143. • From courses to learning experiences • From certification to continuous assessment and badging • From funding for courses to “pay for success” • Training as professional development, rather than an obligation Example: shaping teachers’ training • Very little impact from courses across time and countries • Certification increasingly less relevant • Italian teachers more in need than their peers around the globe • The age factor • The “fear” factor (low skills-low motivation) • DESIGNING IMPACT DRIVEN ACTIONS Living Policy-Making
  • 144. Example: the school curriculum • “National indications” are a rigid and ineffective policy tool • Teachers training ineffective, especially for “new” skills (e.g. digital literacy) • Students demotivated by traditional didactics • FROM RULES TO COMMUNITIES Living Policy-Making
  • 145. Example: innovating the school curriculum • Turning classroom activities into national & global communities • Teachers become facilitators, students as project managers • Gamification + “Format work” (e.g. Data expedition, role-playing) • FROM RULES TO COMMUNITIES Living Policy-Making
  • 146. Innovating the school curriculum • Every classroom projects becomes a community project: the final step requires a strategy for local engagement • FROM RULES TO COMMUNITIES Living Policy-Making
  • 147. School curriculum as national partnership code.org + Programma il Futuro: a national partnership between MIUR, Italian Informatics professors andTech companies to bring coding classes to every Italian student • FROM RULES TO COMMUNITIES Living Policy-Making
  • 148. • FROM RULES TO COMMUNITIES Sustaining the policy by leveraging a community of tinkerers.The format “instruction” becomes common standard Living Policy-Making
  • 149. Every student gets engaged in the “Olympics of entreprenership” AN ENTRY-LEVEL CURRICULUM 
 FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN EVERY SCHOOL A CONTEST, HACKATHON, CAMP, TECH GARAGE IN EVERY REGION 1,000 STUDENTS WIN “ACCELERATION” • FROM PROJECTS to ECOSYSTEMS Living Policy-Making
  • 151. • ACCELERATORS challenges for models of labs and spaces
 to spur innovation in learning environments Living Policy-Making
  • 152. • ACCELERATORS A “Digital ambassador” in every school to: • Organize internal training for teachers and motivate those more resistant to change • Develop and share innovative and effective digital practice • Engage communities for digital innovation (e.g. local communities, parents) and spur student-led innovation Living Policy-Making
  • 153. CASE STUDY: THE NATIONAL PLAN FOR DIGITAL SCHOOLS (2015)
  • 154. WHERE WE COME FROM 1st phase (2007-2012) classrooms as labs, 
 rather than in labs • Classrooms 2.0: 416 • Schools 2.0: 14 schools • Interactive whiteboards: 35.000 • Digital publishing: 20 schools 2nd phase (2012-2014) • Classrooms 2.0: 905 • Schools 2.0: 21 schools • Interactive whiteboards: 1.931 • Plan for “Isolated schools”: 45 • 38 “digital training centers” created • Wi-fi in school In total… • Roughly 130M investments + 20M from Regions • 90,000 teachers trained • 25% of secondary schools with fast broadband (15% of primary schools) • 78% of labs connected, 56% with LIM • 46% of rooms connected (32% with LIM) • 58% of electronic registers
  • 155. WHERE WE COME FROM Starting point: 
 a critical analysis of the context • We trained 90,000 teachers, but don’t know about impact (and snowballing effects) • Inconsistent policies over time • Lack of systemic vision and, especially, impact • Hard technology rather than soft • No support for school (cultural issues) This means: • Our training schemes weren’t effective • The “classroom as labs” vision proved too tech-centered, and too expensive • Teachers tried to absorb innovation, but mostly couldn’t deliver to students • Skills policy mostly linked to tech rather than a comprehensive vision on literacy • Fragmented projects, low impact: what to incubate?
  • 156.
  • 157. WHERE WE NEED TO GO 1. Not true that digital natives know it all: digital literacy is broadening, and formats are (e.g. MOOC). We need to develop a strategy/service to involve the private sector, civil society and creatives to leverage the “engagement as format work” path. 2. Teachers’ training needs to become permanent and structural: it needs to regard almost 800,000 teachers. How do we organize it, leveraging innovative schools and teachers. 3. We need to create a link between digital skills and the kind of careers they produce (entrepreneurship, emerging jobs, science, research). 4. We need to develop schemes that leverage public + private investments in school infrastructures, connectivity in particular 5. We need to modernize school labs and school spaces, and change the way we think of them as linked to digital education
  • 158.
  • 159.
  • 160.
  • 161.
  • 162.
  • 163.
  • 164.
  • 165.
  • 167.
  • 168.
  • 169.
  • 170.
  • 171.
  • 172.
  • 173.
  • 174. Poli e snodi formativi I poli (scuole capofila di rete) e gli snodi (sedi di corso) sono individuati mediante tre diversi bandi. I poli per la formazione degli animatori digitali (DM 435/15) e per il team per l’innovazione (DM 762/14) sono già stati individuati e visibili al seguente indirizzo: https://goo.gl/WgjQhH. Fino al 23 febbraio è possibile candidarsi come snodo formativo per i percorsi destinati al Personale scolastico e finanziati attraverso le risorse del PON 2014-2020 D.M. 
 762/2014 PON 
 2014/20 D.M. 
 435/2015 Animatori 
 digitali Team per 
 l’innovazione Personale scolastico cliccare per ingrandire
  • 175.
  • 176. how institutions approach innovation in policy design
  • 177. GROUP WORK APPLIED 
 “LIVING” POLICY-MAKING GROUP 1 The Ministry of education needs to improve the ways to talk to, listen to, empower and enable innovation from “Digital School Ambassadors” (8,300 people, 1.000 Eur minimum budget, every school grade). GROUP 2 The recent school reform has introduced 200-300 hours of VocationalTraining experiences during last 3 years of Upper Secondary school. Resources are100 Mln/year, to be used mainly by schools directly and, in a percentage, to mentor and coordinateVET projects.