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PULMONARYPULMONARY
INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION
Pulmonary Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectiousPulmonary Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious
disease that mainly affect the lungs parenchyma.disease that mainly affect the lungs parenchyma.
TB is a contagious bacterial (M. tuberculosis)TB is a contagious bacterial (M. tuberculosis)
infection that mainly affects the lungsinfection that mainly affects the lungs
parenchyma, but may spread to other organs.parenchyma, but may spread to other organs.
TB is an ancient disease. Signs of skeletal TBTB is an ancient disease. Signs of skeletal TB
(pott disease) were evident in Europe from(pott disease) were evident in Europe from
Neolithic times, ancient egypt, and in the pre-Neolithic times, ancient egypt, and in the pre-
Columbian New World.Columbian New World.
Physicians in ancient Greece called this illness asPhysicians in ancient Greece called this illness as
“phthisis” reflecting its wasting character.“phthisis” reflecting its wasting character.
TB has remained an enemy of human societyTB has remained an enemy of human society
for all age.for all age.
TB is not only a problem for the personTB is not only a problem for the person
suffering from it or their families but a publicsuffering from it or their families but a public
health problem of the entire world.health problem of the entire world.
DISEASE CLASSIFICATIONDISEASE CLASSIFICATION
INFLAMMATORY
DISEASE
•It is a Chronic specific
Inflammatory infectious
Disease caused by
Mycobacterium Tuberculosis
In human.
•Usually attacks the lungs but
It can also effect any part of
The body.
ETIOLOGYETIOLOGY
TB is caused by the bacteria M. tuberculosisTB is caused by the bacteria M. tuberculosis
(most common cause).(most common cause).
Other than tuberculosis – includes;Other than tuberculosis – includes;
M. avium intracellulareM. avium intracellulare
M. kansasiM. kansasi
M. scrofulaceuruM. scrofulaceuru
M. ulceransM. ulcerans
M. marinum and etc.M. marinum and etc.
It also caused by breathing inIt also caused by breathing in
air droplets from a cough orair droplets from a cough or
sneeze of an infected personsneeze of an infected person
this is called Primary TB.this is called Primary TB.
Risk factors of tuberculosis is;Risk factors of tuberculosis is;
ElderlyElderly
InfantsInfants
Low socioeconomic statusLow socioeconomic status
Crowded living conditionsCrowded living conditions
Disease that weakensDisease that weakens
immune system like HIVimmune system like HIV
AlcoholismAlcoholism
Recent Tubercular infectionRecent Tubercular infection
(within last 2 years) and ect.(within last 2 years) and ect.

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Pulmonary tuberculosis..ptt

  • 2. INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION Pulmonary Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectiousPulmonary Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease that mainly affect the lungs parenchyma.disease that mainly affect the lungs parenchyma. TB is a contagious bacterial (M. tuberculosis)TB is a contagious bacterial (M. tuberculosis) infection that mainly affects the lungsinfection that mainly affects the lungs parenchyma, but may spread to other organs.parenchyma, but may spread to other organs. TB is an ancient disease. Signs of skeletal TBTB is an ancient disease. Signs of skeletal TB (pott disease) were evident in Europe from(pott disease) were evident in Europe from Neolithic times, ancient egypt, and in the pre-Neolithic times, ancient egypt, and in the pre- Columbian New World.Columbian New World. Physicians in ancient Greece called this illness asPhysicians in ancient Greece called this illness as “phthisis” reflecting its wasting character.“phthisis” reflecting its wasting character.
  • 3. TB has remained an enemy of human societyTB has remained an enemy of human society for all age.for all age. TB is not only a problem for the personTB is not only a problem for the person suffering from it or their families but a publicsuffering from it or their families but a public health problem of the entire world.health problem of the entire world.
  • 4. DISEASE CLASSIFICATIONDISEASE CLASSIFICATION INFLAMMATORY DISEASE •It is a Chronic specific Inflammatory infectious Disease caused by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis In human. •Usually attacks the lungs but It can also effect any part of The body.
  • 5. ETIOLOGYETIOLOGY TB is caused by the bacteria M. tuberculosisTB is caused by the bacteria M. tuberculosis (most common cause).(most common cause). Other than tuberculosis – includes;Other than tuberculosis – includes; M. avium intracellulareM. avium intracellulare M. kansasiM. kansasi M. scrofulaceuruM. scrofulaceuru M. ulceransM. ulcerans M. marinum and etc.M. marinum and etc.
  • 6. It also caused by breathing inIt also caused by breathing in air droplets from a cough orair droplets from a cough or sneeze of an infected personsneeze of an infected person this is called Primary TB.this is called Primary TB. Risk factors of tuberculosis is;Risk factors of tuberculosis is; ElderlyElderly InfantsInfants Low socioeconomic statusLow socioeconomic status Crowded living conditionsCrowded living conditions Disease that weakensDisease that weakens immune system like HIVimmune system like HIV AlcoholismAlcoholism Recent Tubercular infectionRecent Tubercular infection (within last 2 years) and ect.(within last 2 years) and ect.
  • 7. TB spread from person to person by airborneTB spread from person to person by airborne transmission. Infected person release droplettransmission. Infected person release droplet nuclei (1-5 micro meter in diameter) through,nuclei (1-5 micro meter in diameter) through, TalkingTalking CoughingCoughing SneezingSneezing LaughingLaughing SingingSinging • If not treated properly, TB can be fatal.If not treated properly, TB can be fatal.
  • 10. MANIFESTATIONS-symptomsMANIFESTATIONS-symptoms The primary stage of TB usually doesn’t causeThe primary stage of TB usually doesn’t cause symptoms. When symptoms of TB occur, theysymptoms. When symptoms of TB occur, they may includes;may includes; FatigueFatigue FeverFever Unintentional weight lossUnintentional weight loss
  • 11. Other symptoms that may occur withOther symptoms that may occur with this disease;this disease; Breathing difficultyBreathing difficulty Chest painChest pain Wheezing.Wheezing.
  • 12. MANIFESTATIONS- signsMANIFESTATIONS- signs  Cough up of mucus and bloodCough up of mucus and blood  Excessive sweating at night.Excessive sweating at night.
  • 13. SIGNIFICANT LAB TESTSIGNIFICANT LAB TEST  Tuberculin skin test (PPD test);Tuberculin skin test (PPD test);  Injecting a small amount of protein fromInjecting a small amount of protein from tuberculosis bacteria between thetuberculosis bacteria between the derived layer of the skin (usuallyderived layer of the skin (usually forearm).forearm).  Sputum examination and Cultures;Sputum examination and Cultures;  Is examined under a microscope to lookIs examined under a microscope to look for tuberculosis bacteria and used tofor tuberculosis bacteria and used to grow the bacteria in a culture.grow the bacteria in a culture.
  • 14.  Interferon-gamma Blood testInterferon-gamma Blood test;; A simple blood is mixed with syntheticA simple blood is mixed with synthetic proteins similar to those produced by theproteins similar to those produced by the tuberculosis bacteria.tuberculosis bacteria. If people are infected with tuberculosisIf people are infected with tuberculosis bacteria, their white blood cells producebacteria, their white blood cells produce certain substances (interferons) in responsecertain substances (interferons) in response to the synthetic proteins.to the synthetic proteins.
  • 15. IMAGING CONSIDERATIONIMAGING CONSIDERATION  Chest CT ScanChest CT Scan  Chest X-rayChest X-ray
  • 16. RADIOLOGICAL APPERNCERADIOLOGICAL APPERNCE • Young male patientYoung male patient with fever andwith fever and cough has focalcough has focal opacity in the leftopacity in the left lower lobe thatlower lobe that looks like alooks like a pneumonia. This is apneumonia. This is a case of primarycase of primary tuberculosis in antuberculosis in an adult.adult.
  • 18. ReferencesReferences • www.medicinet.comwww.medicinet.com • www.nlm.nih.govwww.nlm.nih.gov • http://www.e-radiography.nethttp://www.e-radiography.net • www.learningradiology.comwww.learningradiology.com